Great War Timeline & detailed history of WWI

Diary of events from countries across the world during the Great War - detailed records of what happened during World War One gathered from historic documents.

The daily entries provide a fascinating picture of the war as it was viewed at the time. Looking at this detailed timeline of WW1 you can see why it was called a World War, with so many countries involved across land, sea and air.

Within this timeline you will also discover Victoria Cross recipients with citations, Shipping losses, Battles with links to the Forces War Records WWI Troop Movements interactive map and so much more.

The Great War Timeline - 1914

1914 Great War Timeline & detailed history of WWI

JUNE 1914

JUNE 28th 1914

  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife at Sarajevo.

JULY 1914

JULY 5th, 1914

  • Kaiser Wilhelm II receives at Potsdam special envoy from Austrian Emperor and promises “the full support of Germany” in the event of Austrian action against Serbia.

JULY 23rd, 1914

  • Austro-Hungarian ultimatum to Serbia, demanding a reply within forty-eight hours.

JULY 24th, 1914

  • The Russian Cabinet considers Austrian action a challenge to Russia.

JULY 27th, 1914

  • Sir E. Grey proposes conference, to which France and Italy agree.
  • German High Seas Fleet recalled from Norway to war bases.

JULY 28th, 1914

  • Austria-Hungary declares war against Serbia.
  • British proposals for an international conference rejected by German Government.
  • British Naval Fleets ordered to war bases

JULY 29th, 1914

  • Austrians bombard Belgrade. Tsar appeals to Kaiser to restrain Austria.
  • German Government make proposals to secure British neutrality.

JULY 30th, 1914

  • Russia mobilises sixteen Army Corps.
  • British Government rejects Germanys proposals for British neutrality.
  • Australian Government place Australian Navy at disposal of British Admiralty.

JULY 31st, 1914

  • State of war declared in Germany.
  • General mobilisation ordered in Russia.
  • London Stock Exchange closed.
  • Murder of M. James, the Socialist deputy in Paris.
  • German Government send ultimatum to Russia.
  • Turkish Government order Mobilisation (to commence August 3rd).

AUGUST 1914

AUG 1st, 1914

  • Germany sends twelve hour’s ultimatum to Russia to stop mobilising, declares war, and invades Luxemburg.
  • King George telegraphs to Tsar.
  • British Government order Naval Mobilisation.
  • Mobilisation in Austria, France, Belgium, and Holland.
  • Italy and Denmark declare neutrality.
  • Sir John French appointed Inspector-General of the Forces.
  • British Naval Reserves called up.
  • Bank rate 10 per cent.
  • M. Delcasse French War Minister.
  • Montenegro identifies herself with Serbia.

AUG 2nd, 1914

  • German ultimatum to Belgium. German cruisers bombard Bona (Algeria). British ships seized at Kiel.
  • Outpost fighting on Russian and French frontiers of Germany.
  • British Government guarantee naval protection of French coasts against German aggression way of the North Sea or English Channel.
  • Rumania declares neutrality.

AUG 3rd, 1914

  • Germany declares war against France.
  • Belgium refuses to allow passage of German troops through her territory, and King Albert sends “supreme appeal” to King George.
  • British Government demands from Germany the assurance that the latter country will respect the neutrality of Belgium.
  • German troops envelop Visé, and their advance guard approaches Liege.
  • Sir E. Grey's speech in the Commons.
  • British naval mobilisation completed.
  • Italy declares neutrality.
  • Moratorium Bill passed, and Bank Holiday extended to Aug 7th
  • The Grand Duke Nicholas appointed Commander-in-Chief Russian armies.

AUG 4th, 1914

  • Germany declares war on Belgium, and her troops, under General von Emmich, attack Liege. Belgian defence conducted by General Leman.
  • German Reich stag authorises an extraordinary expenditure of £ 265,000,000.
  • Great Britain declares war on Germany at 11pm.
  • British Army mobilisation begins, and Reserves and Territorials are called up.
  • Mr Asquith's speech in the Commons.
  • Australia offers to send 20,000 men.
  • Admiral Sir John Jellicoe appointed to supreme command of the Home Fleets.
  • The British Government takes control of the railways.
  • German troops cross the Belgian frontier and attack Liège.
  • Staff of British Expeditionary Force appointed - Commander-in-Chief: Field-Marshal Sir John French, Chief of General Staff: Lieut.-General Sir Archibald Murray. Adjutant-General: Lieut.-General Sir Nevil Macready. Quartermaster-General: Lieut.-General Sir William Robertson.

AUG 5th, 1914

  • Fierce fighting at Liege.
  • Lord Kitchener appointed War Minister.
  • Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • Königen Luise, German mine-layer, sunk, off Harwich by H.M.S. Lance.
  • British White Paper issued.
  • First meeting of British War Council.

AUG 6th, 1914

  • H.M.S. Amphion sunk in North Sea by floating mine; 131 lives lost.
  • Lord Kitchener asks for 500,000 recruits, 100,000 to be raised forthwith.
  • Vote of credit for £100,000,000 agreed to by the British House of Commons without dissent.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia.
  • Serbia declares war on Germany.

AUG 7th, 1914

  • First units of the British Expeditionary Force land in France.
  • Germans refused armistice at Liege.
  • Prince of Wales's National Relief Fund opened.
  • New £1 and 10S. banknotes issued, and postal-orders made legal tender.

AUG 8th, 1914

  • French troops occupy Altkirch and Mulhouse.
  • Port of Lome (German Togoland) taken.
  • British bank rate 5 per cent.
  • French and Belgian troops co-operating in Belgian territory.
  • “State of War” commences between Montenegro and Germany.

AUG 9th, 1914

  • German troops in Liege town.
  • Austria sends troops to help Germans.
  • German submarine U-15 sunk by H.M.S. Birmingham (First submarine destroyed.)

AUG 10th, 1914

  • Diplomatic relations between France and Austria broken off, and war declared.
  • French fall back from Mulhouse, but take up passes in the Vosges.
  • Enrolment of first batch of 30,000 special constables for London area.
  • Canada offers 20,000 men and 98,000,000lb of flour.
  • Official Press Bureau opened in London.

AUG 11th, 1914

  • German concentration on Metz-Liége line.
  • Two thousand German spies reported to have been arrested in Belgium.
  • Germans enter the town of Liege.
  • 'Your King and Country Need You' slogan is published, calling for 100,000 men to enlist for Kitchener's New Army. The call is answered within two weeks.

AUG 12th, 1914

  • Great Britain and Austria at war.
  • German cruisers Goeben and Breslau enter Dardanelles, and are purchased by Turkey.

AUG 13th, 1914

  • Battle of Haelen, between Liege and Brussels, ends, according to the Belgian War Office, “all, to the advantage of the Belgian forces.”
  • Swedish Rigsdag decides on an expenditure of £2,800,000 for defence.
  • Austrian-Lloyd steamer sunk by mine in Adriatic.
  • German “official” news first sent out by wireless.
  • German steamer captured on Lake Nyasa.
  • The first squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps arrive in France.

AUG 14th 1914

  • French war credit of £40,000,000 authorised.

AUG 15th 1914

  • The Prince of Wales's National Relief Fund reaches £1,000,000.
  • British Press Bureau issues warning against alarmist rumours.
  • Taveta (British East Africa) occupied by Germans.

AUG 16th 1914

  • French drive Germans back at Dinant.
  • Landing of original British Expeditionary Force [4 Divisions and 1 Cavalry Division] in France completed.
  • Tsar promises Home Rule to a re-united Poland.

AUG 17th 1914

  • It is reported officially that the British Expeditionary Force has landed safely in France.
  • Belgian Government removes from Brussels to Antwerp.
  • Japan asks Germany to remove her warships from Japanese and Chinese waters, and to evacuate Kiaochau; reply to be received by August 23.
  • French Fleet sinks small Austrian cruiser in the Adriatic.
  • Tsar and Tsaritsa attend solemn service in Moscow.

AUG 18th 1914

  • Serbian victory over the Austrians at Shabatz.
  • Desultory fighting in North Sea.
  • French advance in Alsace-Lorraine.

AUG 19th 1914

  • Germans occupy Louvain.
  • Russian forces defeat 1st German Army Corps near Eydtkuhnen.
  • First unit of Indian Expeditionary Force leaves India for East Africa.

AUG 20th 1914

  • Abandoned by the Belgians for strategical reasons, Brussels is formally entered by the Germans.
  • The French retake Mulhouse.

AUG 21st 1914

  • British concentration in France practically complete.
  • German war levies of £8,000,000 on Brussels (£11 per head of the inhabitants), and £2,400,000 on province of Liége.
  • Battle of Charleroi begins.
  • Franco-British loan of £20,000,000 to Belgium announced.
  • Partial investment of Namur.
  • Russians rout three German army corps in East Prussia, after two day’s battle.
  • German troops invade British South Africa.

AUG 22nd 1914

  • British troops extended from Condé through Mons and Binche.
  • Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium.
  • Battle of Charleroi ends; French compelled to withdraw.

AUG 23rd 1914

  • Japan declares war on Germany.
  • British Army engaged at Mons against greatly superior forces; battle lasted four days.
  • Three of Namur forts fall; town evacuated by the Allies.
  • Two Danish ships sunk by mines.
  • After a six day struggle the French withdraw from Lorraine.
  • Battle of Mons
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 13814 Sidney Frank GODLEY Royal Fusiliers (London Regiment), 4th Battalion, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 13814 Private Sidney Frank Godley, 4th Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers. On 23rd August 1914 at Mons, Belgium, Private Godley took over a machine-gun on Nimy Bridge when the lieutenant in charge of the section had been mortally wounded. Private Godley held the enemy from the bridge single-handed for two hours under very heavy fire and was wounded twice. His gallant action covered the retreat of his comrades, but he was eventually taken prisoner. His final act was to destroy the gun and throw the pieces into the canal.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Maurice James DEASE, Royal Fusiliers (London Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Maurice James Dease, 4th Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers. Though two or three times badly wounded he continued to control the fire of his machine-guns at Mons on 23rd August until all his men were shot. He died of his wounds. The Register of the Victoria Cross citation reads: On 23rd August 1914 at Mons, Belgium, Nimy Bridge was being defended by a single company of Royal Fusiliers and a machine-gun section with Lieutenant Dease in command. The gun fire was intense, and the casualties very heavy, but the lieutenant went on firing in spite of his wounds, until he was hit for the fifth time and was carried away to a place of safety where he died. A private of the same battalion who had been assisting the lieutenant while he was still able to operate the guns, took over, and alone he used the gun to such good effect that he covered the retreat of his comrades.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 3976 Charles Alfred JARVIS, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lance-Corporal Charles Alfred Jarvis (Regimental No. 3976), 57th Field Company, Royal Engineers. For great gallantry at Jemappes on August 23rd in working for 1 ½ hours under heavy fire in full view of the enemy, and in successfully firing charges for the demolition of a bridge.

AUG 24th 1914

  • Fall of Namur.
  • Allies abandon line of the Sambre.
  • Germans try to drive British into Maubeuge; but the latter hold their own.
  • Major Namech, commandant, blows up Fort Chaudfontaine, Liege, to prevent it falling into the hands of the enemy.
  • First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "A" leave India for France.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Major Ernest Wright Alexander, Royal Field Artillery (119th Battery, 22nd Brigade) awarded the Victoria Cross. His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: Major Ernest Wright Alexander, 119th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. On 24th August 1914 at Elouges, Belgium, when the flank guard was attacked by a German corps, Major Alexander handled his battery against overwhelming odds with such conspicuous success that all his guns were saved notwithstanding that they had to be withdrawn by hand by himself and volunteers led by a Captain of the 9th Lancers. This enabled the retirement of the 5th Division to be carried out without serious loss. Subsequently, Major Alexander rescued a wounded man under heavy fire.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 7368 Charles Ernest GARFORTH, Hussars awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Corporal Charles Ernest Garforth (Regimental No. 7368, 15th Hussars. At Harmignies, France on 23rd August Corporal Garforth volunteered to cut wire under fire which enabled his squadron to escape. At Dammartin he carried a man out of action. On 3 September, when under maxim fire, he extricated a sergeant whose horse had been shot, and by opening fire for three minutes enabled the sergeant to get away safely.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Francis Octavius GRENFELL, Lancers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - For gallantry in action against unbroken infantry at Audregnies, Belgium, on 24th August 1914, and for gallant conduct in assisting to save the guns of the 119th Battery, Royal Field Artillery, near Doubon the same day. Captain Grenfell rode with the regiment in a charge against a large body of unbroken German infantry. The casualties were very heavy and the captain was left as the senior officer. He was rallying part of the regiment behind a railway embankment when he was twice hit and severely wounded. In spite of his injuries, however, when asked for help in saving the guns, by the commander of the 119th Battery, Royal Field Artillery, he and some volunteers, under a hail of bullets, helped to manhandle and push the guns out of range of enemy fire.

AUG 25th 1914

  • Louvain destroyed by Germans.
  • Allies retire, fighting rear guard actions, towards the Cambrai-Le Cateau line.
  • Lord Kitchener, in the House of Lords, pays big tribute to gallantry of British troops.
  • Mr Asquith, in the Commons, says" We want all the troops we can get."
  • Zeppelin drops bombs on Antwerp.
  • The RFC (Royal Flying Corps) claim their first 'kill' as three aircraft from 2nd Squadron force down a German reconnaissance plane.

AUG 26th 1914

  • British forces engaged at Tournai and Guignies; and hold line Cambrai-Le Cateau-Landrecies.
  • Surrender of Togoland by the Germans to a British force.
  • Austria declares war on Japan.
  • German troops in East Prussia reported to have fled to Königsberg.
  • The Battle of Le Cateau, BEF (British Expeditionary Force) suffers 7,812 casualties and is forced to retreat.
  • Longwy capitulates to German forces.
  • Cambrai occupied by German forces.
  • Douai occupied by German forces
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Driver 69960 Job Henry Charles DRAIN, Royal Field Artillery, 37th Battery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Driver Job Henry Charles Drain, 37th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. On 26th August 1914 at Le Cateau, France, when a captain of the same battery was trying to recapture two guns, Driver Drain and another driver volunteered to help and gave great assistance in the eventual saving of one of the guns. At the time they were under heavy artillery and infantry fire from the enemy who were only 100 yards away.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal Frederick William HOLMES King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lance-Corporal Frederick William Holmes, 2nd Battalion, The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. On 26th August 1914 at Le Cateau, France, Lance-Corporal Holmes carried a wounded man out of the trenches under heavy fire and later helped to drive a gun out of action by taking the place of a driver who was wounded.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Major Charles Allix Lavington YATE King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Major Charles Allix Lavington Yate, 2nd Battalion, The King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. On 26th August 1914 at Le Cateau, France, Major Yate commanded one of the two companies that remained to the end of the trenches, and when all other officers had been killed or wounded and ammunition exhausted, he led his 19 survivors against the enemy in a charge in which he himself was severely wounded. He was picked up by the enemy and subsequently died as a prisoner of war.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Driver 71787 Frederick LUKE, Royal Field Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 71787 Driver Frederick Luke, 37th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. On 26th August 1914 at Le Cateau, France, when a captain of the same battery was trying to save two guns which had been recaptured, Driver Luke and another driver volunteered to help and gave great assistance in the eventual saving of one of the guns. At the time they were under heavy fire from the enemy who were only 100 yards away.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 5854 George Harry WYATT, Coldstream Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 5854 Lance-Corporal George Harry Wyatt, 3rd Battalion, Coldstream Guards. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. At Landrecies, France, on the night of 25th – 26th August 1914, when a part of his battalion was hotly engaged at the end of a street close to some farm buildings, the enemy, by means of incendiary bombs, set light to some straw stacks in the farmyard. Lance-Corporal Wyatt twice dashed out of the line under very heavy fire from the enemy, who were only 25 yards distant, and extinguished the burning straw. If the fire had spread it would have been quite impossible to have held our position. Also at Villa Cotteret, after being wounded in the head, Lance-Corporal Wyatt continued firing until he could no longer see owing to the blood which was pouring down his face. The Medical Officer bound up his wound and told him to go to the rear, but he at once returned to the firing-line and continued to fight.

AUG 27th 1914

  • Retreat from Mons - Battle Of Etreux begins.
  • Allies retire towards line of the Somme.
  • British Marines occupy Ostend.
  • German cruiser Magdeburg blown up off the Russian coast.
  • German armed liner Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse sunk by H.M.S. Highflyer.

AUG 28th 1914

  • Malines bombarded by the Germans.
  • Three German cruises and two German destroyers, sunk off Heligoland, with loss of over 800 men. British causalities, 81.
  • Enlistment of second 100,000 New British Army begins.
  • Lord Crewe announces that, in response to native wishes, Indian troops are to take part in the war in Europe.

AUG 29th 1914

  • French Army drives back the enemy near Guise.
  • Arras evacuated by the French forces.
  • German aeroplane drops bombs over Paris.
  • Russians invest Königsberg, in Eastern Prussia.
  • German airship “Z-5” brought down by gunfire at Mlawa

AUG 30th 1914

  • Surrender of Apia (German Samoa) to New Zealand force.
  • First German aeroplane raid on Paris.
  • Laon, La Fère, and Roye occupied by German forces.

AUG 31st 1914

  • Allies have retired to Iines between Amiens and Verdun; the British covering arid delaying troops being frequently engaged.
  • Announcement of British casualties, Aug. 23-26: Killed, 163; wounded, 686; missing, 4,278.
  • Von Hindenburg, the German commander in East Prussia, assumes a strong offensive against the Russians.

SEPTEMBER 1914

SEPT. 1st 1914

  • 1st British Cavalry Brigade and 4th Guards Brigade sharply engaged with enemy near Compiegne.
  • 9th Lancers capture ten German guns.
  • Russians, after seven day’s fighting, rout five Austrian Army Corps (over 250,000 men), at Lemberg, in Galicia, take 70,000 prisoners, and capture 200 guns.
  • More bombs dropped on Paris.
  • Lord Kitchener visits France to consult with the British Commander-in-Chief.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Edward Kinder BRADBURY Royal Horse Artillery, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Edward Kinder Bradbury, “L” Battery, Royal Horse Artillery. On 1st September 1914 at Nery, France, during a fierce attack by the enemy, when all the officers of “L” Battery were either killed or wounded, Captain Bradbury, although having had one leg taken off by a shell, continued to direct the fire of the battery until he died.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Battery Sergeant-Major 12343 George Thomas DORRELL, Royal Horse Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Battery Sergeant-Major George Thomas Dorrell (Regimental No. 12343) (Now Second Lieutenant), “L” Battery, Royal Horse Artillery. For continuing to serve a gun until all the ammunition was expended after all officers were killed or wounded, in spite of a concentrated fire from guns and machine-guns at a range of 600 yards, at Nery, on 1st September. The Register of the Victoria Cross citation reads: On 1st September 1914 at Nery, France, during a fierce attack by the enemy, all the officers of "L" Battery were either killed or wounded, including the officer in command, who, although having had one leg taken off by a shell, continued to direct the firing until he died. Battery Sergeant-Major Dorrell then took over command with the support of a sergeant and continued to fire one of the guns until all the ammunition was expended.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 34419 David NELSON, Royal Horse Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Sergeant David Nelson (Regimental No. 34419) (Now Second Lieutenant), “L” Battery, Royal Horse Artillery. Helping to bring the guns into action under heavy fire at Nery on 1st September, and while severely wounded remaining with them until all the ammunition was expended – although he had been ordered to retire to cover.

SEPT. 2nd 1914

  • Allies hold line of the Seine, the Marne, and the Meuse above Verdun.
  • Name of Russian capital altered from St. Petersburg to Petrograd.
  • National Relief Fund, £2,000,000.

SEPT. 3rd 1914

  • Germans at Guippes, Ville-sur-Tourbe, and Château Thierry, and preparing to cross the Marne at La Ferté-sous-Jouarre.
  • French Government withdraw from Paris to Bordeaux; General Gallieni appointed military governor of Paris.
  • Further list of British casualties in France issued: Killed, 70; wounded, 390; missing, 4,758.
  • Fighting near Chantilly.
  • H.M.S. Speedy, gunboat, mined.
  • Trade Union Congress issues a manifesto calling on trade unionists to join the British Army.

SEPT. 4th 1914

  • Mr. Asquith, in speech at Guildhall, says that since the opening of the war between 250,000 and 300,000 men have answered Lord Kitchener's appeal.
  • Mr. Asquith, Mr. Churchill, Mr. Balfour, and Mr. Bonar Law speak at Guildhall.
  • Two German airmen captured in damaged aeroplane in North Sea.
  • Seven German destroyers and torpedo-boats reported to have reached Kiel in damaged condition.

SEPT. 5th 1914

  • Belgians attacked at Termonde and flood the country by opening the dykes.
  • British Admiralty announces formation of Naval Brigades (15,000 men) for service on sea or land.
  • The Germans at Osterode and Tannenberg, in East Prussia, inflict a great defeat upon the Russians after three days' violent fighting. The Russian generals Samsonoff, Pertitsch, and Martos were killed.
  • H.M.S. Pathfinder sunk by submarine in the North Sea.

SEPT. 6th 1914

  • Battle of the Marne begins
  • General action begins along a line between Senlisand Verdun.
  • Sack of Dinant-sur-Meuse reported.
  • Desperate struggle in progress for possession of Maubeuge.
  • British scout Pathfinder and Wilson liner Runo sunk in North Sea.
  • German warships destroy fifteen British trawlers in the North Sea and take their crews prisoners.
  • British, French, and Russian Governments mutually engage not to conclude peace separately.
  • The First Battle of the Marne was conducted between 6th -12th September 1914, German advance at the cost of 13,000 British, 250,000 French and 250,000 German casualties. With the outcome bringing to an end the war of movement that had dominated War since the beginning of August.  Instead, with the German advance brought to a halt, stalemate and trench warfare ensued.

SEPT. 7th 1914 

  • Fighting at Nanteuil le Handouin, Beaux, Sézanne, Vitry Ie Francois, and Verdun.
  • The Germans, who had reached the extreme point of their advance southward, obliged to fall back.
  • German war levies on Brussels, Liege Proyince, Liege City, Louvain, Brabant Province, Lille, Armentières, Amiens, Lens, Roubaix, and Turcoing total £28,812,000.

SEPT. 8th 1914

  • Fighting along the line Montmirail-Le Pepit Sompuis; enemy driven back ten miles. One German battalion, a machine-gun company, and several ammunition waggons captured by Allies.
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer's speech on “silver bullets.”
  • Serbians invade Bosnia, and achieve a victory near Racha.
  • Termonde sacked by Germans.
  • White Star liner R.M.S Oceanic wrecked off west coast of Scotland; no lives lost.
  • General Sir John Maxwell takes over command of British forces in Egypt

SEPT. 9th 1914

  • Prime Minister announces a vote for a further 500,000 men for the British Army, bringing up its strength to 1,186,400, exclusive of Territorials.
  • General French reports the enemy has been driven back all along the line; our troops have crossed the Marne and captured twelve Maxim guns, a battery, and 350 prisoners.
  • The King's message to Overseas Dominions and to the Princes and peoples of India issued. Home Secretary takes over responsibility for the Press Bureau.
  • Offers of service from Indian rulers read in the Commons.
  • Announcement that 70,000 Indian troops are to be employed in Europe; six ma ha rajahs with cadets of other noble families to go on active service.
  • Capture of German mines on disguised trawlers in North Sea.
  • German retreat from the Marne begins.
  • First units of the Indian Expeditionary Force "A" arrive at Suez.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Douglas REYNOLDS, Royal Field Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - At Le Cateau, on 26th August he took up two teams with volunteer drivers and limbered up two guns under heavy artillery and Infantry fire, and though the enemy was within 100 yards he managed, with the help of the two drivers, one gun away safely. At Pisseloup, on 9th September, he reconnoitred at close range, discovered a battery which was holding up the advance and silenced it. He was severely wounded 15th September 1914.

SEPT. 10th 1914

  • Battle of the Marne ends.
  • General French's first despatch, Aug. 23-Sept. 7, published in “London Gazette.”
  • Belgian Army again take offensive outside Antwerp.
  • British naval airships to make short cruises over London.
  • Japan identifies herself with Russia, France, and Great Britain in deciding not to make peace independently.
  • Governor of Nyasaland announces repulse of the Germans.
  • German cruiser Emden captures six British ships in Bay of Bengal.

SEPT. 11th 1914

  • Allies reported to have advanced 37 miles in four days.
  • Serbians reported to have captured Semlin.
  • The Australian Expeditionary Force captures the German headquarters in New Guinea.

