The 34th was first raised in 1702 in East Anglia as ‘Lord Lucas's Regiment of Foot’. The Regiment went on to serve during the Spanish War of Succession (1701–1714), fighting at the capture of Douai, Bouchain and Barcelona and then during The War of Austrian Succession the regiment fought at the battle of Fontenoy (1745). They and many other Regiments were hurried back to England in 1745 to serve during the Jacobite Rising and fought at the Battle of Culloden. When Bonnie Prince Charlie (the grandson of James II) landed in Scotland and unsuccessfully attempted to regain the throne to the Stuart family.
Until 1750 all Regiments were named after the current Colonel, after this date the naming system was simplified and all Regiments were assigned ranked numbers therefore from 1751 the Regiment became the ‘34th Regiment of Foot’. The 34th went on to serve in Europe during The Seven Years War (1756-63), fighting at the defence of Fort St Philip on Minorca, capturing Cherbourg and at the battle of Belleisle (1761). During the American War of Independence (1775-83) the 34th fought to relieve the besiege Quebec and was part of the Saratoga Campaign (1777) when General John Burgoyne was forced to surrender his entire army after being surrounded and overwhelmed.
1782 saw more changes to the Regiment naming conventions as county titles were added in order to aid recruitment from that region and therefore the Regiment became ‘The 34th (Cumberland) Regiment of Foot’. During the Napoleonic Wars the Regiment served in the West Indies and Portugal also fighting during in The Peninsular War. The Regiment was stationed in India for a number of years to help the Honourable East India Company to suppress various rebellions including the Third Mahratta War (1817–1818). The 34th then went on to serve during the Crimean War fighting at the siege of Sevastopol and returned to India to suppress The Indian Mutiny of 1857.
In 1881 it was merged with the 55th Regiment of Foot as part of the Childers Reforms to become The Border Regiment.