The first unit named as the Rhodesia Regiment was formed from Volunteers and saw service in the South African War of 1899-1902 in guarding the Limpopo Border, assisting in the Relief of Mafeking and at Elands’ River.
On the conclusion of the South African War the Rhodesia Regiment was disbanded and the South-ern Rhodesia Volunteers and BSAP constituted the Defence Force of Southern Rhodesia. In 1914 two battalions of the Rhodesia Regiment were formed from the Southern Rhodesia Volunteers; the 1st serving the German South West Africa and the 2nd in Tanganyika.
In 1947, His Majesty King George VI, in recognition of the widespread service of the personnel of the Regiment and the fine reputation Rhodesians had gained for themselves, conferred the title "Royal" and honoured the Regiment further by becoming its Colonel in Chief. Today, Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II is the Colonel in Chief.
In June 1959, the Fourth Battalion was raised in Southern Rhodesia giving a total of four active Territorial Battalions in the Royal Rhodesia Regiment.
An association dating back to the first World War, when men from the Regiment served with the Kings Royal Rifle Corps, has resulted in the Royal Rhodesia Regiment becoming affiliated to that unit.
The KRRC was raised in 1755 as a Colonial Unit in the American Colonies with the title, "The Royal American Regiment". E Company 3rd (NR) Battalion Royal Rhodesia Regiment, was adopted on 11th September, 1960 when Lusaka became a City and it is known as E (City of Lusaka) Company.