SEPT. 12th 1914

  • Battle of the Aisne 1914 begins
  • Allies, in France, capture 6,000 prisoners and 160 guns. French retake Luneville.
  • Enemy found to be occupying very formidable position on north of the Aisne, and holding both sides of the river at Soissons.
  • Hamburg-Amerika liner Spreewald captured by H.M.S. Berwick.
  • The Russians defeat the Austrians under General von Auffenberg in Galicia.
  • The First Battle of the Marne was conducted between 6th -12th September 1914, German advance at the cost of 13,000 British, 250,000 French and 250,000 German casualties. With the outcome bringing to an end the war of movement that had dominated War since the beginning of August.  Instead, with the German advance brought to a halt, stalemate and trench warfare ensued.

SEPT. 13th 1914

  • German cruiser Hela sunk by British submarine E9.

SEPT. 14th 1914

  • British auxiliary cruiser Carmania sinks the Cap Trafalgar at Trinidad, an island rock 700 miles east from Brazil.
  • H.M gunboat Dwarf attacked by German steamer on Cameroon River; steamer captured.
  • Resignation of General Beyers, Commandant-General of South African Defence Force.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 7753 William Charles FULLER, Welsh Regiment, 2nd Battalion, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 7753 Lance-Corporal William Charles Fuller, 2nd Battalion, The Welch Regiment. On 14th September 1914 near Chivy-sur-Aisne, France, Lance-Corporal Fuller advanced under very heavy rifle and machine-gun fire to pick up an officer who was mortally wounded, and carried him back to cover.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain William Henry JOHNSTON, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain William Henry Johnston, 59th Field Company, Corps of Royal Engineers. On 14th September 1914 at Missy, France, Captain Johnston worked with his own hands two rafts on the River Aisne. He returned with wounded from one side and took back ammunition. He continued to do this under heavy fire all day, thus enabling an advanced brigade to maintain its position across the river.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 7281 Ross TOLLERTON, Cameron Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 7281 Private Ross Tollerton, 1st Battalion, The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders. On 14th September 1914 at the Battle of the Aisne, France, Private Tollerton carried a wounded officer, under heavy fire, as far as he was able, into a place of greater safety. Then, although he himself was wounded in the head and hand, he struggled back to the firing line where he remained until his battalion retired. He then returned to the wounded officer and stayed with him for three days until they were both rescued.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 9553 George WILSON, Highland Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 9553 Private George Wilson, 2nd Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry. On 14th September 1914 near Verneuill, France, Private Wilson went with a rifleman to try to locate a machine-gun which was holding up the advance of the 2nd Battalion, Highland Light Infantry. When the rifleman was killed, Private Wilson went on alone and, when he reached his target shot six of the enemy, bayoneted the officer and then captured the gun.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Theodore WRIGHT, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Theodore Wright, Royal Engineers. Gallantry at Mons on 23rd August in attempting to connect up the lead to demolish a bridge under heavy fire; although wounded in the head he made a second attempt. At Vailly, on 14th September, he assisted the passage of 5th Cavalry Brigade over the pontoon bridge and was mortally wounded whilst assisting wounded men into shelter.

SEPT. 15th 1914

  • Battle of the Aisne 1914 ends
  • China allows Japanese to land near Kiao-chau.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Bombardier 42617 Ernest George HORLOCK, Royal Field Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: - Bombardier Ernest George Horlock, 113th Battery, Royal Field Artillery. On 15th September 1914 at Vendresse, France, when the 113th Battery, Royal Field Artillery was in action under heavy shell fire, Bombardier Horlock, although twice wounded, returned to lay his gun on each occasion after his wound had been dressed, in spite of the fact that the medical officer twice ordered him to go to hospital.

SEPT. 16th 1914

  • General Delarey shot by accident whilst motoring near Johannesburg.
  • Bombs from Japanese aeroplanes dropped on German ships in Kiao-chau Bay.
  • H.M. gunboat Dwarf rammed by German merchant ship Nichtingull, which was wrecked.
  • Commander Samson, with force attached to Naval Flying Corps, scatter an Uhlan patrol near Doullens.

SEPT. 17th 1914

  • Lord Kitchener announces that rather more than six regular divisions (each 18,600 strong) and two cavalry divisions (each 10,000 strong) of British troops are in the fighting-line; and expresses the hope that the new army of 500,000 men will be ready to take the field in the spring of 1915.
  • Germans again bombard Termonde, and are repulsed by Belgians.
  • Grand Duke Nicholas, in a Proclamation to the peoples of Austria-Hungary, declares Russia seeks nothing except establishment of truth and justice.
  • In Tavarovo district Russians capture transport columns of two army corps, 30 guns, 5,000 prisoners, and enormous quantities of war material.
  • It is reported that German ships in the Baltic have fired on each other-this in explanation of the reported arrival at Kiel of destroyers and torpedo-boats in a damaged condition.
  • German force attacks Nakob (South Africa).

SEPT. 18th 1914

  • Parliament prorogued. National Anthem sung in the House of Commons.
  • Russians occupy Sandomir.

SEPT. 19th 1914

  • Rheims Cathedral shelled by German artillery.
  • First units of Indian Expeditionary Force "A" leave Egypt for Marseilles.
  • First bombardment of the Reims Cathedral by German artillery.
  • German vessels reported sunk in Victoria Nyanza.

SEPT. 20th 1914

  • Loss of Submarine AE1 reported from Melbourne.
  • H.M.S Pegasus attacked and disabled by the German cruiser Konigsberg whilst refitting in Zanzibar Harbour.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Harry Sherwood RANKEN, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On 19th and 20th September 1914 at Haute-Avesnes, France, Captain Ranken was severely wounded in the leg whilst attending to his duties on the battlefield under shrapnel and rifle fire. He arrested the bleeding from this and bound it up, then continued to dress the wounds of his men, sacrificing his own chance of survival to their needs. When he finally permitted himself to be carried to the rear his case had become almost desperate and he died within a short period.

SEPT. 21st 1914

  • Serbs and Montenegrins reported to be attacking Sarajevo.
  • Recall of Rear-Admiral Troubridge from the Mediterranean naval command.
  • Russians carry Jaroslav by assault.

SEPT. 22nd 1914

  • First Battle of Picardy begins.
  • First Battle of Albert begins.
  • British cruisers Aboukir, Hogue, and Cressy torpedoed by submarines in North Sea.
  • German cruiser Emden shells oil tanks at Madras.
  • General Botha takes the field as Commander-in-Chief of the British forces in South Africa.
  • H.M.S. Aboukir, Hogue and Cressy sunk by German submarine U-9.
  • First use of wireless telegraphy by British Royal Flying Corps from aeroplane to artillery.

SEPT. 23rd 1914

  • British naval airmen fly over Cologne and Dusseldorf. Bombs dropped on Zeppelin shed at Dusseldorf.
  • British force landed near Laoshan Bay.

SEPT. 24th 1914

  • In the great Battle of the Aisne, which had been proceeding since Sept 12th, Germans reported to be giving way. Allies occupy Péronne.

SEPT. 25th 1914

  • Australian forces announce their occupation of seat of government of Kaiser Wilhelm's Land (German New Guinea).
  • Battle of Augustovo begins.
  • First Battle of Albert ends.

SEPT. 26th 1914

  • Russians establish their position on the railway to Cracow.
  • First Battle of Picardy ends.
  • German raid on Walfish Bay.
  • Indian troops at Marseilles.

SEPT. 27th 1914

  • Initial success of South African force under General Botha.
  • German aeroplane drops bombs on Paris.
  • Germans occupy Malines.
  • Siege of Antwerp begins.
  • First Battle of Artois begins.

SEPT. 28th 1914

  • British Admiralty statement of losses in shipping since outbreak of war: German 1, 140,000 tons - (357 ships); British, 229,000 tons (86 ships).
  • Lieut.-General Sir A. Barrett appointed Commander-designate of Indian Expeditionary Force “D” for Mesopotamia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 6840 Frederick William DOBSON, Coldstream Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Soldier for conspicuous bravery whilst serving with the Expeditionary Force:- No. 6840, Lance-Corporal Frederick William Dobson, 2nd Battalion, Coldstream Guards. For conspicuous gallantry at Chavanne (Aisne) on 28th September 1914 in bringing into cover on two occasions, under heavy fire, wounded men who were lying exposed in the open.

SEPT. 29th 1914

  • Germans bombard Antwerp's first line of defence.
  • Serbians recapture Semlin, first taken by them on Sept 11th.
  • Emden reported to have sunk four more British steamships and captured a collier in the Indian Ocean.

SEPT. 30th 1914

  • French reported to have advanced to the east of St. Mihiel, between, Verdun and Toul.
  • Antwerp waterworks destroyed.
  • Arras reoccupied by French forces.

OCTOBER 1914

OCT. 1st 1914

  • Bombardment of Antwerp forts resumed Wael em, Wavre, St. Catherine, Puers, and Lierre being hotly engaged.
  • Admiralty reports that H.M.S. Cumberland captured nine German merchant vessels (total tonnage, 30,915) and the gunboat Soden off the Cameroon River (West Africa).
  • Thirty-five Prussian casualty lists published to date show a total of 90,000 killed, wounded, and missing (including about 1,000 officers killed; and 2,000 wounded).
  • Kaiser's message about General French's “contemptible little army” published.
  • First Battle of Arras begins.

OCT. 2nd 1914

  • Mr. Asquith discloses how Germany tried in 1912 to get “a free hand to dominate Europe”.
  • British Admiralty announces counter measures to the German, policy of mine-laying in the North Sea.
  • German sortie from Tsing-tau repulsed.

OCT. 3rd 1914

  • Battle of Augustovo ends in defeat of Germans by Russians.
  • British troops arrive in Antwerp, and legations of neutral Powers leave.
  • Minelaying in the open sea commenced by British.

OCT. 4th 1914

  • The Battle of the Aisne, having reached its twenty third day, establishes a record as the longest battle in history at this time.

OCT. 5th 1914

  • President Poincare visits the headquarters of the allied armies.
  • It is reported that General von Moltke has been replaced by General Voigts-Rhetz as Chief of the German General Staff.
  • Four German armies said to be' advancing- from near Kalisch to Cracow.
  • Eight thousand British naval and Marine forces in Antwerp.
  • Publication of Belgian Grey Book.
  • The Prince of ‘Wales’s Fund reaches £3,000,000.

OCT. 6th 1914

  • Police notice 'published regarding the more effective masking of the lights of London.
  • Canadian Government announce decision to raise a second overseas contingent of 22,000 men.

OCT. 7th 1914

  • Publication of Cape Town message describing how British and Boers were trapped by Germans in Namaqualand.
  • Japanese occupy the island of Jahuit in the Marshall Islands, and seize Shantung Railway as far as Tsi-nan-fu.
  • Submarine E9 returns safely after sinking German torpedo-boat destroyer off the Ems River.
  • Belgian Government leaves Antwerp for Ostend.

OCT. 8th 1914

  • Commonwealth of Australia announce a gift of £100,000 to Belgium.
  • Squadron-Commander Spenser D. A. Grey, R.N., and Lieut’s. R. L. G. Marix and S. V. Sippe destroy a Zeppelin at Dusseldorf.
  • Mutiny of Lieut.-Col. S. G. Maritz in South Africa.
  • Home Office issued statement on espionage.
  • General Foch appointed to command Allied forces.

OCT. 9th 1914

  • Fall and occupation of Antwerp; Belgian Army and British troops retire; about 2,000 of the British cross the Dutch border and are interned. German levy of £20,000,000 on Antwerp.
  • Heavy fighting at Arras; German forces driven back with heavy losses.
  • French and British cavalry capture German convoy with 850 men and mitrailleuses in Roye region.
  • Naval and military activity reported from Turkey.

OCT. 10th 1914

  • British Red Cross nurses expelled from Brussels.
  • Battle of La Bassée begins.
  • Russian cruiser Pallada torpedoed by German submarines in the Baltic; two of the submarines sunk.
  • Death of Carol I the King of Romania.
  • Hazebrouck and Estaires captured by British forces.

OCT. 11th 1914

  • Germans occupy Ghent.
  • Twenty bombs from German aircraft dropped on Paris; Notre Dame damaged, four people killed and fourteen wounded.

OCT.  12th 1914

  • More bombs on Paris; Gare du Nord struck.
  • Battle of Messines 1914 begins.
  • First Battle of Artois ends.
  • Bombs on Ostend.
  • Goeben and Breslau reported in Black Sea.
  • Germans said to have about 1,500,000 troops in the west, and 1,800,000 massed against the Russian advance.

OCT. 13th 1914

  • Germans occupy Lille.
  • Battle of Armentières begins
  • Belgian Government remove from Ostend to Havre.
  • Allies advance between Arras and Albert and towards Craonne.

OCT. 14th 1914

  • Germans occupy Bruges. Anglo-French forces occupy Ypres.
  • British Red Cross nurses expelled from Antwerp.
  • Fighting along the Vistula and the San to Przemysl, and south to the Dniester.
  • Monfalcone dockyard, near Trieste, destroyed by fire.
  • Mr. Noel Edward Buxton and his brother shot at and wounded at Bucharest by a Young Turk.

OCT. 15th 1914

  • Germans at Blankenberge.
  • Admiralty announces sinking of Hamburg-Amerika liner Markomannia and capture of Greek steamer Pontoporos (the Emden's colliers), near Sumatra, by H.M.S. Yarmouth.
  • Canadian Expeditionary Force arrives at Plymouth.
  • H.M.S. Hawke sunk by submarines in North Sea; fifty-two of the crew landed at Aberdeen from a trawler.

OCT. 16th 1914

  • Death of the Marquis di San Giuliano, Italian Minister for Foreign Affairs. He is succeeded by Signor Salandra, who announced a continuation of the policy of the late marquis.
  • H.M cruiser Undaunted, accompanied by the destroyers Lance, Lennox, Legion, and Loyal, sinks four German destroyer s (S115, S117, S 118, and S119) off the Dutch coast.
  • The B.E.F (British Indian Expeditionary Force) sails from Bombay to the Persian Gulf in preparation for the defence of Mesopotamia.
  • New Zealand Expeditionary Force leaves New Zealand for France.

OCT. 17th 1914

  • First Lord of the Admiralty issues message to the Royal Naval Division on its return from Antwerp.
  • French cruiser Waldeck Rousseau sinks Austrian submarine.
  • Distinguished Service Medal for Navy instituted.
  • Germans mine the ScheIdt.
  • Anglo-Japanese bombardment of Tsing-tau.
  • Japanese cruiser Takachico sunk in Kiao-chau Bay.
  • Anti-German riots at Deptford.

OCT. 18th 1914

  • Armed liner Caronia brings oil-tank steamer Brendilla into Halifax, N.S.
  • Anti-German riots at Deptford.

OCT. 19th 1914

  • Battles of Ypres 1914 begins.
  • Two long despatches from Sir John French published describing the fighting on the Marne and Aisne between Aug 28th and Sept 28th. British casualties, Sept. 12-28: Officers, 561; men, 12,980.
  • The monitors Severn, Humber, and Mersey take part in operations on Belgian coast, and are reported to have brought down a Zeppelin and a Taube aeroplane. Other British vessels are said to have shelled the German trenches.
  • Machinery of American Red Cross ship Hamburg reported to have been damaged by this vessel’s former German crew.
  • Heavy fighting between Nieuport and Dixmude; Belgian Army successfully repulses German attacks.
  • Sultan proclaims Prince Yussuf Izzedin Generalissimo of Turkish Army and Navy.
  • Outer forts of Sarajevo reported in the hands of Serbo-Montenegrin allies.
  • Officially announced that the Germans have been driven back thirty miles in the western area of hostilities.
  • Sale of absinthe prohibited by Paris police.
  • Cholera reported to be serious in Galicia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Philip NEAME, Corps of Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Philip Neame, 15th Field Company, Corps of Royal Engineers. On 19th December 1914 at Neuve Chapelle, France, Lieutenant Neame, in the face of very heavy fire, engaged the Germans in a single-handed bombing attack, killing and wounding a number of them. He was able to check the enemy advance for three-quarters of an hour and to rescue all the wounded whom it was possible to move.

OCT. 20th 1914

  • German submarine sinks British steamer S.S. Glirtra off Karmoe.
  • Three officers and 70 men of rebel Lieut.-Col. Maritz's commando captured; 40 others surrender
  • Germans reported to have been beaten back in attempt to cross the Vistula.
  • Forty German spies reported to have been detected among Belgian refugees at Dover.
  • Admiralty announces provision of "swimming collars" for men of the Fleet.
  • Tsar prohibits Government sale of vodka in Russia.
  • Attempted Royalist rising in Portugal.

OCT. 21st 1914

  • Battle of Langemarck 1914 (Ypres) begins
  • It is announced that the expenditure on the war, which in the first ten weeks averaged about £5.5 million per week, has risen to about £8.25 million.
  • Japanese report the sinking of one German auxiliary cruiser and capture of another.

OCT. 22nd 1914

  • Admiralty telegram to Japanese Minister of Marine, expressing appreciation of help rendered by Japanese Navy.
  • Emden reported to have sunk the British steamers Chilkana, Troilus, Ben Mohr, and Clan Grant, and captured the collier Exford and the St. Egbert 150 miles S.W. of Cochin. (Up to date the Emden's victims total 19 vessels.)
  • Wholesale arrests of un-naturalised aliens in the United Kingdom.
  • Publication of official despatches relative to Heligoland Bight engagement of Aug. 28.
  • Submarine E3 overdue. German reports state that she was sunk on Oct 18th.
  • “The Times” fund for the British Red Cross Society and St. John Ambulance Association reaches £500,000.
  • Egyptian Government announces that enemy ships are to be removed from Suez Canal ports.
  • From Oct 22-24 Russians capture 17 officers and 4,150 men, 11 machine-guns, 22 guns, 23 caissons, and other war material, following Prussian evacuation of Garbatka.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 7504 Henry MAY, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No.7504 Private Henry May, 1st Battalion, The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles). On 22nd October 1914 near La Boutillerie, France, Private May tried to rescue, under very heavy fire, a wounded man who was killed before he could save him. Later, on the same day, he carried a wounded officer 300 yards into safety while exposed to very severe fire.

OCT. 23rd 1914

  • Belgians co-operating with Franco-British troops against the Germans between Ostend and Nieuport; British and French warships co-operating. Dykes cut along the line of the Yser. German troops reported to be leaving Ostend.
  • British torpedo-gunboat Dryad reported a shore off North Coast of Scotland, but to have got off undamaged.
  • From Oct 22-24 Russians capture 17 officer’s and 4,150 men, 11 machine-guns, 22 guns, 23 caissons, and other war material, following Prussian evacuation of Garbatka.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Drummer 6535 William KENNY, Gordon Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6535 Drummer William Kenny, 2nd Battalion, The Gordon Highlanders. On 23rd October 1914 near Ypres, Belgium, Drummer Kenny rescued wounded men on five occasions under very heavy fire. Twice previously he had saved machine-guns by carrying them out of action, and on numerous occasions he conveyed urgent messages under very dangerous circumstances over fire-swept ground.

OCT. 24th 1914

  • Battle of Langemarck 1914 (Ypres), ends.
  • German submarine rammed off Dutch coast by H.M. destroyer Badger.
  • Fierce fighting in Galicia, from Sandomir to Przemysl.
  • Two thousand Austrians taken prisoners.
  • Lord Kitchener appeals to public to refrain from treating soldiers to drink.
  • From Oct 22-24 Russians capture 17 officer s and 4,150 men, 11 machine-guns, 22 guns, 23 caissons, and other war material, following Prussian evacuation of Garbatka.

OCT. 25th 1914

  • Allies occupy Melzicourt.
  • Death of Sir Charles Douglas, Chief of Imperial General Staff.
  • Portugal naval reserves called up.

OCT. 26th 1914

  • Russian cavalry occupies Loclz, 70 miles from Warsaw. Russian forces officially reported to have broken the resistance of 20th German Army Corps, and the corps of the Reserve of the German Guard between Pilitza and Glovacher.
  • Admiralty announces that 70 ships of the Allies are in pursuit of the eight or nine enemy raiders in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans, including the Karlsruhe, a German cruiser in the Atlantic, which has sunk thirteen ships, valued at £1,011,000, sending the crews into Tenerife.
  • Announced that M. Poincare and Lord Kitchener have been elected to the Lord Rectorships of Glasgow and Edinburgh Universities respectively.
  • French steamer Amiral Gauteaume, with Belgian refugees on board, damaged by explosion between Boulogne and Folkestone; 30 lives lost in panic.
  • British merchantman Manchester Commerce sunk by mine off northern coast of Ireland, captain and 13 men perishing; 30 saved.
  • German troops cross the Yser between Nieuport and Dixmude.
  • German troops reported to have invaded Angola, Portuguese West Africa.
  • Lieut. Prince Maurice of Battenberg, King's Royal Rifle Corps., reported killed in action.

OCT. 27th 1914

  • French report the destruction of several German batteries by their artillery fire between Soissons and Berry-au-Bac, on the Aisne.
  • Germans thrust back between, Ypres, Roulers, and driven out of French Lorraine.
  • Colonel Maritz and his forces routed by Col. Brits; Maritz wounded, having fled to German S.W. Africa.
  • Lord Buxton reports revolt of Generals Beyers and Christian De Wet.
  • General Botha routs General Beyers' commando.
  • Heilbrun reported to have been seized by the South African rebels.
  • H.M.S. Audacious sunk by mine off coast of Donegal.

OCT. 28th 1914

  • First list of Indian casualties.
  • Belgian troops reported to have defeated Germans at Ki Senie, on Lake Tanganyika.
  • Lord Kitchener announces that a further 100,000 men are urgently needed to complete the requirements of the Army.
  • Breslau and Hamidieh bombard Theodosia and Novorossisk, in the Black Sea.

OCT. 29th 1914

  • Battle of Gheluvelt (Ypres) begins.
  • Turkey commences hostilities against Russia.
  • Resignation of Prince Louis of Battenberg, First Sea Lord. Lord Fisher appointed to succeed him.
  • Russians reported to have occupied Radorn and retaken Strykoff, Reschoff, and Novomiasto.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant James Anson Otho BROOKE, Gordon Highlanders, 2nd Battalion, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant James Anson Otho Brooke, 2nd Battalion, The Gordon Highlanders. On 29th October 1914 near Gheluvelt, Belgium, Lieutenant Brooke led two attacks on the German trenches under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire, regaining a lost trench at a very critical moment. By his marked coolness and promptitude on this occasion, Lieutenant Brooke prevented the enemy from breaking through our line at a time when a general counter-attack could not have been organised. Having regained the lost trench, he went back to bring up supports, and while doing so, was killed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 9016 John HOGAN, Manchester Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Serjeant John Hogan, 2nd Battalion, The Manchester Regiment. On 29th October 1914 near Festubert, France, after their trench had been taken by the enemy and two attempts to recapture it had failed, Serjeant Hogan went with a second lieutenant and a party of 10 volunteers to recover it themselves. They took the Germans by surprise with a sudden bayonet attack and then, working from traverse to traverse, they gradually succeeded in regaining possession, killing eight of the enemy, wounding two and taking 16 prisoners.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant James LEACH, Manchester Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant James Leach, 2nd Battalion, The Manchester Regiment. On 29th October 1914 near Festubert, France, after their trench had been taken by the enemy and two attempts to recapture it had failed, Second Lieutenant Leach and a serjeant with a party of 10 volunteers went to recover it themselves. They took the Germans by surprise with a sudden bayonet attack and then working from traverse to traverse they gradually succeeded in regaining possession, killing eight of the enemy, wounding two and taking 16 prisoners.

OCT. 30th 1914

  • Publication by the “Morning Post” of the Kaiser's letter to Lord Tweedmouth in 1908, in which it was emphatically denied that the German Navy Bill was aimed at Great Britain.
  • Admiral H.S.H Prince Louis of Battenberg resigns his position as First Sea Lord, and is succeeded by Lord Fisher.
  • Government hospital ship Rohilla runs on rocks off Whitby; over 70 lives lost.
  • Germans forced to recross the Yser, Belgians having flooded area gained by them.
  • M. de Giers, Russian Ambassador, leaves Constantinople.
  • Bedouin tribe’s cross Egyptian frontier.
  • H.M.S. Hermes sunk in Dover Straits by German submarine; 3 killed and 20 missing.
  • British hospital ship H.M.H.S. Rohilla wrecked off Whitby.

OCT. 31st 1914

  • Critical day of Battles of Ypres, 1914: British line broken and restored.
  • Battle of Gheluvelt ends.
  • London Scottish Territorial Regiment takes part in the fighting on the Continent, distinguish themselves near Ypres, where the Kaiser is said to be with the German forces.
  • German cruiser Emden, disguised, sinks Russian cruiser Zhemchug and French destroyer Mousquet at Penang.
  • General bombardment of T sing-tau begins.
  • Italy occupies Saseno. Resignation of Signor Rubini, Ministry of the Treasury, leads to fall of the Italian Cabinet.
  • Turkish bombard Odessa.

NOVEMBER 1914

NOV. 1st 1914

  • Foreign Office statement on Anglo-Turkish relations issued.
  • Messines taken by German forces.
  • From this date the “Peking Gazette” is announced under German control.
  • Battle in the Pacific off the coast of Chilli, H.M. cruiser Monmouth and H.M. cruiser Good Hope sunk, while the cruiser Glasgow and armed auxiliary cruiser Otranto made their escape from the German cruisers Scharnhorst, Gniesenau, Nurnberg, Leipzig, and Dresden, under Admiral von Spee.
  • Martial law proclaimed in Egypt.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Drummer 8581 Spencer John BENT, East Lancashire Regiment, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned Soldier for conspicuous bravery whilst serving with the Expeditionary Force:- No. 8581 Drummer Spencer John Bent, 1st Battalion, The East Lancashire Regiment. For conspicuous gallantry near Le Gheer on the night of 1st/2nd November 1914 when after his Officer, Platoon Sergeant and Section Commander had been struck down, he took command and with great presence of mind and coolness, succeeded in holding the position. Drummer Bent had previously distinguished himself on two occasions, 22nd and 24th October, by bringing up ammunition under a heavy shell and rifle fire and again, on 3rd November, when he brought into cover some wounded men who were lying exposed in the open.

NOV. 2nd 1914

  • Egypt declared under martial law.
  • Battles of Messines and Armentières ends
  • Battle of La Bassée ends.
  • Reported that passengers and crews of British steamers Vandyck, Hurstdale, and Glanton had been landed at Para, Brazil, the vessels having been sunk by the German cruiser Karlsruhe.
  • Russia declares war on Turkey.
  • “State of War” commences between Serbia and Turkey.
  • British Admiralty declare the North Sea a military zone.

NOV. 3rd 1914

  • British cruiser Minerva shells fortress and barracks at Akabah, in the Red Sea; and a combined British and French force bombards the Dardanelles forts.
  • Enemy squadron fires on coastguard patrol Halcyon off Yarmouth (one man wounded); submarine D5 sunk by mine during pursuit of the German vessels; 2 officers and 2 men on the bridge saved.
  • Germans reported to have evacuated the line of the Yser between Dixmude and the sea.
  • Kaiser said to have narrowly escaped from bombs dropped by an airman in Thielt.
  • Imperial Viceroy of Caucasus announces he has been ordered by the Tsar to cross the frontier and attack the Turks.
  • Admiral Sir Percy Scott appointed to the President, additional, for special service.

NOV. 4th 1914

  • King and Queen visit Canadian troops on Salisbury Plain.
  • German cruiser Yorck sunk (by mine or submarine) at entrance to Jahde Bay.
  • German cruiser Karlsruhe sunk in the Atlantic by internal explosion.

NOV. 5th 1914

  • Official statements issued of Sir John French's warm congratulations to the Indian troops and London Scottish.
  • Russian General Staff announces a general forward movement by the armies of the Tsar.
  • Allies reported to have taken Lombartzyde, near Nieuport.
  • London Gazette” announces that, owing to hostile acts committed by Turkish forces under German officers, a state of war exists from to-day between Great Britain and Turkey, and that Cyprus has been annexed. Turkish Ambassador and his Staff leave London.
  • German officer in Alexandria Police Force sentenced to penal servitude for fomenting rebellion in Egypt.
  • Baron Sidney Sonnino becomes Foreign Minister in the new Italian cabinet.
  • “Eye-Witness” describes attacks on British lines near Ypres between Oct. 26 and 30 as "the most bitterly contested battle which has been fought in the western theatre of war"
  • From this date the whole of the North Sea declared “a military area”.

NOV. 6th 1914

  • British male subjects between the ages of 17 and 55 arrested in Germany and sent to concentration camps.
  • Belgium declares war on Turkey.
  • Russian troops capture Turkish position at Kuprukeni, on the road to Erzerum.
  • German spy Karl Lody alias Charles A. Inglis is shot at the Tower of London.

NOV. 7th 1914

  • Four Turkish transports sunk by Russian fleet.
  • Capture of Tsing-tau by the Japanese; 2,300 prisoners taken.
  • Formation of Army Cyclist Corps authorised.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain John Franks VALLENTIN, South Staffordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain John Franks Vallentin, 1st Battalion, The South Staffordshire Regiment. On 7th November 1914 at Zillebeke, Belgium, when leading an attack against the Germans under very heavy fire, Captain Vallentin was struck down and on rising to continue the attack, was immediately killed. The capture of the enemy's trenches which immediately followed was in great measure due to the confidence which the men had in their captain, arising from his many previous acts of great bravery and ability.

NOV. 8th 1914

  • British Indian force occupies Fao, on Persian Gulf.
  • German cruiser Geier interned at Honolulu by U.S.A.
  • Flushing burgomaster proclaims that all vessels, except mail-boats, entering the Scheidt at night will run risk of being fired upon.
  • German aeroplane drops two bombs on Dunkirk.
  • De Wet's son Daniel killed in engagement with Cronje.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Arthur MARTIN-LEAKE, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the bar to the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - During the period 29th October to 8th November 1914 near Zonnebeke, Belgium, Lieutenant Martin-Leake showed most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in rescuing, whilst exposed to constant fire, a large number of the wounded who were lying close to the enemy's trenches.

NOV. 9th 1914

  • German cruiser Emden driven ashore at Keeling (Cocos) Island and burnt by H.M.A.S. Sydney. Captain von Miller and Prince Francis Joseph of Hohenzollern prisoners unwounded. Estimated value of ships and cargoes destroyed by the Emden: £4,000,000.
  • Reciprocal arrangement for exchange of non-military subjects between Austria and Great Britain announced.
  • Pension Scale increased.
  • Nigerian Emirs place £38,000 at disposal by Governor General.

NOV. 10th 1914

  • Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.) awarded to sixteen British officers.
  • Germans take Dixmude.
  • German steamer Konigsberg found hiding in a river in German East Africa; channel is blocked to bottle her in.

NOV. 11th 1914

  • The 100th day of the War. King opens Parliament.
  • Parliamentary Recruiting Committee scheme announced.
  • H.M.S. Niger torpedoed by a submarine off Deal.
  • Battle of Nonneboschen (Ypres)
  • Repulse with enormous loss of the Prussian Guard near Ypres (Nov 11th and 12th).
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Walter Lorrain BRODIE, Highland Light Infantry, 2nd Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Walter Lorrain Brodie, 2 Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry. On 11th November 1914 near Becelaere, Belgium, Captain Brodie led a charge to evict the enemy from a portion of our trenches which they had succeeded in occupying. He bayoneted several of the enemy himself and relieved a dangerous situation. As a result of the captain's prompt action, 80 of the enemy were killed and 51 taken prisoner.

NOV. 12th 1914

  • Spy peril debate in Commons.
  • Defeat of De Wet by Botha.
  • Orders issued for all British aeroplanes on Western front to bear distinguishing marks.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant John Henry Stephen DIMMER, King’s Royal Rifle Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant John Henry Stephen Dimmer, 2nd Battalion, The King's Royal Rifle Corps. On 12th November 1914 at Klein Zillebeke, Belgium, Lieutenant Dimmer went on serving his machine-gun during an attack, and stayed at his post until the gun was destroyed, in spite of being shot five times.

NOV. 13th 1914

  • Prime Minister states British casualties up to October 31st to be 57,000, all ranks. Supplementary estimate for additional 1,000,000 men for the British Army.
  • Karl Ernst sentenced to seven years ' penal servitude for espionage.

NOV. 14th 1914

  • Lord Earl Roberts dies of pneumonia in France.
  • Italian Cabinet agrees to military grant of £ 16,000,000.

NOV. 16th 1914

  • Five officers and four N.C.O’s awarded the Victoria Cross.
  • Vote of Credit for £225,000,000 for war purposes passed by House of Commons. British war expenditure stated to be almost £1,000,000 per day.
  • Fourteen thousand five hundred alien enemies now in concentration camps in Great Britain; twenty-nine thousand still at large.
  • Capture of Turkish forts at Sheik Seyd by H.M.S. Edinburgh and Indian troops.
  • Use of carrier pigeons by the British Government announced.

NOV. 17th 1914

  • War Budget introduced in British House of Commons.
  • Chancellor of the Exchequer announces War Loan of £350,000,000. Extra duties on tea and beer, and increase of income-tax.
  • Prince of Wales appointed aide-de-camp to Sir John French.
  • Bombardment of Rheims continued.
  • British-Indian success against the Turks on the Shat-el-Arab River, in the Persian Gulf.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant John Fizhardinge Paul BUTLER, King's Royal Rifle Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant John Fitzhardinge Paul Butler, The King's Royal Rifle Corps, attached Pioneer Company, Gold Coast Regiment. On 17th November 1914 in the Cameroons, West Africa, Lieutenant Butler, with a party of 13 men went into the thick bush and attacked a force of about 100 of the enemy, including several Europeans, defeated them and captured their machine-gun and many loads of ammunition. On 27th December when on patrol duty with a few men, Lieutenant Butler swam the Ekam River, which was held by the enemy, alone and in the face of brisk fire. He completed his reconnaissance on the further bank and returned to safety.

NOV. 18th 1914

  • Glasgow captain's account of naval battle off Chilli published.
  • Russian Black Sea Fleet engages Goeben and Breslau.
  • German squadron shells Libau.
  • British naval losses to date in killed, wounded, and missing: 3,884 (exclusive of R.N. Division and crew of Good Hope).

NOV. 19th 1914

  • Funeral of Lord Roberts at St Paul's Cathedral.
  • Admiralty reports escape of Ortega in Strait of Magellan.
  • Riot in the Aliens 'Detention Camp in the Isle of Man; five aliens killed and fifteen wounded.

NOV. 20th 1914

  • British casualty list during the defence of Antwerp published. British Admiralty announces the extension of the mine defences of the North Sea and makes pilotage compulsory.
  • Defeat of Turkish forces 30 miles from Port Said by Bikamr Camel Corps.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Bandsman 7079 Thomas Edward RENDLE, Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On 20 November 1914 near Wulverghem, Belgium, Bandsman Rendle attended to the wounded under very heavy rifle and shell fire and rescued men from the trenches in which they had been buried from the blowing in of the parapets by the fire of the enemy's heavy howitzers.

NOV. 21st 1914

  • British-Indian force occupies Basra, on Persian Gulf.
  • British air-raid on Friedrichshafen workshops; Commander Briggs captured.

NOV. 22nd, 1914

  • Battles of Ypres, 1914, ends.
  • War Office assume control of the British operations in East Africa.
  • Basra (Mesopotamia) occupied by British forces.

NOV. 23rd 1914

  • Ypres in flames; cathedral and belfry damaged.
  • British bombardment of Zeebrugge.
  • German submarine U18 rammed by British patrolling vessel off the coast of Scotland.
  • Press Bureau debate in the Commons.
  • British steamer Malachite sunk near Havre by U21.

NOV. 24th 1914

  • Portuguese Parliament authorises Government to supply Great Britain in the war as and when it may deem expedient.
  • Royal warrant increasing Army officers' pay.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Frank Alexander De PASS, 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Frank Alexander de Pass, 34th Prince Albert Victor's Own Poona Horse, Indian Army. On 24th November 1914 near Festubert, France, Lieutenant de Pass entered a German sap and destroyed a traverse in the face of the enemy's bombs. Subsequently he rescued, under heavy fire, a wounded man who was lying exposed to enemy bullets in the open. Lieutenant de Pass lost his life in a second attempt to capture the sap which had been reoccupied by the enemy.

NOV. 25th 1914

  • Allies reported to have retaken Dixmude.
  • German request for armistice near Verdun refused by the French.
  • Press Bureau issues special note on gallantry of Indian troops in Flanders.
  • The names of four British officers and six men recommended for the Victoria Cross published.
  • M. Radoslavoff, the Bulgarian Premier, reaffirms Bulgaria’s neutrality.
  • Lord Mayor of London presides at Guildhall meeting to promote Volunteer Training Corps.
  • American “Santa Claus” ship, the Jason, arrives at Plymouth with gifts for European children made orphans through the war.

NOV. 26th 1914

  • H.M.S. Bulwark blown up in Sheerness Harbour; of the officers and crew only 12 men saved.
  • A message from the King read in the House of Commons announces that the proposal for a national memorial to Lord Roberts will be carried out.
  • Arras bombarded.                          
  • Lord Kitchener in the House of Lords reports progress.
  • Bristol steamer S.S. Primo sunk near Havre by U21.

NOV. 27th 1914

  • Rheims Cathedral again shelled.
  • British War Loan over-subscribed.
  • Turks said to be marching towards Suez Canal.
  • Mr Churchill announces that by end of 1915 Great Britain would have 15 new Dreadnoughts against three possible new ones by Germany.
  • House of Commons adjourns till Feb.2, 1915.

NOV. 28th 1914

  • Kaiser makes General von Hindenburg a Field Marshal.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Commander Henry Peel RITCHIE, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross: - For most conspicuous bravery on the 28th November 1914 when in command of the searching and demolition operations at Dar es Salaam, East Africa. Though severely wounded several times his fortitude and resolution enabled him to continue to do his duty inspiring all by his example until at his eighth wound he became unconscious. The interval between his first and last severe wound was between twenty and twenty five minutes.

NOV. 29th 1914

  • King George leaves London for France.

NOV. 30th 1914

  • Sir John French's Fourth Despatch (Ypres - Armentières) issued.
  • French carry Château and Park of Vermelles.
  • Publication of French Yellow Book.

DECEMBER 1914

DEC. 1st 1914

  • King George visits base hospitals containing British, Indian, and German wounded; invests General Joffre with Grand Cross of the Bath.
  • Allies advance between Béthune and Lens and on the Argonne.
  • First units of New Zealand and Australian Expeditionary Forces arrive at Suez.
  • Fifty-eight British officers awarded the Distinguished Service Order (D.S.O.)
  • King George visits the British Field Headquarters and the fighting-line.
  • Death of Rear-Admiral Mahan, U.S.N., the writer on Sea Power.

DEC. 2nd 1914

  • Belgrade occupied by the Austrians.
  • The German Chancellor in Reichstag charges Great Britain with responsibility for the war.

DEC. 3rd 1914

  • King invests Sir John French with the Order of Merit.
  • National Relief Fund £4,000,000.
  • Signor Salandra, the Italian Premier, announces the adhesion of his Government to the policy of neutrality.
  • Expeditionary Forces from Australia and New Zealand announced as having landed in Egypt to complete training, and to assist in defence of Egypt, if necessary.

DEC. 4th 1914

  • Capture of Ferryman's House by the French.
  • Publication of General French's despatch, covering a despatch from Major-General A. Paris, in command of the British Marine and Naval Brigade that assisted in the defence of Antwerp.
  • King George confers the Order of the Garter upon King Albert.

DEC. 5th 1914

  • King George inspects Royal Flying Corps and returns to London.
  • Portuguese Cabinet resigns.
  • British Government prohibits export of tinned meats and tinplate’s to Sweden, Denmark, and Holland; of tea to all European ports, except those of France, Russia, Belgium, Spain, and Portugal; and of tanning extracts to all destinations.
  • British success in the Persian Gulf region: The expeditionary force there gains complete control of the country from the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris to the sea.

DEC. 6th 1914

  • Kaiser suffering from bronchial catarrh.
  • French airmen raid aeroplane sheds of Freiburg, in Alsace.
  • British Foreign Office publishes answer to Germany's allegation that Great Britain intended to violate Belgian neutrality.

DEC. 7th 1914

  • Publication of "Eye-Witness’s” account of the King's visit to France,
  • General Beyers shot while trying to cross the Vaal River.

DEC. 8th 1914

  • Official Petrograd statement admits the loss of Lodz, which was evacuated without the loss of a man.
  • Furnes shelled by the Germans,
  • British naval victory off the Falkland Islands in the Battle of the Falklands.
  • British naval squadron under Sir Frederick Sturdee (Invincible, Inflexible, Cornwall, Carnarvon, Kent, Glasgow, Bristol, Canopus, and Macedonia) attacks a German squadron under Admiral Graf von Spee, and sinks the Scharnhorst, Gneisenau, Leipzig, and Nurnberg, and captures two colliers.
  • President Wilson's message to United States Congress foreshadows a scheme of military and naval defence.
  • Publication by the Press Bureau of the various proclamations issued by the German military authorities in Belgium.
  • Alter defeating three Austrian army corps and taking 10,000 prisoners and many guns and stores, the Serbians retake Valievo.
  • Collapse of the South African rebellion.
  • Five additional awards of V.C (two to Indian soldiers), and twenty fresh awards of D.S.O.
  • Lord Moulton announces Government scheme for creation of British aniline dye industry.

DEC. 9th 1914

  • Reported that German airmen dropped bombs on Warsaw and damaged the American Consulate.
  • M. Poincare returns from Bordeaux to Paris.

DEC. 10th 1914

  • Progress of Allies near Quesnoy in the Argonne and in the Bois de Pretre in the extreme north-east.
  • Report of Secretary of State for India, that on the capture of Kurna, 1,100 prisoners, exclusive of wounded, and nine guns were taken by the Indian troops.
  • Publication of despatches from Sir Louis Mallet, late British Ambassador at Constantinople.

DEC. 11th 1914

  • French capture railway-station of Aspach, south of Thann, in Alsace,
  • Publication of Vice-Admiral Sturdee's report that British casualties in the Battle of the Falkland Islands were only seven killed and four wounded.
  • Turkish gendarmes force their way into Italian Consulate and seize the British Consul.  Italian Government demands reparation.
  • Russians in the Caucasus drive Turks beyond the Euphrates.

DEC. 12th 1914

  • West bank of Yser Canal, north of Ferryman's House, evacuated by Germans.

DEC. 13th 1914

  • Montenegrins capture Vishnigrad and throw the Austrians beyond the Drina.
  • Turkish battleship Messoudieh sunk by British submarine B-11 in the Dardanelles.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Norman Douglas HOLBROOK, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Norman Douglas Holbrook. On 13th December 1914 in the Dardanelles, Lieutenant Holbrook was in command of the submarine B.11, an old and obsolete craft built in 1905. Notwithstanding the difficulties of a treacherous current in the Straits, he dived under five rows of mines and torpedoed and sank the Turkish battleship Messudiyeh, which was guarding the mine-field. He then succeeded in bringing the B.11 back to the Mediterranean, in spite of being attacked by gun fire and torpedo boats. When they got back to safety the B.11 had been submerged for 9 hours.

DEC. 14th 1914

  • Turkish battleship torpedoed by British submarine
  • Submarine B11, under Lieut.-Commander Norman D. Holbrook, enters Dardanelles and torpedoes Turkish battleship Messudiyeh.
  • Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) established. - The Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) was established on 14th October 1914 and awarded to petty officers and ratings of the Royal Navy, NCOs and other ranks in the Royal Marines and all other persons holding corresponding ranks or positions in the naval forces, who “show themselves to the fore in action, and set an example of bravery and resource under fire, but without performing acts of such pre-eminent bravery as would render them eligible to receive the Conspicuous Gallantry Medal (CGM)”.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 11340 Henry Howey ROBSON, Royal Scots awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 11340 Private Henry Howey Robson, 2nd Battalion, The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment). On 14th December 1914 near Kemmel, France, during an attack on a German position, Private Robson left his trench under very heavy fire and rescued a wounded Non-commissioned Officer. Subsequently, during another attack, he tried to bring a second wounded man into cover, while exposed to heavy fire. In this attack he was wounded almost at once, but persevered in his efforts until wounded a second time.

DEC. 15th 1914

  • Report of Court of Inquiry into the loss of H.M.S. Bulwark states that explosion was due to accidental ignition of ammunition.
  • Serbians re-enter Belgrade.

DEC. 16th 1914

  • German ships shell English coast towns. Bombardment of Hartlepool, Scarborough, and Whitby by German warships; 671 killed and wounded.

DEC. 17th 1914

  • British fleet, from a position off Nieuport, subjects’ German positions to a severe bombardment.
  • German first-class cruiser Friedrich Karl sunk by Russians during sortie in Baltic.
  • Distinguished Conduct Medals awarded to 187 N.C.O.s and men.
  • M. Giuseppe Motte elected President of Swiss Confederation.
  • Egypt becomes a British Protectorate, and suzerainty of Turkey terminated Lieut.-Col. Sir A. H. McMahon, G.C.V.O., appointed High Commissioner.

DEC. 18th 1914

  • Prince Hussein Kamel Pasha declared Sultan of Egypt.
  • Conference of Kings of Sweden, Norway, and Denmark at Malmo.

DEC. 19th 1914

  • Announced that vigorous offensive in the Arras district make Allies masters of several trenches in front of Auchy-les-La Bassée, Loos, St. Laurent, and Blangy.
  • Bombs from Allies aircraft dropped on airship sheds in Brussels.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant William Arthur McCrae BRUCE, 59th Scinde Rifles (Frontier Force) Indian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - The late Lieutenant William Arthur McCrae Bruce, 59th Scinde Rifles (Frontier Force), Indian Army. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On the 19th December 1914, near Givenchy, France, during a night attack Lieutenant Bruce was in command of a small party which captured one of the enemy's trenches. In spite of being severely wounded in the neck, he walked up and down the trench, encouraging his men to hold on against several counter-attacks for some hours until killed. The fire from rifles and bombs was very heavy all day, and it was due to the skilful disposition made and the example and encouragement shown by Lieutenant Bruce that his men were able to hold out until dusk, when the trench was finally captured by the enemy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 8185 James MacKENZIE, Scots Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 8185 Private James Mackenzie, 2nd Battalion, Scots Guards. On 19th December 1914 at Rouges Bancs, France, Private Mackenzie rescued a severely wounded man from the front of the German trenches under a very heavy fire and after a stretcher party had been compelled to abandon the attempt. Private Mackenzie was killed later on that day while trying to carry out a similar act.

DEC. 20th 1914

  • First Battle of Champagne begins.
  • Lieut. Holbrook awarded the V.C.
  • British defence of Givenchy 1914.

DEC. 21st 1914

  • Petrograd official statement says Russians, who are holding line of the Bzura and Rawka Rivers, thirty to forty miles west and south-west of Warsaw, cut up German forces which had crossed the Bzura at Dachowa.
  • King George sends message to new Sultan of Egypt conveying expression of his Majesty's most sincere friendship, and assurance of his unfailing support in safeguarding integrity of Egypt.
  • Announced from South Africa that Captain Fourie, one of the ringleaders of S.A. rebels, has been shot after Court-martial.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 10694 Abraham ACTON, Border Regiment, awarded Victoria Cross. Private Abraham Acton, 2nd Battalion, The Border Regiment. On 21st December 1914 at Rouges Bancs, France, Private Acton and another private went out from their trench and rescued a wounded man who had been lying exposed against the enemy's trenches for 75 hours. On the same day they again left their trench under heavy fire to bring in another wounded man. They were under fire for 60 minutes whilst conveying the wounded men to safety.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 6423 James SMITH, Border Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6423 Private James Alexander Smith, 3rd Battalion, The Border Regiment. On 21st December 1914 at Rouges Bancs, France, Private Smith and another private voluntarily went out from their trench and rescued a wounded man who had been lying exposed against the enemy's trenches for 75 hours. On the same day they again left their trench under heavy fire to bring in another wounded man. They were under fire for 60 minutes whilst conveying the wounded men to safety.

DEC. 22nd 1914

  • Officially reported that in Galicia an Austrian advance had been finally stopped by Russian troops.
  • Germans, driven back from Mlawa, retire behind East Prussian frontier.
  • British destroyers keeping constant watch on Zeebrugge for submarines, observe suspicious movements, and bombard Belgian coast between Zeebrugge and Heyst. Germans man guns on the dunes, but British squadron sails out of range.
  • Sir G. A. Callaghan appointed Commander-in-Chief at the Nore.

DEC. 23rd 1914

  • M. Viviani, French Premier, declares that the only policy for the Allies is merciless war until Europe is liberated.

DEC. 24th 1914

  • Bomb thrown on Dover by German aviator, without effecting damage.
  • Commander R. R. Davies drops bombs on Brussels airshed.
  • Petrograd announces that in fighting in Western Galicia the 26th Division of the Austrian Landwehr was ambushed when advancing to south of Tonkhovo.  Austrians decimated 1,500 dead.
  • Admiral von Tirpitz, in interview, threatens to torpedo British and allied shipping.

DEC. 25th 1914

  • Allies seize part of village of Boisselle, north-east of Albert; also make progress north of Roye, at Libu, near Lihons.
  • Futile German air-raid over Sheerness.
  • British air raid on Cuxhaven. Seven British Naval airmen, assisted by the Arethusa and Undaunted and submarines, attack enemy warships off Cuxhaven; no British casualties.
  • Zeppelin over Nancy.

DEC. 26th 1914

  • French airmen drop bombs on Frascati, near Metz.
  • Portuguese Government confirms reports of attack by Germans on Naulila (Angola).
  • Report of Sir E. Hatch's committee states that about one million refugees have abandoned Belgian soil, of whom about 110,000 are in England, 500,000 or more in Holland, and the rest in France.

DEC. 27th 1914

  • National Theatre Company, under direction of Mr Seymour Hicks, and including Miss Ellaline Terriss, Miss Gladys Cooper, Mr Ben Davies, and others, give entertainment to troops in field and wounded in hospitals.

DEC. 28th 1914

DEC. 29th 1914

  • U.S. Note to Great Britain on treatment of American commerce.

DEC. 30th 1914

  • Allies take village of St. Georges, near Nieuport.
  • Russia takes offensive in Western Galicia, having successfully dealt with German efforts to divert advance on Cracow.
  • German air-raid on Dunkirk; 15 killed, 32 wounded.
  • War Office scheme for six new armies.

DEC. 31st 1914

  • German vantage point on road from Becelaere to Passchendaele seized.
  • Announced that Princess Patricia's Light Infantry from Canada now at the front.
  • Bougainville (Solomon Islands) taken by Australian forces.
  • New decoration (the Military Cross) instituted.
  • German consent to exchange incapacitated prisoners of war

The Great War Timeline - 1915

1915 - Great War Timeline & detailed history of WWI

JANUARY 1915

JAN. 1st 1915

  • H.M.S Formidable torpedoed in Channel; loss of nearly 600 lives; 2 officers and 68 men rescued by the Brixham fishing smack Providence.
  • New Year Honours List contains many rewards to naval and military heroes of war; C.B. for captain and commander of Carmania, and captain of Sydney; D.S.O. for Flight Lieutenant Sippe, Squadron-Commander Briggs, and Flight Commander Babington.
  • An Army Order defines the new organisation of armies, each consisting of three army corps.

JAN. 2nd 1915

  • King George's New Year message to President Poincare published, in which his Majesty says he is certain the New Year will see great strengthening of Franco-British friendship and alliance. Cheery reply sent by President.
  • Cardinal Mercier, Archbishop of Malines, made a prisoner in his palace by the Germans for issuing a pastoral on "Patriotism and Endurance."
  • Successful operations at Dar-es-Salaam by H.M.S. Fox and Goliath reported from Nairobi.

JAN. 3rd 1915

  • French bombard German train in railway-station at Altkirch.
  • This Sunday observed as Day of Intercession in all the churches, and Red Cross collections taken.
  • Turkish transport sunk by mine in the Bosphorus.

JAN. 4th 1915

  • Reopening of Stock Exchange.
  • New German move in Poland reported. Every endeavour to cross to north of the Vistula, there to join hands with forces from East Prussia, and descend upon Warsaw from the north. Bavarian regiments hurried to support of Austrians round Cracow.
  • French take Steinbach in Upper Alsace after violent fighting.

JAN. 5th 1915

  • Russians reported to be holding the strategic railway connecting the Bukovina with Western Galicia and Hungary.
  • Signor Giolitti's disclosures in Italian Chamber regarding Austrian policy.
  • A grandson of Garibaldi killed while fighting for France.
  • First auction of five prize steamers in the Baltic Exchange yields £130,725 which is placed to credit of a poundage fund for the Fleet.
  • Turkish transport sunk in Black Sea.

JAN 6th, 1915

  • Russian Victory in Caucasus announced.  At Sarykamyseh, near Kars, two Turkish army corps (80,000 to 90,000 men) enveloped and annihilated.
  • Russians reported to be in Transylvania, where several towns occupied. 
  • Albania in revolt against Essad Pasha.
  • On reassembling of House of Lords, Earl Kitchener states that over 218,000 names have been registered under the household canvass of those willing to serve.
  • German supply ship sunk by H.M.A.S. Australia in Pacific.
  • Through the intermediary of the United States, arrangements made for exchange of British and German prisoners of war who are physically incapacitated for further service.

JAN. 7th, 1915

  • President Poincare signs decree making permanent the prohibition of the sale of absinthe.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Esutace JOTHAM, 51st Sikhs (Frontier Force) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Eustace Jotham, 51st Sikhs (Frontier Force). For most conspicuous bravery on 7th January 1915 at Spina Khaisora (Tochi Valley). During operations against the Khostwal tribesmen, Captain Jotham, who was commanding a party of about a dozen of the North Waziristan Militia, was attacked in a nullah and almost surrounded by an overwhelming force of some 1,500 tribesmen. He gave the order to retire, and could have himself escaped, but most gallantly sacrificed his own life by attempting to effect the rescue of one of his men who had lost his horse.

JAN. 8th, 1915

  • Battle of Soissons begins.
  • Lord Haldane states that in national emergency this country might find it necessary to resort to compulsory service. Lords adjourn till Feb. 2.
  • French report on German atrocities in Northern France published in “Journal Official.”
  • British Government appeals for further hospitality for Belgian refugees.
  • Cancellation of interdict against export of tea; prohibition of export of coffee.

JAN. 9th, 1915

  • Lord Methuen appointed Governor and Commander in- Chief of Malta, in succession to General Sir Leslie Rundle.
  • King George and Queen Mary visit Indian troops in hospital in Brighton.

JAN. 10th, 1915

  • Sixteen German aeroplanes attempt to cross English Channel, but return without reaching England. Later they drop bombs on Dunkirk.
  • Battle by searchlight between Germans and Russians.

JAN. 11th, 1915

  • French successes won near Soissons and Perthes maintained.  Burnhaupt-le-Haut reoccupied by enemy.
  • In Caucasus Turks assuming vigorous offensive in neighbourhood of Karaugan to cover retreat of Tenth Army Corps.

JAN. 12th, 1915

  • Sir E. Grey's reply to United States Note on subject of contraband favourably received in America.
  • Meeting of French Parliament.

JAN. 13th, 1915

  • Indian Viceroy, at Delhi, states India has despatched, or is despatching, nearly 200,000 men to fight overseas.
  • British War Council resolve that the Admiralty should prepare for a naval expedition in February against the Dardanelles.
  • Redoubt north of Beausejour Farm the scene of a desperate struggle.
  • Great earthquake in Italy; death-roll of 30,000.
  • Sir Douglas Haig and Sir H. Smith-Dorrien made Grand Officers of the Legion of Honour.

JAN. 14th, 1915

  • Tabriz, capital of Persian province of Azerbaijan, occupied by a Turkish force.
  • Resignation of Count Berchtold, Austro-Hungarian Minister of Foreign Affairs: Succeeded by Baron Stephan Burian.
  • Battle of Soissons ends.
  • French report loss of eastern side of spur of Hill 132, north-east of Soissons. After stubborn fight French succeed in establishing themselves between Crouy and Missy.
  • South African force occupies Swakopmund (German South West Africa).

JAN. 15th, 1915

  • North of Arras, Zouaves brilliantly carry German position.
  • German bridges across the Meuse at St. Mihiel destroyed by French, and in the Vosges enemy thrown back.
  • Transfer of German ship Dacia to American ownership discussed by London and Washington.

JAN. 16th, 1915

  • Price of wheat in Great Britain increases considerably.

JAN. 17th, 1915

  • French retake foundry at Blangy, near Arras, which had been seized by Germans.
  • Paris follows London in darkening its streets as a precautionary measure against air attack.

JAN. 18th, 1915

  • Sub-Lieutenant Boot, of Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, reaches home with three brother officers, having escaped from internment camp in Holland.
  • German losses to date estimated at 2.5 million.
  • Baron Burian accepts Kaiser's invitation to an interview.

JAN. 19th, 1915

  • Important British financial step announced. No company can invite fresh capital, and no fresh company can be formed unless the State approves. No capital can go abroad except under Government control.
  • First airship raid on England: German air attack on English coast towns.  Zeppelin night raid on Yarmouth, Sheringham, Hunstanton, King's Lynn, and Sandringham. Thirteen victims in all, two killed and one injured at Yarmouth, two killed at King's Lynn and eight injured, including three children.
  • Twenty-six Turkish supply ships sunk by Russian torpedo-boats between Batum and Trebizond.

JAN. 20th, 1915

  • Loss announced of French submarine Saphir, engaged in patrol work in Dardanelles.
  • Official communiqué issued in Cairo states that "the only way Turkish troops are likely to enter Egypt is as prisoners of war."
  • Twenty-six Turkish supply ships sunk by Russian torpedo-boats between Batum and Trebizond.

JAN. 21st, 1915

JAN. 22nd, 1915

  • British airmen drop 27 bombs on German submarine base at Zeebrugge.
  • German airmen drop 66 bombs on Dunkirk; one of the aeroplanes brought down by British.
  • Russians reported to have occupied Skempe, 34 miles from Thorn.
  • M. Millerand, French Minister of War, visits London and Aldershot, and is received by King George.

JAN. 23rd, 1915

  • Native outbreak in Nyasaland.
  • M. Millerand, French Minister of War, visits London and Aldershot, and is received by King George.

JAN. 24th, 1915

  • British Naval victory in North Sea. Blücher sunk and other German warships seriously damaged by squadron under Vice-Admiral Beatty. British casualties: 14 killed, 29 wounded. H.M.S. Lion and Meteor slightly damaged.
  • Prince Yussupoff, A.D.C. to Tsar; in London on mission to the King.
  • New Portuguese Cabinet tinder General Pimenta de Castro.
  • British outposts in Egypt in touch with Turks at El Kantara.

JAN. 25th, 1915

  • German cruiser Gazelle damaged by Russian submarine in the Baltic.
  • Zeppelin brought down at Libau.
  • German Chancellor, in interview published in New York, essays explanation of his “scrap of paper” allusion. (Sir E. Grey promptly replies.)
  • Mr Bryan issues statement proving that United States had not broken the spirit of neutrality in favour of Germany's enemies.
  • In fighting at La Bassée, Craonne, the Argonne, the Woevre, and the Vosges, the Germans lose 20,000 men.

JAN. 26th, 1915

  • King George decorates Khudadad Khan the first Indian soldier to receive the Victoria Cross.
  • Turks advance on Egypt.
  • In fighting at La Bassée, Craonne, the Argonne, the Woevre, and the Vosges, the Germans lose 20,000 men.
  • M. Augagneur, French Minister of Marine, visits London and Portsmouth.

JAN. 27th, 1915

  • British loan of £5,000,000 to Rumania.
  • Kaiser 56 to-day; Berlin beflagged.
  • M. Augagneur, French Minister of Marine, visits London and Portsmouth.

JAN. 28th, 1915

  • British Government definitely decide to make naval attack on the Dardanelles.

JAN. 29th, 1915

JAN. 30th, 1915

  • German submarine U21 sinks Ben Cruachan, Linda Blanche, and Kilcoan, off Fleetwood.
  • Takomaru (with New Zealand supplies for suffering Belgians) and Ikaria torpedoed in English Channel, and towed into port by French torpedo-boats.
  • Slight French reverse in Argonne.
  • Japanese sword of honour presented to King Albert.

JAN. 31st, 1915

  • Dacia leaves Galveston for Rotterdam. National Relief Fund, £4,500,000.

FEBRURY 1915

FEB. 1st, 1915

  • German force, battalion strong, attacks trenches to north of La Bassée-Béthune, but repulsed with terrible loss.
  • Attack south-east of Ypres repulsed.
  • Announced that Germany to be put on siege rations of bread.
  • Colonial Office reports suppression of native rising in Nyasaland.
  • Dastardly attempt by German submarine to torpedo British hospital ship Asturias off Havre.
  • Russia decides to regard as piratical any bombardment of unfortified towns.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 3556 Michael O’LEARY, Irish Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3556 Lance-Corporal Michael O'Leary, 1st Battalion, Irish Guards. On 1st February 1915 at Cuinchy, France, Lance-Corporal O'Leary was one of the storming party which advanced against the enemy's barricades. He rushed to the front and killed five Germans who were holding the first barricade, after which he attacked a second barricade 60 yards further on. This he captured after killing three of the enemy and taking two more of them prisoner. The Lance-Corporal thus practically took the position by himself and prevented the rest of the attacking party from being fired upon.

FEB. 2nd, 1915

  • German Admiralty warns neutral shipping to avoid the Channel, as it intends shortly to act against British transports by submarines.
  • Attack on British post near Cuinchy at first successful; but after series of counter-attacks, the British regain lost ground and make progress beyond it. German attack near Bagatelle in the Argonne repulsed.
  • Fighting of fiercest character reported along the Warsaw front. Von Hindenburg's repeated and violent attacks near Sokachev driven back with “colossal casualties,” owing to German dense formation.  Russian cavalry penetrates German front north of Serpedz, and force back beyond Vlochavek.
  • British forces defeat Turkish advance body near Ismalia.
  • Attempt to cross Suez Canal by night, between Ismalia and Toussoum, at head of Bitter Lakes, frustrated.
  • British Parliament reassembles.
  • Authorities of the State of Maine arrest a German officer for bomb outrage on Canadian Pacific Railway Bridge over St. Croix River.

FEB. 3rd, 1915

  • Turks deliver attack on the El Kantara front, but repulsed. Sixteen killed and wounded and 40 prisoners. Defenders' casualties, 3 wounded.
  • Germans send fire-boats down River Ancre above Aveluy (north of Albert), but these contrivances stopped by French before they explode. Slight French progress to the west of Hill 200, near Perthes.
  • Kemp, one of rebel leaders in South Africa, surrenders with his commando.
  • Announced that Mr. F. D. Acland, M.P., new Financial Secretary to Treasury, and! Mr E. S. Montagu, M.P., new Chancellor of Duchy of Lancaster.

FEB. 4th, 1915

  • Kaiser inspects fleet at Wilhelmshaven, and hands Iron Crosses to crew of submarine U21, which torpedoed British merchant ships in Irish Sea.
  • German Admiralty declare blockade of whole of Great Britain and Ireland from Feb. 18.
  • British Foreign Office issues warning of importance that Great Britain may have to consider the adoption of retaliatory measures against German trade should Germany persist in her apparent intention to sink merchantmen by submarines, regardless of loss of civilian lives.
  • Owing to German Government's new control of all grain and flour, British Foreign Office gives notice that if the destination of the Wilhelmina (United States ship) and her cargo are as supposed (Bremen). “the cargo will, if the vessel is intercepted, be submitted to a Prize Court in order that the new situation created by the German decree may be examined and a decision reached. There is no question of taking any proceedings against the vessel.”
  • Private Lonsdale, prisoner of war in Germany, has sentence of death reduced to 20 years' imprisonment.
  • Fierce battle for Warsaw still raging; 40,000 Germans attack Russian lines between Borjimov and Bolimov.

FEB. 5th, 1915

  • Russians take offensive to cross the Ezura, capturing part of enemy's position near Dakoro. In the Carpathians, north-west of Ujok, Russian offensive continuing, 3,000 prisoners taken. Tsar arrives at the front.
  • Capture of German trenches in the neighbourhood of Lille.
  • British Army Estimates issued, in which noted that number of men which Parliament will be asked to vote for the Army, Home, and Colonial establishments, exclusive of those serving in India, is 3,000,000.
  • News from Suez Canal that H.M.S. Hardinge, converted transport, twice hit by shells during Turkish attack on the canal. British losses estimated at 2 officers and 13 men killed and 58 wounded; nearly 300 prisoners taken from Turkish forces.

FEB. 6th, 1915

  • British capture brickfield east of Cuinchy.
  • Announced that struggle for Warsaw reaching its climax.
  • Germans concentrate 80,000 men and 600 guns in narrow front of 7 miles near Borjimov, and for two days keep up furious bombardment. Advance on Russian lines in dense formation; some of the Prussian Guard brought up, with orders from the Kaiser to break through at all costs.
  • Lifebelts marked “S.S. Oriole” picked up near Rye, leading to the supposition that the vessel had been torpedoed.
  • British S.S. ‘Lusitania’ arrives at Liverpool flying United States flag.

FEB. 7th, 1915

  • Press Bureau issues official statement from Cairo, stating no further fighting taking place on the Suez Canal. Besides Arabs, a number of Anatolian Turkish soldiers are deserting and giving themselves up to British.
  • Foreign Office issues statement, regarding German reference in connection with the blockade declaration that “secret British orders” have been given to merchantmen to fly a neutral flag, that “the use of the neutral flag is, with certain limitations, well-established in practice as a 'ruse de guerre.'
  • Russians holding important point north of Vitkovitza, on the extreme German left, and capture whole series of trenches near Borjimov, with six machine-guns.
  • Slight Austrian advance in the Bukovina.
  • Allied compact regarding finance: British Chancellor of the Exchequer returns from Paris, from a conference with M. Ribot and M. Bark, the Finance Ministers of France and Russia. Important agreement concluded by which they pool their financial resources, and will float a loan jointly, at the same time providing for advances by the three Powers in equal shares to such countries as have taken, or may take up, arms for the common cause.

FEB. 8th, 1915

  • Violent infantry battle at Bagatelle, in the Argonne; French holding nearly all their ground.
  • M. Delcasse, French Foreign Minister, received by King George at Buckingham Palace.
  • Mr Asquith announces in Parliament British casualties up to Feb 4th are 104,000.
  • Navy Estimates presented to Parliament give power to raise strength of the Navy in men from 218,000 to 250,000.
  • Admiralty announce grave reason to fear British steam ship Oriole victim of German submarine which torpedoed Takomaru and Ikaria.
  • German cruiser Breslau bombards Yalta and Russian cruisers in reply bombard Trebizond.

FEB. 9th, 1915

  • Enemy bombard Ypres and Fumes and pour incendiary shells on Soissons. Near La Bassée a mill wrested from Germans. Indecisive battle continued at Bagatelle.
  • 1st Canadian Division crosses from England to France.
  • The Wilhelmina, the United States ship laden with food for Germany, arrives at Falmouth.
  • Reported from Pretoria that rebel leader Maritz executed by Germans for treachery.
  • Austrian official report issued in Vienna admits breakdown of their offensive in Carpathians.
  • King George receives M. Bark, Russian Minister of Finance, at Buckingham Palace.

FEB. 10th, 1915

  • Russian official communiqué reports capture of 23 officers and 1,500 rank and file, several machine-guns, and a mortar in the Carpathians.

FEB. 11th, 1915

  • Russian retreat in East Prussia in consequence of great German advance.
  • Nieuport violently bombarded by Germans.
  • In the Argonne, struggle around the Marie Therese work results in considerable German losses, and French lose seriously.

FEB. 12th, 1915

  • In the Vosges French Chasseurs carry Hill 937, in region north of Hartmannsweilerkopf, in violent snowstorm.
  • First Great Air Raid in History. Admiralty announces that during the last 24 hours, combined aeroplane and seaplane operations carried out by the Naval Wing against German submarine bases in Zeebrugge, Blankenberghe, and Ostend districts. Thirty-four aircraft took part, under command of Wing-Commander Samson, assisted by Wing Commander Longmore and Squadron-Commanders Porte, Courtney, and Rathborne. Flight-Commander Grahame White tell into sea off Nieuport, and was rescued by French vessel.

FEB. 13th, 1915

  • In Carpathians Russian troops occupy fortified heights in region of Szvidnik (south-west of Dukla Pass). French heavy artillery reaches railway-station of Noyon.
  • Violent German bombardment in Nieuport and the dune region.
  • United States Note to Germany regarding blockade published. It warns Germany that if German vessels destroy an American ship and lives of American citizens on high seas, the German Government will be held to “strict accountability for such acts.” The Note to Great Britain states American Government will view with anxious solicitude any general use of the United States flag by British vessels in the zone of operations.
  • Official account of fighting between British and Turks issued at Cairo, from which it appears that in January, at Tor, a small seaport on Gulf of Suez, enemy's force was annihilated, over a hundred prisoners taken and twenty camels. British losses, one Gurkha killed and one wounded.

FEB. 14th, 1915

  • Rheims again bombarded by Germans. In Alsace Germans take the offensive along the valley of the Lauch, but their march delayed and hampered by French ski patrols.
  • Russian Retreat in East Prussia. In the Lyck-Rajgrod Graievo region of East Prussia (the latter two places on the Russian side of the frontier) fierce fight in progress. Farther to north, Russian troops fall back to fortified line of River Niemen, under pressure of great German forces.
  • In Carpathians, Russian success at Smolnik, east of Lupkow, eighteen officers, more than a thousand rank and file, and three machine-guns captured.

FEB. 15th, 1915

  • Allies carry 250 yards of trench on road between Béthune and La Bassée. In Argonne, in direction of Bagatelle and Marie Therese, struggle continuing very stubbornly from trench to trench. In Lorraine, enemy having pushed back French main guard, succeed in occupying height of Xon Beacon and hamlet of Norroy, but repulsed as far as slopes north of the Beacon. In the Vosges French Chasseurs Alpins, on skis, deliver very brilliant counter attack on slopes of Langenfeldkopf. In Northern Poland Germans occupy Raciaz, east of Serpedz, and claim to be making rapid progress on East Prussian frontier.
  • Important speech by Mr Churchill in House of Commons, in which stated that British reply to German “system of piracy and murder” at sea would be an increase in restrictions now placed on German trade, pointing to a blockade of German coast. Other points are: During last three months 8,000 British merchantmen had been on the seas and only 19 sunk-only 4 by surface· craft. Losses during six months were only 63 ships. We can meet any new German development by resources infinitely superior to those in August. Navy transport has moved 1,000,000 men without loss. Navy sound as a bell.
  • Important speech by Mr Lloyd George in House of Commons, chief points of which: Allies will spend for year ending December 31 next, not far short of £2,000,000,000. British Empire will spend about £100,000,000 or £150,000,000 more than highest figure spent by France or Russia. We can pay the war for five years out of our investments abroad, and France for at least three years. Russia is to get a loan of £50,000,000 in equal amounts from London and Paris.
  • Count Bernstorff, German Ambassador to United States, presents Note to its Government, to effect that Germany is ready to consider abandonment of policy of attacking British merchantmen if Great Britain will cease her efforts to prevent foodstuffs from being conveyed to civilians in Germany.
  • Mutiny of the 5th Light Infantry (Indian Army) at Singapore.

FEB. 16th, 1915

  • Second great air raid by Allies on German positions on Belgian coast. Forty British and French aeroplanes and waterplanes drop 240 bombs on Ostend, Middlekerke, Ghistelles, and Zeebrugge, with good results.
  • First of communiqués, which Sir John French is hence forward to issue twice a week, appears. Records capture by British of trenches near La Bassée, lost by them on Feb 14th.
  • British steamer Dulwich (3,289 tons) blown up twenty miles off Cape Antifer (Havre), whether by mines or torpedoes not clear. French steamer Ville de Lille sunk off Barfleur by German submarine.
  • In Champagne, over a front extending from north-west of Perthes to north of Beausejour, French carry two miles of trenches and make several hundred prisoners.
  • Russian official message announces Germans advancing from East Prussia, attempting to envelop Russian forces in neighbourhood of Augustovo on either wing.
  • Despatch from Sir John French describing gallantry of troops in battles fought in December at Festubert, and at the end of January before Béthune.
  • British Government decide to send a division (the 29th) to the Dardanelles.
  • British Naval losses since commencement of war published: Killed, 348 officers, 5,812 men; wounded, 45 officers, 352 men; missing, 8 officers, 5 men. In Royal Naval Division: Killed, 5 officers, 36 men; wounded, 4 officers, 184 men; missing, 7 officers, 968 men; interned, 39 officers, 1,524 men.

FEB. 17th, 1915

  • French success in Champagne and to the north of Arras.
  • Germans claim to have taken 50,000 Russian prisoners, after driving. Russians over East Prussian frontier.
  • Sir Edward Grey, in his Note to United States, replying to complaint regarding British interference with neutral shipping, points out that complaint founded on a misconception.
  • Zeppelin L4 destroyed on Danish island of Fanoe, and another German airship lost on Danish coast.
  • Long list issued containing names of officers and men recommended for gallant and distinguished service in the field.

FEB. 18th, 1915

  • German “Official” Blockade of Great Britain begins.
  • Victoria Crosses awarded to 11 officers and men, and a clasp to the Victoria Cross to Lieut. Arthur Martin-Leake. R.A.M.C.

FEB. 19th, 1915

  • The 200th Day of the War. British Notes to United States published. In one Sir Edward Grey replies to representations of United States Government as to use of latter's flag by the Lusitania. Other Note deals with Wilhelmina case. Both explain British attitude in view of Germany's “paper” blockade and repeated violation of international law.
  • Bulletin from Sir John French reporting severe fighting south-east of Ypres.
  • French progress in the Vosges; German attacks north of Wisembach repulsed, and positions gained and consolidated.
  • American ship Evelyn mined off Borkum.
  • Norwegian tank-ship Belridge struck by German torpedo near Folkestone.
  • Bombardment of Dardanelles Forts. Franco-British Fleet, under Vice-Admiral Carden, attacks forts at entrance to the Dardanelles; those on the European side silenced.

FEB. 20th, 1915

  • French Government confers Military Medal on Field Marshal Sir John French.
  • French repulse counter-attacks in Champagne and make further progress in north of Pertlles.
  • Serious fighting in the neighbourhood of Ypres. The Germans attack with the bayonet, but are repulsed, losing heavily.
  • Orders issued to Australian and New Zealand troops in Egypt for employment at the Dardanelles,
  • S.S. Downshire sunk by a German submarine off the Calf of Man and S.S. Cambank torpedoed off Anglesey by German submarine.

FEB. 21st, 1915

  • Russian success in Galicia; heights south-east of Tukla and north-west of Senebchouva captured after desperate fight.
  • German counter-attack in Champagne brilliantly repulsed by French, who follow up with a vigorous pursuit, which makes them masters of the whole German trenches to the north and east of the wood captured on Feb. 20.
  • German aeroplane raid over Essex; bombs dropped on Colchester, Braintree, and Coggleshall; little damage done.
  • Russian counter to the German advance from East Prussia and Posen begins.
  • Announced from Holland that United States ship Evelyn, carrying cotton from New York to Bremen, was sunk by a mine off Borkum.
  • Rheims again -bombarded and cathedral severely damaged.

FEB. 22nd, 1915

  • Reported that German cruisers still active in Southern Atlantic and Pacific.
  • Reported that British steamers Highland Brae, Potaro, Heffilsphere, and Wilfred destroyed some weeks ago by enemy.
  • Mr Asquith announces in Parliament that the Allies are considering what action to take by way of reprisals for the German blockade.
  • Zeppelin attack on Calais, five civilians killed.
  • Sir Edward Grey, in message to Washington, denies German assertion that British intended to destroy an American ship in the war zone to precipitate a crisis between the United States and Germany.
  • South African Union forces occupied Garub, 70 miles east of Luderitz Bay, without opposition.
  • French carry more trenches in Champagne and capture numerous prisoners. Between the Argonne and the Meuse almost the whole of the enemy's positions captured.
  • Grand Duke Nicholas reports that in the Russian retreat from East Prussia the flank of one of our ally's corps became exposed, and only isolated elements of them succeeded in escaping. In the Prasnysch region, 60 miles north of Warsaw, Germans take offensive with considerable force.

FEB. 23rd, 1915

  • Admiralty restricts navigation in the Irish Channel by proclamation of a prohibited area.
  • German submarine attacks Folkestone-Boulogne cross Channel passenger boat, the torpedo passing 30 yards ahead of the ship.
  • First neutral vessel sunk in blockade. The Norwegian collier Regin torpedoed in the English Channel; crew saved.
  • Press Bureau publishes a letter from Sir Edward Grey to the Chairman of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, in which he reviews the negotiations that have passed between the Commission and the British Government.
  • Sir John French, in his bi-weekly bulletin, reports British trench destroyed by mines near Ypres. At Givenchy, close to La Bassée, British capture a German trench.
  • Fifteen hundred shells rained upon Rheims Cathedral.
  • Rioting among Indian troops at Singapore. Press Bureau announces that the 5th Light Infantry attacked officers owing to “some jealousy and dissatisfaction concerning recent promotions.” Riots suppressed with help of local forces and detachment of 36th Sikhs, seven officers and twenty-nine others killed.

FEB. 24th, 1915

  • French artillery success on the Meuse. Two German regiments driven from their positions at Les Eparges with loss of over 3,000 men.
  • Reported that United States has made informal proposals concerning the blockade to British and German Governments.
  • The first British Territorial division, the North Midland leaves England for France.
  • Loss of H.M.S. Clan McNaughton, armed merchant cruiser, missing since Feb 3rd, announced by Admiralty.

FEB. 25th, 1915

  • Allies’ success at Dardanelles. All the forts at the entrance of Straits reduced by combined Franco-British: squadron.
  • French airmen throw sixty- bombs on enemy's stations, trains, and concentrations in Champagne.

FEB. 26th, 1915

  • Government and Clyde Strikers. In a letter to the Engineering Employers’ Federation and various engineering trade unions, Sir George Askwith, Chief Industrial Commissioner, states that the Government must call for a resumption of work on Monday morning, Mar 1st.
  • Fierce battle, on the Polish front in progress, severest struggle around Prasnysch.
  • Liquid fire first used by the Germans on the Western front.
  • French Ministry of Marine states that dredging for mines in the Dardanelles passage has begun.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Commander Eric Gascoigne ROBINSON, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant-Commander Robinson on the 26th February advanced alone, under heavy fire, into an enemy's gun position, which might well have been occupied, and destroying a four-inch gun, returned to his party for another charge with which the second gun was destroyed. Lieutenant-Commander Robinson would not allow members of his demolition party to accompany him, as their white uniforms rendered them very conspicuous. Lieutenant-Commander Robinson took part in four attacks on the mine fields – always under heavy fire.

FEB. 27th, 1915

  • Seizure of the Dacia. The German ship transferred to a German-American owner with cotton for Germany stopped by a French warship in the Channel and brought to Brest.
  • A Zeppelin reported blown away at Pola and lost.
  • Successful Russian counter-attacks in Poland and Galicia
  • In North-West Poland Russians recapture town of Prasnysch.

FEB. 28th, 1915

  • British blockade of German East African coast takes effect at midnight.
  • French make marked progress in Champagne on the whole front from Combres to the north of Perthes. One thousand prisoners taken during previous ten days:
  • Russian progress in the Prasnysch region continues. Villages captured in rapid succession; hundreds of prisoners taken in each. In East Prussia Germans on the defensive. In Carpathians Austrians in Rabba-Radzilov district defeated with great loss.
  • His Majesty returns to' Buckingham Palace after a visit to a portion of the Grand Fleet.
  • Important speech by Mr Lloyd George, at Bangor, on the question of labour troubles.

MARCH 1915

MAR. 1st, 1915

  • Blockade of Germany by Great Britain. Mr Asquith, in Parliament, announces that a real blockade of Germany is to be undertaken; no goods of any kind to enter or leave Germany. A Note to be sent to neutrals.
  • Capture of over a mile of German works about Perthes by the French.
  • Russians advance eleven miles in Polan, and regain the initiative. Progress specially marked in the Prasnysch district, where 10,000 prisoners captured near Mlava.

MAR. 2nd, 1915

  • Trench captured by Princess Patricia’s Canadians reported by Sir John French, who also states that about La Bassée ground has been gained and complete mastery over the German snipers secured.
  • Important French advance near Perthes towards railway in rear of German lines.
  • Text of the American Note to Germany making suggestions which would free commercial ships from some of the risks they run in the waters of the belligerents, together with the German reply, published in a message from Amsterdam.
  • Despatches from Vice-Admiral Sturdee and Vice-Admiral Beatty published, dealing respectively with action off the Falkland Islands on Dec 8th, 1914, and Battle of the North Sea, Jan 24th, 1915.

MAR. 3rd, 1915

  • The Clyde engineers who went on strike resume work, but stipulate for no overtime, and if the advance of 2d. an hour be not granted by Mar 9th, to work at low pressure.
  • French advance in Champagne continued, trenches to west of Perthes captured, German regiment of Guards suffer enormous losses.
  • Admiralty issues statement regarding Dardanelles operations, reporting continued progress, and announcing that Russian cruiser Askold has joined the allied squadron.
  • Austrians suffer severe reverse in Eastern Galicia when defending passage of the River Lomnica (a tributary of the Dniester); 6,000 Austrians captured, including sixty-four officers, many guns and transports.

MAR. 4th, 1915

  • Further Admiralty report on Dardanelles operations, in which it is stated that to date forty enemy's field-guns destroyed.
  • Germans capture advanced trench to north of Arras.
  • Russians take 3,000 prisoners in Carpathians and Eastern Galicia.

MAR. 5th, 1915

  • British squadron shells Smyrna.
  • Turkish oil depot destroyed at Said (near Gaba Tepe) by French battleship in Dardanelles operations. Observation stations outside Straits on northern coasts destroyed by fire from a cruiser.
  • German attacks in Flanders hurled back twelve times by Allies. French capture a company of German Guards in Champagne, and gain ground on whole front.
  • Admiralty intimate good ground for belief that Captain Bell, of the Thordis, rammed German submarine off Beachy Head.
  • German submarine U8 sunk off Dover by British destroyer.
  • Announced that during operations round Stanislav between Feb 21st and Mar 3rd, Russians took 18,522 prisoners.

MAR. 6th, 1915

  • War Crisis in Greece. The Cabinet of M. Venizelos resigns.
  • Operations in Dardanelles continue. The Queen Elizabeth, supported by Agamemnon and Ocean, attack forts Hamidieh I., Tabra, and Hamidieh III by indirect fire across the Gallipoli Peninsula, firing at 21,000 yards.
  • German casualty list published by French Press Bureau gives total of 3,000,000, including killed, wounded, and prisoners.

MAR. 7th, 1915

  • British air raid on Ost end by six aeroplanes; fifteen bombs dropped, doing great damage.
  • British Losses in Persia. Indian Office announces a force of 12,000 Turks and Arabs has inflicted a check on a British reconnoitring detachment in the Valley of the Tigris, 13 officers and 176 of the British and Indian rank and file, being killed or wounded.
  • In the Vosges the French capture two important heights near Munster.
  • In Dardanelles four French battleships cover the direct bombardment of the defences of the Narrows by H.M.S. Agamemnon and Lord Nelson. The French ships engage Mount Dardanos Battery and various concealed guns, silencing the former.

MAR. 8th, 1915

  • Greece and the War. Crisis still continuing, M. Zaimis declines the task of forming a Cabinet, while Greek people and Parliament support M. Venizelos, who resigned owing to King Constantine's unwillingness to declare war on side of Triple Entente.
  • In Champagne Germans attempt to retake captured woods west of Perthes, but repulsed, and French counter offensive gain ground towards the north and east. In the region of Perthes more than five hundred yards of trenches won by French.

MAR. 9th, 1915

  • National War Workshops. Mr Lloyd George announces that Government is taking powers to commandeer factories and divert them, if need be, to make munitions.
  • German submarines sink three British merchant ships.
  • Crisis in Greece relieved by new Ministry of M. Gounaris.
  • In the Uzsok-Munkacs region, Carpathians, Russians recapture trenches previously taken by Austrians officially described as “a desperate battle.”

MAR. 10th, 1915

  • Battle of Neuve Chapelle begins.
  • Striking British Advance in La Bassée region, village of Neuve Chapelle carried and 1,720 prisoners captured. German casualties very heavy.
  • French gain a valuable success in Champagne.
  • German submarine U12 rammed and sunk by British destroyer Ariel; 18 of enemy crew drowned, 10 captured.
  • German auxiliary cruiser Prince Eitel Friedrich puts into Newport News, Virginia, for repairs alter sinking U.S. grain ship.

MAR. 11th, 1915

  • French official communiqué regarding recent operations in Champagne states 10,000 Germans killed and 2,000 taken prisoners.

MAR. 12th, 1915

  • Despatch from Sir John French giving details of brilliant success achieved by British troops in capturing Neuve Chapelle on Mar 10th. All enemy's counter-attacks repulsed.
  • Following up success at Neuve Chapelle, British again advance a little towards Aubers.
  • Germans claim successes in great battle proceeding in Poland on a front from Prasnysch to Augustovo.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Corporal 8191 William Anderson, 2nd Battalion, The Yorkshire Regiment (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Corporal William Anderson, 2nd Battalion, The Yorkshire Regiment (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own). On 12th March 1915 at Neuve Chapelle, France, Corporal Anderson led three men with bombs against a large party of the enemy who had entered our trenches, and by his prompt and determined action saved what might have otherwise become a serious situation. Corporal Anderson first threw his own bombs, then those in the possession of the other men (all of whom had been wounded) amongst the Germans, after which he opened rapid fire upon them with great effect, notwithstanding that he was at the time quite alone.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 15518 Edward Barder, Grenadier Guards, 1st Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 15518 Private Edward Barber, 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards. On 12th March 1915 at Neuve Chapelle, France, Private Barber ran in front of the grenade company to which he belonged, and threw bombs on the enemy with such effect that a very great number of them surrendered at once. When the grenade party reached Private Barber, they found him alone and unsupported, with the enemy surrendering all about him. He was killed soon afterwards.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 6276 William BUCKINGHAM, Leicestershire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6276 Private William Buckingham, 2nd Battalion, The Leicestershire Regiment. For conspicuous acts of bravery and devotion to duty in rescuing and rendering aid to the wounded whilst exposed to heavy fire, especially at Neuve Chapelle on 10th and 12th March 1915.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Company Sergeant Major Harry Daniels, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 9665 Company Sergeant-Major Harry Daniels, 2nd Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own). No. 3697 Acting Corporal Cecil Reginald Noble, late 2nd Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own). For most conspicuous bravery on 12th March 1915 at Neuve Chapelle, France. When their battalion was impeded in the advance to the attack by wire entanglements, and subjected to a very severe machine-gun fire, these two men voluntarily rushed in front and succeeded in cutting the wires. They were both wounded at once, and Corporal Noble has since died of his wounds.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 15624 Wilfred Dolby FULLER, Grenadier Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lance-Corporal Wilfred Dolby Fuller, 1st Battalion, Grenadier Guards. On 12th March 1915 at Neuve Chapelle, France, Lance-Corporal Fuller saw a party of the enemy trying to escape along a communication trench. He ran towards them and killed the leading man with a bomb; the remainder (nearly 50) seeing no means of evading his bombs, all surrendered to him. Lance-Corporal Fuller was quite alone at the time.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Cyril Gordon MARTIN, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Cyril Gordon Martin, 56th Field Company, Corps of Royal Engineers. On 12th March 1915 at Spanbroek Molen, Belgium, Lieutenant Martin volunteered to lead a small bombing party against a section of the enemy trenches which was holding up the advance. Before he started he was wounded, but, taking no notice, he carried on with the attack which was completely successful. He and his small party held the trench against all counter-attacks for two and a half hours until a general withdrawal was ordered.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 3697 Cecil Reginald NOBLE, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3697 Acting Corporal Cecil Reginald Noble, late 2nd Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own). No. 9665 Company Sergeant-Major Harry Daniels, 2nd Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own). For most conspicuous bravery on 12th March 1915 at Neuve Chapelle, France. When their battalion was impeded in the advance to the attack by wire entanglements, and subjected to a very severe machine-gun fire, these two men voluntarily rushed in front and succeeded in cutting the wires. They were both wounded at once, and Corporal Noble has since died of his wounds.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 6016 Jacob RIVERS, Sherwood Foresters awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6016 Private Jacob Rivers, late 1st Battalion, The Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery at Neuve Chapelle on 12th March 1915, when he, on his own initiative, crept to within a few yards of a very large number of the enemy who were massed on the flank of an advanced company of his battalion, and hurled bombs on them. His action caused the enemy to retire, and so relieved the situation. Private Rivers performed a second act of great bravery on the same day, similar to the first-mentioned, again causing the enemy to retire. He was killed on this occasion.

MAR. 13th, 1915

  • Battle of Neuve Chapelle ends
  • Announced that H.M.S auxiliary cruiser Bayano torpedoed by German submarine; only 27 saved out of crew of 216.
  • French progress in Champagne continues on northern slopes of the ridge to north-east of Mesnil; 150 prisoners taken.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Serjeant 9539 Douglas Walter BELCHER, 1/5th (City of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (The London Rifle Brigade), awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: No. 9539 Lance-Sergeant Douglas Walter Belcher, 1-5th (City of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (London Rifle Brigade). On the early morning of 13th May 1915, when in charge of a portion of an advanced breastwork south of the Wieltje-St Julien Road during a very fierce and continuous bombardment by the enemy, which frequently blew in the breastwork, Lance-Sergeant Belcher with a mere handful of men elected to remain and endeavour to hold his position after the troops near him had been withdrawn. By his skill and great gallantry, he maintained his position during the day, opening rapid fire on the enemy, who were only 150 to 200 yards distant, whenever he saw them collecting for an attack. There is little doubt that the bold front shown by Lance-Sergeant Belcher prevented the enemy breaking through on the Wieltje Road, and averted an attack on the flank of one of our Divisions.

MAR. 14th, 1915

  • A train at Don Station blown up by British aircraft.
  • Sudden assault makes Russians masters of the enemy's positions near the village of Malkovice, in the Przemysl region; an Austrian battalion captured.
  • German cruiser Dresden sunk near Juan Fernandez Island by H.M.S. Glasgow, Kent, and the auxiliary cruiser Orama.

MAR. 15th, 1915

  • Important Speech by Lord Kitchener in the House of Lords, in which he reviews recent British progress, commends the Bill to commandeer factories for war work, and speaks most gravely of the arrears of output.
  • The “Real Blockade.”  Text of the Order-in-Council as a reply to Germany's piratical submarine campaign issued. The effect is as follows: No merchant vessel may proceed to or sail from a German port. Goods for German ports must be discharged in an allied port; if not contraband or requisitioned; they will be restored to the person who has forwarded them. Goods from German ports will be seized and sold, and the proceeds of sale retained till peace. Goods of German origin in neutral ships may be seized and sold

MAR. 16th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports that in recent fighting about Neuve Chapelle, German loss was between 17,000 and 18,000. A casualty list issued gives total of losses among British officers as 191 for the period of the Neuve Chapelle fighting.
  • Russians report advance on both flanks of their immense front. In Northern Poland they pushed some miles north of Prasnysch, capturing the tiny hamlet of Jednorozec after a fierce battle.
  • Escape of an interned German liner. Reported from Las Palmas that the Macedonia, which acted as collier and supply ship to the German commerce destroyers in the Atlantic, brought there in October by the Spanish warship Cataluna, has disappeared.

MAR. 17th, 1915

  • Russia's offensive in North Poland successfully continued; 17 German guns captured there.
  • First Battle of Champagne ends.
  • List of 119 officer casualties incurred in British success at Neuve Chapelle published. With four preceding lists, the total loss of officers amounts to 310.
  • Admiralty issues list of casualties sustained in the Dardanelles operations. Twenty-two of the crew of the Amethyst killed.
  • Conference of representatives of trade unions held at Treasury.
  • British Blockade Defined. A White Paper issued shows that American Ambassador asked Sir Edward Grey whether our reprisals are a blockade of Germany or not. Sir E. Grey replied that it is a blockade, “effectively controlling by cruiser cordon all passage to and from Germany by sea,” but we shall not exact from neutrals full penalties for breach of blockade.

MAR. 18th, 1915

  • French Staff reports further progress by Belgian Army on the Yser.
  • Appreciable gain made by French in Champagne, and trenches taken in the Consenvoye wood, north of Verdun.
  • Zeppelin attack on Calais, seven people killed.
  • First neutral vessel arrested by British cordon of cruisers under the Order-in-Council-the Swedish steamer Geheland, laden with cargo of provisions, alleged to be consigned to a German port.
  • Secretary of State for India publishes evidence of German intrigues in Persia and Afghanistan.
  • Fresh Russian invasion of Prussia. On the right bank of the Niemen battles raging near Tavroggen, and on German territory, on the roads from Garzda (on the frontier) to Memel.
  • Battle of the Narrows. An action between the combined squadrons of Great Britain and France and the great fortresses of the Narrows in the Dardanelles fought. Three vessels of Allied Fleet sunk by drifting mines-Irresistible and Ocean, of British Fleet, and the Bouvet of the French squadron; British casualties not heavy, but practically whole of crew of the Bouvet lost with ship.

MAR. 19th, 1915

  • Reported that Russians have occupied Memel, seaport in Northern Prussia.

MAR. 20th, 1915

  • Admiralty announce that there is every reason to believe that German light cruiser Karlsruhe was sunk in neighbourhood of the West Indies at the beginning of November.
  • German aeroplane appears over Deal, and drops bombs, which fall harmlessly into the sea.
  • New Chief of the General Staff.  Announced that Lieut-General Sir W. R. Robertson appointed Chief of General Staff.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 465 Albert JACKA, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 465 Lance-Corporal Albert Jacka, 14th Battalion, Australian Imperial Forces. For most conspicuous bravery on the night of the 19th-20th May 1915, at “Courtney's Post,” Gallipoli Peninsula. Lance-Corporal Jacka, while holding a portion of our trench with four other men, was heavily attacked. When all except himself were killed or wounded, the trench was rushed and occupied by seven Turks. Lance-Corporal Jacka at once most gallantly attacked them single-handed, and killed the whole party, five by rifle fire and two with the bayonet.

MAR. 21st, 1915

  • Zeppelin raid on Paris - Four German airships visit Paris early in morning, a few bombs dropped upon the north-west district, but only cause trifling damage.
  • Vosges Heights lost. French Alpine Chasseurs lose the Great and Little Reichackerkopf.
  • Russians take 3,954 men of the Przemysl garrison, which made an unsuccessful sortie from that fortress.
  • Occupation of port of Memel notified officially by Russians.
  • Lord Kitchener’s Grave Warning. At conclusion of review of troops at Liverpool, Lord Kitchener sends a letter to secretary of the Dock Labourers' Union, warning the workers against persistence in their refusal to work over-time.

MAR. 22nd, 1915

  • Fall of Przemysl. The great Austrian fortress surrenders after a six months' siege to General Selivanov. The prisoner’s number 126,000.
  • In the Argonne the French inflict two severe reverses on the enemy.
  • Important speech by Sir Edward Grey on the origin and objects of the war. One essential condition of peace, he says, must be the restoration of Belgian freedom and reparation to her.

MAR. 23rd, 1915

  • Russians withdraw from Memel.
  • First kite-balloon ship, H.M.S. Manica commissioned.
  • Turk raid on Suez Canal. Turkish force 1,000 strong attacked and routed by a British detachment under Sir G. Younghusband.

MAR. 24th, 1915

  • Naval air raid on Antwerp. Five machines of the Naval Wing operating from Dunkirk fly to Hoboken, a southern suburb of Antwerp, and bombard the submarine building.
  • In the Carpathians, Russian troops seize several fortified heights on the front between the roads leading to Bortfeld and Uzsok; 4,000 prisoners captured.

MAR. 25th, 1915

  • German submarine U29 sunk, with all hands. She was commanded by the officer who sunk the three Cressys, and had distinguished himself as “the polite pirate.”
  • Russians claim decisive success in the Carpathians, in the Lupkov Pass; 5,700 prisoners taken.
  • German submarine U28 sinks Dutch steamer Medea off Beachy Head.
  • King George pays a visit to Harwich and inspects the naval training establishment at Shotley, the training ship Ganges and the fortress and harbour.

MAR. 26th, 1915

  • French air raid on Metz. Six airmen bomb Metz station the German airship sheds at Frescaty, and the barracks east of Strasburg.
  • French carry and occupy a farm north of St. Georges in advance of their lines.

MAR. 27th, 1915

  • Capture of Hartmannsweilerkopf. In Alsace, after an energetic engagement lasting several days, French troops reach the summit of this important mountain, which is taken from Germans.
  • British liner Falaba torpedoed to the south of the St. George’s Channel by German submarine, and sinks in ten minutes. About 140 survivors picked up; 136 persons missing.

MAR. 28th, 1915

  • Black Sea Fleet bombards the outside forts and batteries of the Bosphorus, on both sides of the Straits.
  • The first passenger ship British S.S. Falaba sunk by a German submarine

MAR. 29th, 1915

  • Announced that General von Kluck, the commander of the First German Army, has been slightly wounded by shrapnel.
  • The War against Drink. Mr Lloyd George receives a deputation, representative of the leading shipbuilding firms who urge total prohibition during the war of the sale of liquor.
  • Great battle on the ice. Germans make prodigious efforts to envelop Russian right wing on the ice of Lake Doussia.

MAR. 30th, 1915

  • Home Secretary appoints a Committee to consider the conditions of retail trade in regard to the further enlistment of men.
  • French official communiqué states that 700 German bodies have been counted on the scene of the fighting in the Hartmannsweilerkopf.
  • General Hughes the Canadian Minister for Defence announces in Parliament that the Government is prepared to keep 50,000 Canadian troops in the firing-line throughout the war, if necessary.

MAR. 31st, 1915

  • German submarine U28 sinks British steamers Flaminian and Crown of Castile.
  • War against Drink. King George's letter to Mr Lloyd George expressing his “deepest concern” at “the grave situation” now existing in our armament factories published. The King adds that, if it is deemed advisable, he is prepared to set the example by giving up all alcoholic liquor himself, and issuing orders against its consumption in the Royal Household.
  • French airmen successfully bombard the maritime station of Bruges and the aviation camp of Gits.

APRIL 1915

APRIL  1st, 1915

  • Moonlight Raids by British Airmen. Flight –Sub Lieutenant F. G. Andreae carries out successful air attack on the German submarines which were being constructed at Hoboken, dropping four bombs. Flight-Lieutenant J. P. Wilson attacks two submarines a t Zeebrugge. Both these officers start in the moonlight.
  • Announced that Lord Kitchener has given instructions that during the rest of the war alcoholic drink not to be used in his household.

APRIL 2nd, 1915

  • Bulgarian raid into Serbia Bulgarian irregulars to the number of 2,000, wearing military uniforms, suddenly attack Serbian blockhouse at Volondova. The Government of Bulgaria gives suitable explanation to Serbia.

APRIL 3rd, 1915

  • Turkish cruiser Mejidieh strikes a mine near the Russian coast and sinks.
  • Union Forces seize Warmbad, the southern capital of German South West Africa.

APRIL 4th, 1915

  • French progress in the Woevre continued, capture of the village of Regnieville reported.

APRIL 5th, 1915

  • Russian Black Sea Fleet fights indecisive action with the Goeben and Breslau.
  • French take three lines of German trenches to south-east of St. Mihiel.
  • Russian progress in the Carpathians. Heavy defeat of Austrians at Bartfeld, south of the Dukla Pass.
  • Reply of the United States Government to the British Note regarding the Allies' reprisals against German trade published by Foreign Office.
  • Announced that the King has decided no alcoholic liquor shall be consumed in any of his Majesty's households during the war.

APRIL 6th, 1915

  • British mine a trench. Sir John French reports the successful explosion of a mine under the German trenches near La Bassée.

APRIL 7th, 1915

  • On both sides of the loop in their line east of the Meuse, near St. Mihiel, the French make splendid progress.
  • Austrians forced back across the main range of the Carpathians, and on a wide front forced to retreat twelve to fifteen miles.
  • First Indian units of Indian Expeditionary Force "G" sail from Egypt for the Dardanelles.

APRIL 8th, 1915

  • By a night attack a t Les Eparges, on the Heights of the Meuse, French troops make great progress, despite desperate resistance by the Germans, who leave over 1,000 dead on the field.

APRIL 9th, 1915

  • French capture Les Eparges, an important position dominating the Woevre plain.

APRIL 10th, 1915

  • Victoria Cross granted to Commander Henry Peel Ritchie, Royal Navy, for conspicuous bravery when in command of operations at Dar-es-Salaam.
  • The Russians report that the enemy's attacks, made in great strength, were repulsed, and that several heights towards the Uzsok Pass have been carried.

APRIL 11th, 1915

  • The German cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm arrives at Hampton Roads, Virginia.

APRIL 12th, 1915

  • In the direction of Stry Russians repulse attacks on the front, Rosochacy-Orawezyk-Kosziowa-Roriunka, inflicting enormous losses on the enemy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 10531 Robert MORROW, Royal Irish Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10531 Private Robert Morrow, 1st Battalion, The Royal Irish Fusiliers. On 12th April 1915 near Messines, Belgium, Private Morrow rescued and carried to places of comparative safety several men who had been buried in the debris of the trenches wrecked by shell fire. He carried out this work on his own initiative and under heavy fire from the enemy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Major George Godfrey Massy WHEELER, Indian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Major George Godfrey Massy Wheeler, 7th Hariana Lancers, Indian Army. On 12th April 1915 at Shaiba, Mesopotamia, Major Wheeler took out his squadron in an attempt to capture a flag which was the centre-point of a group of the enemy who were firing on one of our piquets. He advanced, attacked the enemy's infantry with the lance, and then retired while the enemy swarmed out of hidden ground, and formed an excellent target for the Royal Artillery guns. On 13th April Major Wheeler led his squadron to the attack of the North Mound. He was seen far ahead of his men, riding straight for the enemy's standards but was killed in the attack.

APRIL 13th, 1915

  • Rear-Admiral Hood's despatch published, describing the work of the Franco-British flotilla in checking the German advance on Calais. A number of officers and men are mentioned for gallantry, or for other exceptional service.
  • Russian victory near the Uzsok Pass. Announced from Petrograd that after an extremely desperate fight, the heights in the region of the villages of Bukowiec, Beniowa (respectively five and four miles north of the Uzsok Pass), and Wssokonizy fell into our ally’s hands, who captured 2,700 prisoners, including 53 officers, a gun, and 20 machine-guns
  • Committee for Munitions of War. Appointment of a strong committee, under the chairmanship of Mr Lloyd George, with full powers to deal with the problem of national output of munitions of war.

APRIL 14th, 1915

  • Zeppelin Raid oil Tyneside. Hostile airship drops bombs on Blyth, Wallsend, and Hebburn. No lives are lost, and little material damage done.
  • Germans accuse French of using poison gas near Verdun

APRIL 15th, 1915

  • Despatch on Battle of Neuve Chapelle. Field-Marshal Sir John French’s despatch describing in detail this battle (March 10-12), and the combat at St. Eloi (March 14-17), published. The British losses were 12,811 (killed 2,527, wounded 8,533, missing 1,751).
  • French success near Arras. The whole spur south-east of Notre Dame de Lorette carried with the bayonet by French troops.
  • Allied squadron of 15 aeroplanes drops bombs with complete success on German military buildings at Ostend.
  • Announced that Lieut. W. G. C. Gladstone, M.P., a grandson of Mr W. E., Gladstone, killed in action.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Charles POPE, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Charles Pope, late 11th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, on 15th April 1917 at Louveral, France, when in command of a very important picquet post in the sector held by his battalion, his orders being to hold this post at all costs. After the picquet post had been heavily attacked, the enemy in greatly superior numbers surrounded the post. Lieutenant Pope, finding that he was running short of ammunition, sent back for further supplies. But the situation culminated before it could arrive, and in the hope of saving the position, this very gallant Officer was seen to charge with his piquet into a superior force, by which it was overpowered. By his sacrifice Lieutenant Pope not only inflicted heavy loss on the enemy, but obeyed his order to hold the position to the last. His body, together with those of most of his men, was found in close proximity to eighty enemy dead – a sure proof of the gallant resistance which had been made.

APRIL 16th, 1915

  • German Air Raid on the English East Coast. Bombs dropped on Lowestoft and other places.
  • A German Taube drops bombs on Faversham and Sittingbourne.

APRIL 17th, 1915

  • Victory in Persian Gulf Officially announced that a severe defeat has been inflicted upon a Turkish force of 15,000 men by the British and Indian troops near Zobier.
  • Reported that Union troops under Colonel Duncan Mackenzie reached Brakwasser, 120 miles east of Luderitz Bay, in German South West Africa.
  • British Submarine E15 stranded off Kephez Point, in the Dardanelles. Officers and men reported prisoners in Turkey.
  • British transport Manitou attacked in the Egean by a Turkish torpedo-boat, which is chased, driven ashore, destroyed, and her crew captured.
  • Capture of Hill 60 (Ypres)

APRIL 18th, 1915

  • Heroic feat in Dardanelles. British submarine E15, stranded on April I 7, destroyed by picket boats from Triumph and Majestic, in face of heavy Turkish fire, to prevent her falling into hands of enemy.
  • Notable British Success near Ypres. A successful action, commencing on April 17, culminates in the capture and complete occupation of an important point known as Hill 60, about two miles south of Zillebeke, east of Ypres.

APRIL 19th, 1915

  • French progress in Alsace. Attacks carried out on both banks of the Fecht increases French advance by forcing the enemy to evacuate Eselsbrucke, above Metzeral.

APRIL 20th, 1915

  • Neuve Chapelle V.C.’s. Announced that two men of the Grenadier Guards awarded V.C. for bravery at Neuve Chapelle, also three other V.C. awards for gallantry earlier in the campaign.
  • Mr Asquith's Speech on Munitions. The Premier addresses the war workers at Newcastle.
  • Mr Lloyd George announces in House of Commons that Lord Kitchener is very gratified by the response which has been made to the appeal to the country, and intimates that the Government considers conscription unnecessary.
  • Artillery duels on the French front reported. Fifty incendiary shells dropped on Rheims.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 10523 Edward DWYER, East Surrey Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10523 Private Edward Dwyer, 1st Battalion, The East Surrey Regiment. On 20th April 1915 at Hill 60, Belgium, when his trench was heavily attacked by German grenade-throwers, Private Dwyer climbed on to the parapet and although subjected to a hail of bombs at close quarters, succeeded in dispersing the enemy by the effective use of hand-grenades. Earlier in the day he had left his trench under heavy shell-fire to bandage his wounded comrades.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant George Rowland Patrick ROUPELL, East Surrey Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant George Rowland Patrick Roupell, 1st Battalion, The East Surrey Regiment. On April 20th 1915, when he was commanding a company of his battalion in a front trench on “Hill 60,” Belgium, which was subjected to a most severe bombardment throughout the day. Though wounded in several places, he remained at his post and led his company in repelling a strong German assault. During a lull in the bombardment he had his wounds hurriedly dressed, and then insisted in returning to his trench, which was again being subjected to severe bombardment. Towards evening, his company being dangerously weakened, he went back to his battalion headquarters, represented the situation to his Commanding Officer, and brought up reinforcements, passing backwards and forwards over ground swept by heavy fire. With these reinforcements he held his position throughout the night, and until his battalion was relieved next morning. This young Officer was one of the few survivors of his company, and showed a magnificent example of courage, devotion and tenacity, which undoubtedly inspired his men to hold out till the end.

APRIL 21st, 1915

  • Announced that Keetmanshoop, a central position in German South-West Africa, has been occupied by the Union forces.
  • Mr Lloyd George states in the House of Commons that the British armies now in France are more than six times the six divisions of which the Expeditionary Force was originally composed.
  • A bold and successful aeroplane attack made on the German airship harbour shed at Ghent.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Benjamin Handley GEARY, East Surrey Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Benjamin Handley Geary, 4th Battalion, The East Surrey Regiment, attached 1st Battalion. On 20th and 21st April 1915 on Hill 60 near Ypres, Belgium, Second Lieutenant Geary led his men across exposed open ground swept by fierce enemy fire to join survivors of the Bedfordshire Regiment in a crater at the top of the hill, which he held against artillery and bomb attacks during the evening and night. Each attack was repulsed mainly owing to the fine example and personal gallantry of Second Lieutenant Geary. He deliberately exposed himself to enemy fire in order to see by the light of flares the whereabouts of the enemy. He was severely wounded early on 21st April.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Geoffrey Harold WOOLLEY, London Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Geoffrey Harold Woolley, 9th (County of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (Queen Victoria's Rifles). During the night of 20th/21st April 1915 on Hill 60, Belgium, Second Lieutenant Woolley was the only officer on the hill at the time, but with very few men he successfully resisted all attacks on his trench, and continued throwing bombs and encouraging his men until relieved. His trench during all this time was being heavily shelled and bombed.

APRIL 22nd, 1915

APRIL 23rd, 1915

  • New battle for Calais. Germans launch sudden attack to north of Ypres and make considerable advance, due to use of asphyxiating bombs.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 24066 Frederick FISHER, Canadian Infantry (Quebec Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 24066 Lance-Corporal Frederick Fisher, 13th Canadian Battalion. On 23rd April 1915, in the neighbourhood of St Julien, he went forward with the machine-gun, of which he was in charge, under heavy fire, and most gallantly assisted in covering the retreat of a battery, losing four men of his gun team. Later, after obtaining four more men, he went forward again to the firing line and was himself killed while bringing his machine-gun into action under very heavy fire, in order to cover the advance of supports.

APRIL 24th, 1915

  • Canadians save the situation. War Office announces that the fight for the ground between Steenstraate and Langemarck laid bare left of Canadian Division and four Canadian 4.7 in. guns passed into hands of enemy. Some hours later the Canadians made most brilliant and successful advance, recapturing these guns, and in the official words, “saved the situation.”
  • French and Belgians recover Lizerne, the village on west side of Yser Canal.
  • Battle of St. Julien (Ypres) begins
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Edward Donald BELLOW, 7th Battalion, British Columbia Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Edward Donald Bellew, 7th Canadian Infantry Battalion. (British Columbia Regiment). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty near Keerselaere, Belgium on 24th April 1915, during the German attack on the Ypres salient. Captain (then Lieutenant) Bellew, as Battalion Machine Gun Officer, had two guns in action on the high ground overlooking Keerselaere. The enemy's attack broke in full force on the morning of the 24th against the front and right flank of the Battalion – the latter being exposed owing to a gap in the line. The right company was soon put out of action, but the advance was temporarily stayed by Captain Bellew, who had sited his guns on the left of the right Company. Reinforcements were sent forward but they in turn were surrounded and destroyed. With the enemy in strength less than 100 yards from him, with no further assistance in sight, and with his rear threatened, Captain Bellew and Serjeant Peerless, each operating a gun, decided to stay where they were and fight it out. Serjeant Peerless was killed and Captain Bellew was wounded and fell. Nevertheless, he got up and maintained his fire till ammunition failed and the enemy rushed the position. Captain Bellew then seized a rifle, smashed his machine-gun, and fighting to the last, was taken prisoner.

APRIL 25th, 1915

  • Landing at the Dardanelles. A large allied force successfully lands on the Gallipoli Peninsula.
  • Bosphorus Forts bombarded by the Russian Black Sea Fleet.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Major Cuthbert BROMLEY, Lancashire Fusiliers, 1st Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: - His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Major Cuthbert Bromley, 1st Battalion, The Lancashire Fusiliers. On 25th April 1915 west of Cape Helles, Gallipoli, three companies and the Headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, when landing on W. Beach, were met by a very deadly fire from hidden machine-guns which caused a large number of casualties. The survivors, however, rushed up and cut the wire entanglements notwithstanding the terrific fire from the enemy and after overcoming supreme difficulties, the cliffs were gained and the position maintained. (Major Bromley was one of six members of the Regiment elected for this award.)
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Midshipman George Leslie DREWRY, Royal Naval Reserve awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Midshipman George Leslie Drewry, Royal Naval Reserve. REGISTER OF VICTORIA CROSS CITATION: On 25th April 1915 during the landing at V Beach, Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Midshipman Drewry and three others of HMS River Clyde, assisted the commander of the ship at the work of securing the lighters under a very heavy rifle and Maxim fire. He was wounded in the head, but continued his work and twice subsequently attempted to swim from lighter to lighter with a line.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 2609 John Elisha GRIMSHAW, Lancashire Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Corporal John Elisha Grimshaw, 1st Battalion, The Lancashire Fusiliers. On 25th April 1915 west of Cape Helles, Gallipoli, three companies and the Headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, when landing on W Beach, were met by a very deadly fire from hidden machine-guns which caused a large number of casualties. The survivors, however, rushed up and cut the wire entanglements notwithstanding the terrific fire from the enemy and after overcoming supreme difficulties, the cliffs were gained and the position maintained.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 1809 William KENEALY, Lancashire Fusiliers, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Private 1809 William Kenealy on the 25th April, 1915, three Companies and the Headquarters of the 1st Battalion Lancashire Fusiliers, in effecting a landing on the Gallipoli Peninsula to the West of Cape Helles, were met by a very deadly fire from hidden machine guns which caused a great number of casualties. The survivors, however, rushed up to and cut the wire entanglements, notwithstanding the terrific fire from the enemy, and, after overcoming supreme difficulties, the cliffs were gained and the position maintained. Amongst the many very gallant Officers and men engaged in this most hazardous undertaking, Captain Willis, Serjeant Richards and Private Keneally have been selected by their comrades as having performed the most signal acts of bravery and devotion to duty.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Midshipman Wilfred St Aubyn MALLESON, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Midshipman Wilfred St Aubyn Malleson, Royal Navy. On 25th April 1915 during the landing at V Beach, Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Midshipman Malleson and three others of HMS River Clyde assisted the commander of the ship at the work of securing the lighters under very heavy rifle and Maxim fire. When the other midshipman with the party had failed, through sheer exhaustion to get a line from lighter to lighter, Midshipman Malleson swam with it himself and succeeded. The line subsequently broke and he afterwards made two further attempts at his self-imposed task.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 1293 Alfred Fletcher RICHARDS, Lancashire Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On 25 April 1915 west of Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Turkey, three companies and the Headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, when landing on W Beach, were met by deadly fire from hidden machine-guns which caused many casualties. The survivors, however, rushed up and cut the wire entanglements, notwithstanding the terrific fire from the enemy and, after overcoming supreme difficulties, the cliffs were gained and the position maintained.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Petty Officer O.N.2408A George McKenzie SAMSON, R.N.R awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Seaman R.N.R. George McKenzie Samson, O.N. 2408A. On 25th April 1915 during the landing on V Beach, Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Seaman Samson, with three other men was assisting the commander of their ship, HMS River Clyde at the work of securing the lighters. He worked all day under very heavy fire, attending wounded and getting out lines. He was eventually dangerously wounded by Maxim fire.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Francis Alexander Caron SCRIMGER, Canadian Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Francis Alexander Caron Scrimger, Canadian Army Medical Service, Medical Officer, 14th Battalion, Royal Montreal Regiment. On the afternoon of 25th April 1915, in the neighbourhood of Ypres, when in charge of an advanced dressing station in some farm buildings, which were being heavily shelled by the enemy, he directed under heavy fire the removal of the wounded, and he himself carried a severely wounded Officer out of a stable in search of a place of greater safety. When he was unable alone to carry this Officer further, he remained with him under fire till help could be obtained. During the heavy fighting between 22nd and 25th April, Captain Scrimger displayed continuously day and night the greatest devotion to his duty among the wounded at the front.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 1506 Frank Edward STUBBS, Lancashire Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1506 Serjeant Frank Edward Stubbs, 1st Battalion, The Lancashire Fusiliers. On 25th April 1915 west of Cape Helles, Gallipoli, three companies and the Headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, when landing on West Beach, were met by a very deadly fire from hidden machine-guns which caused a large number of casualties. The survivors, however, rushed up and cut the wire entanglements notwithstanding the terrific fire from the enemy and after overcoming supreme difficulties, the cliffs were gained and the position maintained. (Serjeant Stubbs was one of six members of the Regiment elected for the award of the Victoria Cross).
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sub Lieutenant Arthur Walderne St Clair TISDALL, R.N.V.R awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - During the landing from the SS River Clyde at V Beach in the Gallipoli Peninsula on the 25th April 1915, Sub-Lieutenant Tisdall, hearing wounded men on the beach calling for assistance, jumped into the water and, pushing a boat in front of him, went to their rescue. He was, however, obliged to obtain help, and took with him on two trips Leading Seaman Malia and on other trips Chief Petty Officer Perring and Leading Seamen Curtiss and Parkinson. In all Sub-Lieutenant Tisdall made four or five trips between the ship and the shore, and was thus responsible for rescuing several wounded men under heavy and accurate fire. Owing to the fact that Sub-Lieutenant Tisdall and the platoon under his orders were on detached service at the time, and that this Officer was killed in action on the 6th May, it has only now been possible to obtain complete information as to the individuals who took part in this gallant act. Of these, Leading Seaman Fred Curtiss, O.N. Dev. 1899 has been missing since the 4th June 1915.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Commander Edward Unwin, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On 25 April 1915 during the landing at V beach, Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Commander Unwin of HMS River Clyde left the ship and under murderous fire attempted, with the help of four other men to get the lighters into position. He worked until, suffering from the effects of cold and immersion he was obliged to return to the ship for treatment. He then returned to his work against the doctor's orders and completed it. He was later attended by the doctor for three wounds, but once more left the ship, this time in a life-boat, and rescued three men, wounded, in the shallow water.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Garth Neville WALFORD, Royal Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Garth Neville Walford, Brigade Major, Royal Artillery, Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. On 26th April 1915, subsequent to a landing having been effected on the beach at a point on the Gallipoli Peninsula, during which both Brigadier-General and Brigade Major had been killed, Lieutenant-Colonel Doughty-Wylie and Captain Walford organised and led an attack through and on both sides of the village of Sedd-el-Bahr on the Old Castle at the top of the hill inland. The enemy's position was very strongly held and entrenched, and defended with concealed machine-guns and pom-poms. It was mainly due to the initiative, skill and great gallantry of these two Officers that the attack was a complete success. Both were killed in the moment of victory.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Able Seaman William Charles Williams, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Able Seaman William Charles Williams, O.N. 186774 (R.F.R. B.3766) (since killed). On 25th April 1915 during the landing on V Beach, Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Able Seaman Williams with three other men was assisting the commander of their ship, HMS River Clyde at the work of securing the lighters. He held on to a rope for over an hour, standing chest deep in the sea, under continuous fire. He was eventually dangerously wounded and later killed by a shell whilst his rescue was being affected by the commander who described him as the bravest sailor he had ever met.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Richard Raymond WILLIS, Lancashire Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Richard Raymond Willis, 1st Battalion, The Lancashire Fusiliers. On 25th April 1915 west of Cape Helles, Gallipoli, three companies and the Headquarters of the 1st Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers, when landing on W Beach, were met by a very deadly fire from hidden machine-guns which caused a large number of casualties. The survivors, however, rushed up and cut the wire entanglements notwithstanding the terrific fire from the enemy and after overcoming supreme difficulties, the cliffs were gained and the position maintained. (Captain Willis was one of the six members of the regiment elected for the award.)

APRIL 26th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports severe fighting north-cast of Ypres.
  • British take the offensive, and make progress near St. Julien. The French retake Het Sas.
  • British airmen bomb successfully stations and junctions at Tourcoing, Staden, Roubaix, Langemarck, Roulers, Ingelmunster, and Thielt.
  • In the Vosges the Germans succeed in setting foot on the summit of the Hartmannsweilerkopf.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 8980 William COSGROVE, Royal Munster Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On 26th April 1915, east of Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Corporal Cosgrove led his section during the attack on the Turkish position. The corporal pulled down the posts of the enemy's high wire entanglements single-handed, notwithstanding the terrific fire from both front and flanks. This action greatly assisted in the successful clearing of the heights.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hotham Montagu Doughty-Wylie, Royal Welsh Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant-Colonel Charles Hotham Montagu Doughty-Wylie, C.B., C.M.G., Headquarters Staff, Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. On 26th April 1915, subsequent to a landing having been effected on the beach at a point on the Gallipoli Peninsula, during which both Brigadier-General and Brigade Major had been killed, Lieutenant-Colonel Doughty-Wylie and Captain Walford organised and led an attack through and on both sides of the village of Sedd-el-Bahr on the Old Castle at the top of the hill inland. The enemy's position was very strongly held and entrenched, and defended with concealed machine-guns and pom-poms. It was mainly due to the initiative, skill and great gallantry of these two Officers that the attack was a complete success. Both were killed in the moment of victory.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant William Barnard RHODES-MOORHOUSE, Royal Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant William Barnard Rhodes-Moorhouse, 2 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. On 26th April 1915 at Courtrai, Belgium, Second Lieutenant Rhodes-Moorhouse swept low over the rail junction which he had been ordered to attack. He released his 100lb bomb, but was immediately plunged into a heavy barrage of small arms fire from rifles and a machine-gun in the belfry of Courtrai Church; he was severely wounded by a bullet in his thigh and his plane was also badly hit. Returning to the Allied lines, he again ran into heavy fire from the ground and was wounded twice more. He managed to get his aircraft back, and insisted on making his report before being taken to the Casualty Clearing Station where he died the next day.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Corporal 168 Issy SMITH, Manchester Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On 26th April 1915 at St. Julien, Belgium, Corporal Smith left his company on his own initiative and went forward towards the enemy's position to help a severely wounded man, whom he carried a distance of 250 yards into safety. When casualties were very heavy later in the day Corporal Smith again displayed great gallantry in helping to bring in more wounded men and attending them, regardless of personal risk.

APRIL 27th, 1915

  • French recapture summit of HartmannsweiIerkopf, and advance 200 yards down the eastern s lope.
  • Dardanelles Land Fighting. Announced that after a day's hard fighting in difficult country, troops in the Gallipoli Peninsula under Sir Ian Hamilton made good their footing with the effective help of the Navy.
  • French official report states that French troops co-operated at Kum Kale, on the Asiatic coast of Dardanelles. Occupied the village, and held their ground there, notwithstanding seven counter-attacks delivered by the enemy. They took 500 Turkish prisoners.
  • Mr Asquith on Reparation. In House of Commons the Premier states that “when we come to the end of this war, we shall not forget this horrible record of calculated cruelty and crime, and we shall hold it to be our duty to exact such reparation against those who are proved to be the guilty agents as it may be possible for us to do.”
  • Lord Kitchener, in House of Lords, also vigorously condemns German conduct in respect of British prisoners.
  • French armoured cruiser Leon Gambetta sunk by Austrian submarine at entrance to the Otranto Straits. Rear-Admiral Senes and nearly 600 of crew perish.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant-Commander Edward Courtney BOYLE, Royal Navy, HM Submarine E14 awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant-Commander Edward Courtney Boyle, Royal Navy. On 27th April 1915 in the Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles, Lieutenant-Commander Boyle, in command of Submarine E.14, dived his vessel under the enemy mine-fields and in spite of great navigational difficulties from strong currents and the presence of hostile patrols waiting to attack, he continued, during the next two weeks, to operate in the narrow waters of the straits and succeeded in sinking two Turkish gunboats and one military transport.

APRIL 28th, 1915

  • German offensive definitely stopped. Sir John French announces that allied operations definitely stopped the German attack, and no Germans now west of Yser Canal, except at Steenstraate, where they have established a small bridge-head. In resisting allied counter-attacks, Germans again made use of asphyxiating gases.
  • First Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles)

APRIL 29th, 1915

  • French, in co-operation with Belgian troops, make progress in Belgium towards the north. On the right bank of the Yser Canal 150 prisoners and two machine-guns taken.
  • Mr Lloyd George introduces into House of Commons the Government drink proposals. They include increased taxation of spirits, heavy beers, and wines, and powers to control the sale of intoxicants in certain districts.

APRIL 30th, 1915

  • Zeppelin raid on the East Coast. Several incendiary bombs dropped in Ipswich and Bury St. Edmunds, doing heavy damage.

MAY 1915

MAY 1st, 1915

  • Announced that allied troops at the Dardanelles have established themselves firmly at three separate points, two on the European and one on the Asiatic coast.
  • Two German torpedo-boats and one British destroyer sunk off the Dutch coast.
  • Continued success of General Botha's campaign in German South West Africa reported. Enemy dispersed near Gibeon and pursued twenty miles.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal Po./S. 299 Walter Richard PARKER, Royal Marine Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 7602 Edward WARNER, Bedfordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 7602 Private Edward Warner, 1st Battalion, The Bedfordshire Regiment. On 1st May 1915 near Hill 60, Ypres, Belgium, when a trench had been vacated by our troops after a gas attack, Private Warner entered it alone in order to prevent the enemy taking possession. Reinforcements were sent to him but could not reach him owing to the gas. However he then went back and brought more men, by which time he was completely exhausted, but the trench was held until the enemy attack ceased. Private Warner died shortly afterwards from the effects of gas poisoning.

MAY 2nd, 1915

  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 1272 John LYNN, Lancashire Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 1272 Private John Lynn, 2nd Battalion, The Lancashire Fusiliers. On 2nd May 1915 near Ypres, Belgium, when the Germans were advancing behind their wave of asphyxiating gas, Private Lynn, although almost overcome by the deadly fumes, handled his machine-gun with great effect against the enemy, and when he could not see them, he moved his gun higher up the parapet so that he could fire more effectively. This eventually checked any further advance and the outstanding courage displayed by this soldier had a great effect upon his comrades in the very trying circumstances. Private Lynn died later from the effects of gas poisoning.

MAY 3rd, 1915

  • More German attacks at Ypres. Sir John French reports enemy attacked Hill 60, using asphyxiating gas and near St. Julien.
  • Reported Russian check. The German headquarters claim to have inflicted a great defeat on the Russians in Western Galicia, and to have pierced “their entire front” and crushed it.

MAY 4th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports the British Line in Flanders has been readjusted, and now runs to the west of Zonnebeke. He is of opinion that the enemy has definitely decided to use asphyxiating gas as a normal procedure, and that protests will be useless.
  • French troops gain ground at Bagatelle, in the Argonne, and push north in the Bois-Ie-Pretre, on the southern flank of the St. Mihiel wedge.
  • Allies advance in Gallipoli.
  • Second War Budget introduced in the House of Commons. Mr Lloyd George foreshadows a possible expenditure of £1,132,654,000, but announces no further new taxation.
  • Heavy Turkish defeat in Persia reported. Russians in the Khoi and Dilman region completely rout enemy after three days fighting. More than 3,500 Turkish dead found on the battlefield.
  • Battle of St. Julien (Ypres) ends (see April 24th)

MAY 5th, 1915

  • Renewed Battle for Hill 60. The Germans obtain a footing under cover of poisonous gases and favoured by weather conditions.
  • Owing to the great strength of the enemy in Western Galicia some Russian units fall back to the second line.
  • Reported ultimatum by Japan to China as a result of the irreconcilable attitude adopted by latter since Japan modified certain demands, she made in January last.
  • Heavy Canadian losses. Announced in Parliament that casualties in Princess Patricia's Regiment up to May 2 were 20 officers and 308 other ranks.  In the Canadian Division the numbers were: Officers, 232; other ranks, 6,024.
  • British recapture some of lost trenches on Hill 60, southeast of Ypres.

MAY 6th, 1915

  • Announced that German Commander in South – West Africa admitted in a letter to General Botha that orders have been given to poison wells.
  • Second Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles) begins.
  • Officially announced that General Botha has occupied the important railway junction of Karibib (German South West Africa).
  • Desperate battle in Galicia continues. Russian troops “severely tried owing to the superiority of the enemy’s heavy artillery.”

MAY 7th, 1915

  • S.S. Lusitania Torpedoed and Sunk. Giant Cunarder torpedoed by German submarine about ten miles south of Kinsale. 1,134 lives lost.
  • While operating off Belgian coast the torpedo-boat destroyer Maori strikes a mine two miles north-west of Weilingen Lightship. H.M.S. Crusader lowers her boats to assist in picking up crew of Maori, but owing to enemy’s fire has to leave her boats and retire. Crew of Maori and boats' crews of Crusader taken prisoners.

MAY 8th, 1915

MAY 9th, 1915

  • British forward movement. The First Army attacks the enemy's lines between the Bois Grenier and Festubert, and gains ground south-east towards Fromelles.
  • Important French advance. Our allies' troops just south of the British lines go forward south of Carency three miles on a front of about five miles.
  • Capture of Libau, on Baltic coast, by Germans admitted by Russians.
  • Zeppelin Raid on Southend. Early in morning a Zeppelin attack made on Southend; ninety bombs dropped in the town, and fifty more in the vicinity, one woman killed, and two persons injured.
  • French gains to north of Arras maintained, notably between Carency and Souchez. Total numbers of prisoners exceed 3,000.
  • In the House of Commons Mr Churchill states that the Admiralty sent a warning to the Lusitania and directions for her course. Both messages were acknowledged, the second message shortly before the attack. No escort was sent.
  • Allied Spring Offensive begins: Battle of Aubers Ridge.
  • Second Battle of Artois begins (see June 18th).
  • British in great battle. One of the greatest battles of the war raging about Ypres and down the line. Sir John French reports that enemy, under cover of poisonous gases, made attack east of Ypres in neighbourhood of the Menin road. Our shrapnel inflicted very heavy casualties on the enemy when in massed formation, “literally mowing them down.”
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 1780 David FINDLAY, Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lance-Corporal David Finlay, 2nd Battalion, The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders). On 9th May 1915 near Rue du Bois, France, Lance-Corporal Finlay led a bombing party of 12 men in the attack until 10 of them had fallen. He then ordered the two survivors to crawl back and he himself went to the assistance of a wounded man and carried him over a distance of 10 yards of fire-swept ground into cover, quite regardless of his own safety.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 2832 John RIPLEY, Black Watch awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2832 Corporal John Ripley, 1st Battalion, The Black Watch (Royal Highlanders). On 9th May 1915 at Rue du Bois, France, Corporal Ripley led his section on the right of the platoon in the assault and was the first man of the battalion to climb the enemy's parapet. From there he directed those following him to the gaps in the German wire entanglements. He then led his section through a breach in the parapet to a second line of trench. With seven or eight men he established himself, blocking other flanks, and continued to hold the position until all his men had fallen and he himself was badly wounded in the head.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Lance Corporal 7942 Charles Richard SHARPE, Lincolnshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 7942 Acting Corporal Charles Richard Sharpe, 2nd Battalion, The Lincolnshire Regiment. On 9th May 1915 at Rouges Bancs, France, Corporal Sharpe was in charge of a blocking party sent forward to take a portion of the German trench. He was the first to reach the enemy's position and using bombs with great effect he himself cleared them out of a trench 50 yards long. By this time all his party had fallen and he was then joined by four other men with whom he attacked the enemy with bombs and captured a further trench 250 yards long.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 10082 James UPTON, (Nottinghamshire And Derbyshire Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10082 Corporal James Upton, 1st Battalion, The Sherwood Foresters (The Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment). On 9th May 1915 at Rouges Bancs, France, Corporal Upton displayed great courage all day in rescuing the wounded while exposed to very heavy rifle and artillery fire, going close to the enemy's parapet regardless of his own safety. One wounded man was killed by a shell while the corporal was carrying him. When not actually carrying the wounded he was engaged in dressing and bandaging the serious cases in front of our parapet.

MAY 11th, 1915

  • Growing resentment against Germans in Great Britain as a result of the Lusitania outrage. German shops wrecked in London and provinces. Troops called out.

MAY 12th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports the repulse of a German attack east of Ypres. This attack, he pointed out, was the third costly failure experienced by the enemy.
  • Anti-German riots in London and elsewhere. Many shops wrecked. At Southend military called out.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Charles Calveley FOSS, Bedfordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Charles Calveley Foss, 2nd Battalion, The Bedfordshire Regiment. On 12th March 1915 at Neuve Chapelle, France, after the enemy had captured a part of one of our trenches and a counter-attack made with one officer and 20 men had failed (all but two of the party having been killed or wounded in the attempt) Captain Foss on his own initiative dashed forward with only eight men under heavy fire and attacked the enemy with bombs and captured the position and the 52 Germans occupying it.

MAY 13th, 1915

  • Announced that United States has decided to send a Note in severe terms to Germany, demanding that sinking of merchant and passenger vessels shall cease.
  • Conquest of German South-West Africa. General Botha enters Windhoek at the head of Union forces.
  • H.M.S. Goliath torpedoed in Dardanelles Straits. Five hundred lives lost. About 20 officers and 160 men saved.
  • E14 reports sinking of two Turkish gunboats and a transport.
  • Continued French progress. The whole village of Carency and the wood north of it have been carried by assault.

MAY 14th, 1915

  • Fresh French success south-west of Souchez, and about six miles from the railway centre of Lens.
  • Italian Cabinet resigns. Many demonstrations in favour of war take place in Italy.
  • Petrograd, admitting the retirement of the Russian armies in West Galicia, reports that a defensive concentration on the banks of the River San is being carried out.
  • Kaiser's Garter Banners and Insignia removed from choir of St, George's Chapel, Windsor. Together with the Austrian Emperor and other enemy sovereigns he has been expelled from the Order.

MAY 15th, 1915

  • United States Note to Germany. The full text published. It is a strongly-expressed warning against the recurrence- of such outrages as the sinking of the Lusitania
  • Battle of Festubert begins (see 25th)
  • Reported resignation of Lord Fisher, First Sea Lord.

MAY 16th, 1915

  • British break German line. Sir John French reports First Army made successful attack between Richebourg I'Avoue and Festubert (north-west of La Bassée), breaking the enemy's line over the greater part of a two-mile front.
  • French advance continues.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Company Sergeant Major 3902 Frederick BARTER, Royal Welsh Fusiliers, Special Reserve, attached 1st Battalion, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: On 16th May 1915 at Festubert, France, Company Sergeant-Major Barter, when in the first line of German trenches, called for volunteers to enable him to extend our line, and with the eight men who responded, he attacked the German position with bombs, capturing three German officers, 102 men and 500 yards of their trenches. He subsequently found and cut 11 of the enemy's mine leads situated about 20 yards apart.

MAY 17th, 1915

  • Zeppelin raid on Ramsgate, forty or fifty bombs dropped. The aircraft appears later over Dover Harbour.

MAY 18th, 1915

  • Germans bombard Przemysl with intense artillery fire.
  • Lord Kitchener's Review of War. In House of Lords the Secretary of State for War announces that our troops must be adequately protected from asphyxiating gases by the use of similar methods. He also announces that 300,000 more recruits are required.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant John George SMYTH, 15th Ludhiana Sikhs awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant John George Smyth, 15th Ludhiana Sikhs, Indian Army. On 18th May 1915 near Richebourg L'Aouve, France, with a volunteer bombing party of 10 men, Lieutenant Smyth conveyed a supply of 96 bombs to within 20 yards of the enemy's position over exceptionally dangerous ground, after the attempts of two other parties had failed. Lieutenant Smyth succeeded in taking the bombs to the desired position with the help of two of his men (the other eight having been killed or wounded). To achieve this purpose he had to swim a stream, being exposed the whole time to howitzer, shrapnel, machine-gun and rifle fire.

MAY 19th, 1915

  • Political Crisis, Premier announces that the Government is to be reconstructed.
  • Government requests stewards of the Jockey Club to suspend all race meetings, with the exception of Newmarket.

MAY 20th, 1915

  • The Italian Chamber gives its approval to the declarations of the Government, which is interpreted as security for the Government and a free hand for the prosecution of war against Austria-Hungary and Germany.
  • Check to advance of the Austro-German Army from the Lines of the Dunajec. The Russians report having fallen back to the defences of the San.

MAY 21st, 1915

  • French victory.  An attack by our ally on the southern slopes of Notre Dame de Lorette has brilliant results.
  • Italy and war. By the enormous majority of 262 votes to 2 Italian Senate passes the Government Bill providing for the measures necessary in the event of war.

MAY 22nd, 1915

  • Disaster to British troop train conveying the 7th Royal Scots southwards, which collides with a local train near Gretna, and Scottish express from Euston dashes into mass of debris. Over 200 killed and many injured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Rifleman A/2052 William MARINER, King’s Royal Rifle Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2052 Private William Mariner, 2nd Battalion, The King's Royal Rifle Corps. During a violent thunderstorm, on the night of 22nd May 1915, he left his trench near Cambria, France, and crept out through the German wire entanglements till he reached the emplacement of a German machine-gun which had been damaging our parapets and hindering our working parties. After climbing on the top of the German parapet he threw a bomb in under the roof of the gun emplacement and heard some groaning and the enemy running away. After about a quarter of an hour he heard some of them coming back again, and climbed up on the other side of the emplacement and threw another bomb among them left-handed. He then lay still while the Germans opened a heavy fire on the wire entanglement behind him, and it was only after about an hour that he was able to crawl back to his own trench. Before starting out he had requested a serjeant to open fire on the enemy's trenches as soon as he had thrown his bombs. Rifleman Mariner was out alone for one and a half hours carrying out this gallant work.

MAY 23rd, 1915

  • Italy Declares War. Italian Ambassador in Vienna presents a declaration of war against Austria.

MAY 24th, 1915

  • Italo-Austrian War. Austrian aeroplanes attempt an attack on the arsenal at Venice, but are driven off.
  • Battle of Bellewaerde Ridge (Ypres)
  • Italian destroyer attacks island of Porto Buso.
  • Austrians bombard Ancona.
  • General Count Cadorna, in command of the Italian Armies, leaves for the Front.
  • Battle of Bellewaerde Ridge (Ypres) (24th/25th).
  • British forced to give ground cast of Ypres, owing to German attack under cover of poisonous gases. The enemy penetrates our line in two or three places. Sir John French reports that portions of original line are already retaken.
  • In Galicia Russians force enemy by counter-attacks to act gradually on the defensive on almost the whole Front.

MAY 25th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports that on our line east of Ypres, over a front of five miles, the enemy's gas attack lasted four and a half hours.
  • Battle of Festubert ends (see 15th)
  • Italian Army crosses Austrian frontier in north-cast corner of Venetia, and occupies a number of villages in and near the valley of the Isonzo.
  • Battles of Ypres 1915 end (see April 22nd, 1915 and July 31st, 1917).
  • Battle of Festubert ends (see 15th).
  • Germans renew their attacks north of Przemysl.
  • H.M.S. "Triumph" sunk by submarine off the Dardanelles.

MAY 26th, 1915

  • New British Cabinet announced, composed of twenty-two members, a National Government to win the war: Prime Minister, Mr Asquith; Lord Chancellor, Sir S. Buckmaster; Lord President of the Council, Lord Crewe; Lord Privy Seal, Lord Curzon; Chancellor of the Exchequer, Mr McKenna; Secretaries of State: Home, Sir J. Simon; Foreign, Sir E. Grey; Colonies, Mr Bonar Law; India, Mr Chamberlain; War, Lord Kitchener; Munitions, Mr Lloyd George; Admiralty, Mr Balfour; Board of Trade, Mr Runciman; Local Government Board, Mr Long; Duchy of Lancaster, Mr Churchill; Ireland, Mr Birrell; Scotland, Mr McKinnon Wood; Agriculture, Lord Selborne; Works, Mr Harcourt; Education, Mr Henderson; Attorney-General, Sir E. Carson; Minister without Portfolio, Lord Lansdowne. Outside the Cabinet: Postmaster General, Mr H. Samuel; Solicitor-General, Mr. (later Sir) F. E. Smith; Financial Secretary to the Treasury, Mr Montagu.
  • Sir John French reports that since Mar 16 the First Army has pierced the enemy's line on a total front of over three miles.
  • Vigorous Italian offensive all along the frontier of the Trentino and Tyrol.
  • H.M.S Triumph sunk by submarine off Gallipoli Peninsula.
  • Zeppelin raid on Southend, over forty bombs dropped, killing two women and wounding a child
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 3026 Leonard James KEYWORTH, London Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lance-Corporal Leonard James Keyworth, 24th (County of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (The Queen's). On 15th/26th May 1915 at Givenchy, France, after a successful assault on the German position by the battalion a bombing attack was launched in the course of which 58 men out of 75 became casualties. During this very fierce encounter Lance-Corporal Keyworth stood fully exposed to the enemy for two hours on the top of the parapet and threw about 150 bombs amongst the Germans who were only a few yards away.

MAY 27th, 1915

  • H.M.S. Majestic torpedoed off Gallipoli.
  • H.M.S Auxiliary Ship Princess Irene accidentally blown up in Sheerness Harbour.
  • Brilliant Exploit by Submarine E11. - In Sea of Marmora she sinks an ammunition vessel, chases and torpedoes a supply ship, enters the waters of Constantinople, and fires a torpedo at a transport.
  • Eighteen French aeroplanes carry out air raid against Ludwigshafen, dropping many bombs on the works of the Baden Aniline Dye Company, where high explosives and asphyxiating gases are manufactured.
  • French storm and carry the cemetery at Ablain, eight miles north of Arras, and capture four hundred prisoners
  • Mr. Winston Churchill, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, resigns (appointed October 24th, 1911)

MAY 28th, 1915

  • Lord Fisher’s Successor. Admiral Sir Henry B. Jackson, K.C.B., announced to be First Sea Lord of Admiralty in the place of Lord Fisher.
  • German defeat near Souchez against the French.
  • A Petrograd communiqué announces Russian success on the San. At other points on the Galician front the Russians compelled to give way, but balance in fighting is in favour of the Russians.
  • Our Italian allies occupy Gradisca, on the Isonzo, also the summit of Monte Baldo, which enables them to dominate Riva.

MAY 29th, 1915

  • French masters of Ablain. After repulsing the German counter-attack at Ablain St. Nazaire, the French carry the whole of Ablain. They annihilate or put to flight three German companies.

MAY 30th, 1915

  • French capture all German trenches on Hill 17 in the Pilken region, about three miles north-cast of Ypres.
  • Italians occupy Ala, the Customs station on the Brenner route, seven and a half miles from the frontier. West of this, on the other side of Lake Garda, and again north-east.  Italian armies cross the frontier and capture important posts.

MAY 31st, 1915

  • Messages between King George and the King of Italy, expressing mutual confidence and gratification at the alliance in arms of Great Britain and Italy, published.
  • French progress to north of Arras continues. In the region known as the “Labyrinth,” positions gained from the enemy reorganised. German attack at Notre Dame de Lorette repulsed.
  • Italian air raid on the Austrian naval base at Pola.
  • Russians attack along the line. German offensive brought to a standstill. Our ally crosses the Lubaczowka. In Eastern Galicia over 7,000 of enemy captured, and reported to be retiring in disorder.
  • German reply to U.S. Note on the sinking of the Lusitania generally described in the American Press as insulting.
  • Zeppelin Raid on Outer London. - Admiralty issues a statement that Zeppelins reported near Ramsgate and Brentwood, and in certain outlying districts of London.
  • Many fires reported, but these not absolutely connected with the visit of airships. Ninety bombs dropped; four persons killed.

JUNE 1915

JUNE 1st, 1915

  • Italians develop vigorous offensive on their north-eastern front. Austrian town of Gradisca evacuated, and both sides shelled it. Gorizia bombarded by Italian guns. In the Trentino, Italians occupy Mount Zugna.
  • Przemysl forts attacked by Austro-German forces. After obstinate battle, enemy repulsed with enormous losses.
  • French capture sugar refinery at Souchez.

JUNE 2nd, 1915

  • Italians cross the Isonzo, north of Trieste. On the Trentino frontier they reduce the Austrian fort at Belvedere, north-east of Rovereto.
  • Germans capture three of the forts of Przemysl.
  • A French communiqué reviews events between May 9 and June 1 in the sector north of Arras. The division which captured Carency, Ablain, St. Nazaire, the Malon Mill, and the Souchez Sugar Refinery, took 3,100 prisoners, including 64 officers, and buried 2,600 Germans.
  • German transport torpedoed by British submarine in Sea of Marmora.

JUNE 3rd, 1915

  • Przemysl retaken by Austro-Germans, after heroic resistance of Russian garrison.
  • San Marino declares war on Austria-Hungary.
  • Announced that on May 31 the British force in the Persian Gulf attacked a hostile force north of Kuma, seized the heights, captured three guns, ammunition, and two hundred and fifty prisoners. Amara occupied.
  • British capture German trenches at Givenchy.
  • The new Ministry meets Parliament. Sir John Simon introduces the Bill creating a Ministry of Munitions.
  • Great French Air Raid on Crown Prince of Germany’s headquarters; one hundred and seventy-eight bombs dropped.

JUNE 4th, 1915

  • British positions at the Château of Hooge, east of Ypres, after being temporarily retaken by the Germans, again captured by our troops.
  • Third Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles).
  • On the Italian frontier sharp fighting developing at the Monte Croce Pass, which leads from Italy into Austria through the Carnie Alps.
  • French shell Metz camp.
  • General attack delivered upon the Turkish positions in southern area of the Gallipoli Peninsula. Five hundred yards gained along a front of nearly three miles.
  • Third Battle of Krithia (Dardanelles).
  • Announced that Mr Asquith has been at the Front, having left London May 30.
  • Zeppelin raid on east and south-east coasts of England; few casualties.

JUNE 5th, 1915

  • Five German counter-attacks east of the Chapel of Lorette repulsed with heavy loss to the enemy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant George Raymond Dallas MOOR, Royal Hampshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant George Raymond Dallas Moor, 3rd Battalion, The Hampshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and resource on 5th June 1915, during operations south of Krithia, Dardanelles. When a detachment of a battalion on his left, which had lost all its officers, was rapidly retiring before a heavy Turkish attack, Second Lieutenant Moor, immediately grasping the danger to the remainder of the line, dashed back some 200 yards, stemmed the retirement, led back the men, and recaptured the lost trench. This young officer, who only joined the Army in October 1914, by his personal bravery and presence of mind, saved a dangerous situation.

JUNE 6th, 1915

  • French success on the Aisne. -East of Tracy-Ie-Mont, on the heights adjoining the Moulin-sous-Touvent, our ally delivers an attack which results in important gains, capturing, on a front of over half a mile, two successive lines of trenches.
  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast. Five deaths and forty injured.
  • French deliver successful attacks on both sides of the Aix-Noulette-Souchez road, and gain ground in the woods to the east of that road and to the south in the region of the Buval Bottom.
  • The “Labyrinth” struggle. New trenches captured at the centre and in the south, giving the French an advance of about one hundred yards.
  • Russian advance on Lower San.

JUNE 7th, 1915

  • British Burn a Zeppelin.-Flight-Sub-Lieutenant R. A. J. Warneford, R.N., attacks a Zeppelin in the air between Ghent and Brussels at 6,000 feet. He drops six bombs, and the airship explodes and falls to the ground; twenty-eight of crew killed. The gallant pilot's monoplane turns upside down, but he rights it and returns safely to the aerodrome. The gallant lieutenant afterwards lost his life in a trial flight.
  • Flight-Lieutenants J. P. Wilson and J. S. Mills attack Zeppelin shed near Brussels, setting it on fire.
  • French capture two lines of trenches at Hébuterne, south-west of Arras.
  • Press Bureau announces that a British force successfully attacked Sphinxhaven, a German post on eastern shore of Lake Nyasa, on May 30th.
  • Naval encounter in Baltic. Russian mine-laying transport Yenissei sunk by German submarine. Russian submarines and mines reported to have sunk three German vessels.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Flight Sub Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John WARNEFORD, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Flight Sub-Lieutenant Reginald Alexander John Warneford, Royal Navy (1 Squadron, Royal Naval Air Service). On 7th June 1915 at Ghent, Belgium, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Warneford attacked and completely destroyed a German airship in mid-air. He had chased the airship from the coast near Ostend, and succeeded in dropping his bombs on it, the last of which set the airship on fire, but the explosion overturned the attacking plane and stopped its engine. Having no alternative, Flight Sub-Lieutenant Warneford had to land in hostile country, but after 35 minutes spent on repairs, he managed to restart the engine and returned to base.

JUNE 8th, 1915

  • King George telegraphs congratulations to Sub Lieutenant Warneford, and confers upon him the V.C.
  • Resignation of Mr Bryan. U.S. Secretary of State, owing to his disapproval of the second U.S. Note to Germany regarding Lusitania.
  • Whole of Neuville St. Vaast in French hands.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Commander Martin Eric NASMITH, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant-Commander Martin Eric Nasmith, Royal Navy. During the period 20th May - 8th June 1915 in the sea of the Marmara, Dardanelles, Lieutenant-Commander Nasmith in command of HM Submarine E.11, destroyed one large Turkish gunboat, two transports, one ammunition ship, three store ships and four other vessels. When he had safely passed the most difficult part of his homeward journey he returned to torpedo a Turkish transport.

JUNE 9th, 1915

  • Mr Asquith announces total number of British casualties up to May 31st as 258,069. Killed. 50,342 (officers, 3,327); wounded, 153,980 (officers, 64,980); missing, 53,747 (officers, 1,130).
  • Mr Balfour announces German submarine sunk, its crew of six officers and twenty-one men taken prisoners.
  • Canada announces she will raise further force of 35,000 men.

JUNE 10th, 1915

  • Italians take Monfalcone, nineteen miles from Trieste.
  • Two British torpedo-boats, Nos. 10 and 12, torpedoed by a German submarine off the East Coast.

JUNE 11th, 1915

  • Text of the Second U.S, Note to Germany published.
  • In the region of the Touvent Farm (south of Hébuterne) French pierce the German lines for a length of more than a mile and a quarter and a depth of two-thirds of a mile.

JUNE 12th, 1915

  • French progress in lower region of Buval and in the “Labyrinth.”
  • Great Russian victory. Petrograd officially announces that in the three days' battle on the Dniester, In the region of Zurawna, which lasted from June 8 to June 10, Russians captured 348 officers, 15,431 soldiers, 78 machine-guns, and 17 cannons.
  • Desperate fighting in the Baltic provinces, on the whole front of the Rivers Windau, Venta, and Dubissa.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Lance Corporal 7709 William Anderson, Highland Light Infantry, 8th (Lanark) Battalion Territorial Force, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned:- No. 7709 Lance-Corporal William Angus, 8th Battalion, The Highland Light Infantry. On 12th June 1915 at Givenchy, France, Lance-Corporal Angus voluntarily left his trench under very heavy bomb and rifle fire and rescued a wounded officer who was lying within a few yards of the enemy's position. The Lance-Corporal had no chance of escaping the enemy's fire when undertaking this gallant deed, and in effecting the rescue he received about 40 wounds, some of them being very serious.

JUNE 13th, 1915

  • Souchez Station captured by the French
  • Italy reports her occupation of Gradisca, on the Isonzo.
  • General Election in Greece. M. Venizelos gains one hundred and ninety-three seats out of a total of three hundred and sixteen.

JUNE 14th, 1915

  • Belgians cross the Yser with 1,000 men and establish themselves on the east bank.
  • French loses some of trenches won north of the sugar refinery at Souchez.
  • Italians bombard the fortress of Malborghetto.

JUNE 15th, 1915

  • Karlsruhe bombarded by twenty-three Allies' aeroplanes; one hundred and thirty projectiles dropped.
  • German defeat near Tracy-Ie-Mont.
  • Zeppelin raid on North-East Coast, sixteen killed, forty injured.
  • British capture German front line of trenches east of Festubert, but fail to hold them against counter-attacks.
  • In Commons, Mr Asquith moves a Vote of Credit for £250,000,000; and announces average daily expenditure on war services since April 1 as £2,660,000.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Frederick William CAMPBELL, Western Ontario Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Frederick William Campbell, 1 Battalion, Western Ontario Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force. On 15th June 1915 at Givenchy, France, Lieutenant Campbell took two machine-gun detachments forward and in face of heavy fire reached the German front line trench with one gun which he kept in action after nearly all his detachment had been killed or wounded. When the German counter-attack came, Lieutenant Campbell advanced his gun still further by firing about 1,000 rounds succeeded in holding the enemy back, but he was mortally wounded and died four days later.

JUNE 16th, 1915

  • German first-line trenches captured by British north of Hooge.
  • In the Vosges French progress on the two banks of the Haute Fecht. On the northern bank the French carry the Braunkopf.
  • Mr Lloyd George takes the oath as Minister of Munitions.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 10073 Joseph Harcourt TOMBS, King's (Liverpool Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10073 Lance-Corporal Joseph Tombs, 1st Battalion, The King's (Liverpool Regiment). For most conspicuous gallantry near Rue du Bois, on 16th June 1915. On his own initiative, crawled out repeatedly under a very heavy shell and machine-gun fire, to bring in wounded men who were lying about 100 yards in front of our trenches. He rescued four men, one of whom he dragged back by means of a rifle sling placed round his own neck and the man's body. This man was so severely wounded that unless he had been immediately attended to he must have died.

JUNE 17th, 1915

  • French gain important success in the Souchez neighbourhood, and in the Vosges gain a line of heights commanding a portion of the Fecht Valley, capturing Steinbruck, and a suburb of Metzeral.
  • Italians occupy whole of Monte Nero.

JUNE 18th, 1915

  • British advance east of Festubert reported by Sir John French.
  • Second Battle of Artois ends.
  • German trenches north of Hooge occupied by British.
  • French patrols reach outskirts of Metzeral.
  • Petrograd reports enemy losses of 120.000 to 150,000 east of the Dniester in month proceeding along a front of forty miles.

JUNE 19th, 1915

  • French carry the Buval Bottom, which had been obstinately defended by enemy since May 9, and in Alsace completely invest Metzeral, to which Germans set fire before evacuating it.

JUNE 20th, 1915

  • Zolkiev and Rawa Ruska captured by Austro-German forces.
  • Italian official report describes many enemy positions on the line of the Isonzo taken by storm.

JUNE 21st, 1915

  • In Lorraine the French press their former gains, taking all the enemy first-line trenches on a front of 1,500 yards. In Alsace they take Metzeral.
  • Second War Loan at 41 per cent announced in Parliament, unlimited in amount, and available to public in denominations as small as five shillings.

JUNE 22nd, 1915

  • French progress in Lorraine continues. In Alsace our ally pushes past Metzeral, and advances beyond the Andasswasser.
  • Russia admits retirement from the Grodek line.
  • De Wet sentenced to imprisonment for six years and to a fine of £2,000.
  • Lemberg recaptured by Second Austrian Army under General Bohm-Ermolli.

JUNE 23rd, 1915

  • In the Vosges French continue their advance up the valley of the Fecht towards Munster, and occupy the village of Sonderbach.
  • Mr Lloyd George introduces Munitions of War Bill in House of Commons.

JUNE 24th, 1915

  • Germans bombard Arras, where a hospital is struck.
  • Mr. Lansing succeeds Mr Bryan as United States Secretary of State.

JUNE 25th, 1915

  • Heavy enemy defeats in Galicia.
  • Union Forces operating in German South-West Africa occupy post on Swakopmund-Grootfontein line.
  • Bukopa, German East African fort reported destroyed.

JUNE 26th, 1915

  • Lieutenant-Commandeer M. E. Nasmith awarded V.C. for submarine exploits in Sea of Marmora.
  • Resignation of General Sukhomlinoff, Russian Minister of War. General Polivanoff succeeds him.

JUNE 27th, 1915

  • Germans gain minor success north of Souchez. By using burning liquids, they reach their old first-line in the Calonne trench on the Meuse, but later are beaten back.
  • British advance up the Euphrates begins.
  • Battle of Bobrka. -A fierce fight developed here, eighteen miles south-east of Lemberg. The Russians capture during counter-attacks 1,600 prisoners.
  • Germans capture Halicz.
  • Zeppelin sheds at Friedrichshafen bombed by French airmen.

JUNE 28th, 1915

  • Further retreat of Russians to Bug River.
  • British attack on Achi Baba in Gallipoli; Boomerang Redoubt and three lines of Turkish trenches captured.
  • Germans bombard Windau on Baltic coast and lose a torpedo-boat, which strikes a mine.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Herbert JAMES, Worcestershire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Herbert James, 4th Battalion, The Worcestershire Regiment. On 28th June 1915 in the southern zone of Gallipoli, when the advance of part of the regiment had been checked, Second-Lieutenant James, from a neighbouring unit, gathered together a body of men and led them forward under heavy fire. He then returned, organised a second party and again advanced, putting fresh life into the attack. On 3rd July he headed a party of bomb throwers up a Turkish communication trench and when all his party had been killed or wounded, he remained alone, under murderous fire and kept back the enemy until a barrier had been built behind him and the trench secured.

JUNE 29th, 1915

  • National Registration Bill introduced in Parliament.
  • German offensive between Vieprz and the Bug.

JUNE 30th, 1915

  • Germans cross the Gnila Lipa. Austro-German advance from Tomaszov.
  • French capture trenches in Gallipoli. H.M.S. Lightning damaged by mine or torpedo.

JULY 1915

JULY 1st, 1915

  • German repulse in Galicia. In the sectors of the Front from Kamionka to Halicz great loss inflicted on enemy. 1,000 prisoners taken.
  • Germans capture Zamosc and Krasnik.
  • Announced that Leyland liner Armenian sunk by German submarine U28 off Scilly Isles.
  • Violent German attack in the Argonne.

JULY 2nd, 1915

  • German Naval Defeat. -Submarine torpedoes and sinks German battleship Pommern in the Baltic. In same action German mine-laying cruiser Albatross driven on shore and destroyed.
  • Munitions of War Act, 1915, becomes law in Great Britain.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Gerald Robert O’SULLIVAN, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Gerald Robert O'Sullivan, 1st Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. On 1st/2nd July 1915 south-west of Krithia, Gallipoli, Captain O'Sullivan volunteered to lead a party of bomb throwers to recapture a vital trench. He advanced in the open under very heavy fire and in order to throw his bombs with greater effect, got up on the parapet, completely exposed to the enemy occupying the position. He was finally wounded, but his example led his men to make further efforts which resulted in the recapture of the trench. Previously, on 18th/19th June he had saved a critical situation by his gallantry and leadership.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 10512 James SOMERS, Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10512 Serjeant James Somers, 1st Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. On 1st/2nd July 1915 in Gallipoli, when, owing to hostile bombing, some of our troops had retired from a sap, Serjeant Somers remained alone there until a party brought up bombs. He then climbed over into the Turkish trench and bombed the Turks with great effect. Later on, he advanced into the open under heavy fire and held back the enemy by throwing bombs into their flank until a barricade had been established. During this period, he frequently ran to and from our trenches to obtain fresh supplies of bombs.

JULY 3rd, 1915

  • German attacks on Calonne trench on Heights of the Meuse repulsed.
  • South Africa offers to organise and equip an oversea volunteer contingent. Offer accepted July 6.

JULY 4th, 1915

  • Germans very active between the Meuse and Moselle.
  • Attacks made at several points in the La Haye region.
  • Italian Commander-in-Chief reports bombardment of fortifications of Malborghetto and the Predil Pass.
  • British force from Aden is attacked and retires before superior Turkish force from the Yemen.
  • Allies inflict heavy losses on Turks in violent attack on our positions in Gallipoli.
  • German cruiser Konigsberg, which had sheltered up Rufiji River, German East Africa, destroyed by monitors Severn and Mersey.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Frederick Daniel PARSLOW, Royal Naval Reserve awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Frederick Daniel Parslow, Royal Naval Reserve. On 4th July 1915 in the Atlantic, south-west of Queenstown, Ireland, HM Horse Transport Anglo-Californian, commanded by Lieutenant Parslow, was attacked by a submarine which made occasional hits although the Lieutenant kept altering course. At last, on the point of abandoning ship in order to save lives, a message was received to hold on as long as possible and Anglo-Californian got under way again, whereupon the U-boat opened a very heavy fire, doing great damage. Lieutenant Parslow remained on the bridge throughout the attack, entirely without protection and was killed when the bridge was wrecked.

JULY 5th, 1915

  • Lord Fisher's New Post. - Announced that Lord Fisher appointed Chairman of the Inventions Board.
  • Russians report successful offensive in the direction of Radom, Southern Poland.
  • A despatch from Sir Ian Hamilton describes attacks by Turkish upon our positions. These failed, and Turkish losses amounted to over 20,000 men.

JULY 6th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports gain of ground south-west of Pilkem, near Ypres.
  • Great Russian rally. Western column of Austro-German advance between Vistula and the Bug severely defeated.

JULY 7th, 1915

  • Sir Ian Hamilton's despatch on Dardanelles operations published.
  • Germans, in taking offensive near St. Mihiel, penetrated French front line on a front of seven hundred and sixty yards.

JULY 8th, 1915

  • Austrians admit defeat of their army under Archduke Joseph, which had advanced north-east of Krasnik. In the direction of Lublin, Russians developed the offensive, and captured 11,000 prisoners, and several dozen machine-guns.
  • French advance on Souchez. To the north of the station French carried a line of German trenches after having annihilated all defenders with grenades, and progressed beyond.
  • Italian cruiser the Amalfi torpedoed by Austrian submarine in Upper Adriatic.
  • National Registration Bill passed in Commons.

JULY 9th, 1915

  • Botha's Final Triumph. -Officially announced General Botha has accepted surrender of General Seitz and entire German forces in South-West Africa.

JULY 10th, 1915

  • German reply to U.S.A. Note published. The arguments in justification of the sinking of the Lusitania are repeated, and Americans are told that if they sail in British ships they do so at their own risk.
  • Austrian retreat in Poland. Russian army defending Lublin takes over 15,000 prisoners.

JULY 11th, 1915

  • Air raid on Venice, very little damage done.

JULY 12th, 1915

  • Despatch on Second Battle of Ypres and the operations in the Festubert region, by Sir John French, published.
  • Souchez Cemetery taken by Germans, also some parts of the adjacent trenches.

JULY 13th, 1915

  • French air raid in the Woevre. Squadron of thirty-five aeroplanes rain one hundred and seventy-one bombs on Vigneulles, the Junction for the field railways running from region of Metz.
  • Attack by Crown Prince's army in the Argonne repulsed.
  • Success of War Loan. Mr McKenna announces that £570,000,000, not including subscriptions through the Post Office, had been subscribed.
  • Great Austro-German Offensive on Eastern front begins.

JULY 14th, 1915

  • New German move north of Warsaw. Officially announced from Russia that the Germans are trying to reach Warsaw from the north.
  • Registration Bill passed by the Lords.

JULY 15th, 1915

  • Dardanelles Success. - Sir Ian Hamilton reports that as result of attack by our troops and the French in Gallipoli four hundred yards were gained on both flanks.
  • New German attack in Northern Poland, along a front of one hundred and sixty miles from Prasnysch to Kalwarya.
  • National Registration Act becomes law in Great Britain
  • Strike of 200,000 Welsh miners begun.

JULY 16th, 1915

  • Russians admit loss of Prasnysch. Enemy developing new offensive in Baltic provinces.
  • Success in Central Cameroons. - Press Bureau announces that on June 29 the Allied forces occupied the town of Ngaundere.

JULY 17th, 1915

  • Fighting renewed in Argonne, all enemy attacks checked.

JULY 18th, 1915

  • Hindenburg's new move. German troops in east under Von Hindenburg forcing Russians back towards the line of fortresses of the River Narew.
  • Heavy fighting in the West. In the Argonne, on the Heights of the Meuse, on the Lorraine border, and in the Vosges.
  • Italians advance successfully on the Cadore frontier.
  • Italian cruiser Giuseppe Garibaldi sunk by Austrian submarines in the Adriatic.

JULY 19th, 1915

  • Great Russian Defence. -Splendid stand made by our ally against German attacks north and south of Warsaw. Fierce fighting in the south, along the front of the Lublin-Cholm railway. Austrians repulsed on the Krasnik front.
  • German attack west and south-west of Souchez repulsed by French, also one to the south-east of Les Eparges.
  • Officially announced that Italians have obtained a substantial success on the lsonzo front, capturing formidable lines of trenches, 2,000 prisoners, and guns.
  • Dardanelles losses. Announced that up to end of June total naval and military casualties were 1,933 officers and 40,501 men.
  • Mr Lloyd George, Mr Runciman, and Mr Henderson confer with miners' leaders at Cardiff.

JULY 20th, 1915

  • Russian troops fall back to places on River Narew and line of fortresses protecting main railway line from Warsaw to Petrograd. In conformity with this movement the Bzura-Rawka front abandoned.
  • Sir John French reports that the British east of Ypres sprung a mine and occupied one hundred and fifty yards of trenches.
  • French aerial raid on railway station of Colmar, also on Conflans junction between Verdun and Metz.
  • Italian Success. -After an all-day battle on Lower Isonzo several lines of Austrian trenches captured; 2,000 prisoners taken.
  • Coal strike ended; terms of settlement drawn up by Mr Lloyd George.

JULY 21st, 1915

  • Advance on Warsaw. - Russians reported still holding the Blonie defences, fifteen miles from Warsaw, and offering strong opposition to General Mackensen south of the Lublin railway (south-east of Warsaw). In the Baltic provinces Germans advanced near Shavli.
  • French gain in Vosges. Progress reported to within a short distance of crest of the Linge (north of Munster).
  • Capture of a small redoubt from Turks in Gallipoli.
  • Turkish forces in Aden district driven back.

JULY 22nd, 1915

  • Enemy reported closing in on Warsaw from the west and south-west. Between the city and the fortress of Ivangorod the retreating Russians reach the Vistula.
  • French storm a summit in the Vosges. In the Fecht valley they took Metzeral and Sondernach.
  • Gallipoli gains. Despatch from Sir Ian Hamilton reports that since July 18 our forces have made steady progress in consolidating captured trenches.
  • Fighting on the Euphrates. -India Office announces that British expedition from Kuma attacked defences of the position established on the Euphrates by the Turks and Arabs. Latter forced to retreat.
  • Convention signed ceding to Bulgaria Turkish portion of the Dedeagatch railway, with the territory between the River Maritza and the frontier.

JULY 23rd, 1915

  • Officially reported that on the Carso Italians inflict great defeat on enemy; 1,500 prisoners taken.

JULY 24th, 1915

  • Text of third American Note to Germany published.
  • Germans force passage of the Narew between Pultusk and Rozan.

JULY 25th, 1915

  • French Success in Vosges. -German defensives positions from La Fontenelle to Launois stormed, and over eight hundred prisoners taken.
  • Nasiriya (Mesopotamia) taken by British forces
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Lanoe George HAWKER, Royal Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Lanoe George Hawker, Corps of Royal Engineers and 6 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. On 25th July 1915 when on patrol over France, Captain Hawker attacked three German aircraft in succession. The first, after he had emptied a complete drum of bullets into it, went spinning down, the second was driven to the ground damaged, and the third which he attacked at a height of about 10,000 feet burst into flames and crashed. This particular sortie was just one of the many courageous exploits which Captain Hawker had undertaken during almost a year of constant operational flying and fighting.

JULY 26th, 1915

  • Russian official report admits that Germans crossed the Narew between the fortress of Rozan and Obryte Pultusk. Mackensen's forces south of the Lublin-Cholm railway have been fought to a standstill. The enemy's advance towards the Bug on the north, threating main communication between Warsaw and Petrograd, continued.
  • Officially announced that Italian naval forces have occupied island of Pelagosa, in the Adriatic.
  • Announced in Parliament that Turkish and Arab troops have been heavily defeated up the Euphrates. Nasiryeh taken on July 25.
  • German destroyer sunk by British submarine in North Sea.

JULY 27th, 1915

  • Italians gain a height on the Carso plateau, and take 3,200 prisoners.
  • More Vosges gains. French entirely conquers the strong German positions near the Eingekopf.
  • Russia reports that German troops who crossed the Narew between the fortresses of Rozan and Poltusk have been checked.
  • Mr Asquith in Parliament states total British military casualties to July 18 numbered 330,995; and total naval casualties to July 20 as 9,106.

JULY 28th, 1915

  • Struggle for Warsaw. Enemy held at nearly all points.

JULY 29th, 1915

  • On the Bug River above Sokal Russians repulsed two Austrian attacks; 1,500 prisoners taken. Von Maekensen breaks through Russian line on the Lublin-Cholm railway.
  • German aeroplanes drop bombs on Nancy, and French aeroplanes bomb Passchendaele.

JULY 30th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports that by using liquid fire enemy penetrated our trenches north and south of Hooge.
  • Leyland liner S.S Iberian sunk by German submarine.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Sidney Clayton WOODROFFE, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Sidney Clayton Woodroffe, late 8th Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort's Own). For most conspicuous bravery on 30th July 1915 at Hooge, Belgium. The enemy having broken through the centre of our front trenches, consequent on the use of burning liquids, this Officer's position was heavily attacked with bombs from the flank and subsequently from the rear, but he managed to defend his post until all the bombs were exhausted, and then skilfully withdrew his remaining men. This very gallant Officer immediately led his party forward in a counter-attack under an intense rifle and machine-gun fire, and was killed whilst in the act of cutting the wire obstacles in the open.

JULY 31st, 1915

  • Russians evacuate Lublin, and Austro-German forces seize Lublin-Cholm railway.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain John Aiden LIDDELL, Royal Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Captain John Aiden Liddell, 3rd Battalion, The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders (Princess Louise's) and Royal Flying Corps. On 31st July 1915 while on flying reconnaissance over Ostend-Bruges-Ghent, Captain Liddell was severely wounded in his right thigh. This caused momentary unconsciousness, but by great effort he recovered partial control of his machine when it had dropped nearly 3,000ft and succeeded, although fired on, in completing the course and brought the plane back into the Allied lines. The control wheel and throttle control were smashed and also part of the undercarriage and cockpit, but the machine and life of the observer were saved. Captain Liddell died a month later.

AUGUST 1915

AUG. 1st, 1915

  • Germans occupy Mitau.
  • Sir John French reports that portion of trenches taken by Germans west of Hooge have been recaptured.
  • Italians occupy Mount Medetta, in Carnia.

AUG. 2nd, 1915

  • Feats of our Submarines. -Admiralty announce that British submarine in Sea of Marmora torpedoed large steamer. Torpedoes were fired at lighters alongside the arsenal at Constantinople. Railway cutting one mile west of Kara Burnu bombarded and line blocked.

AUG. 3rd, 1915

  • Press Bureau announces that in Gallipoli a successful attack was carried out against a network of Turkish trenches, with gain of crest of important ridge.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant George Arthur BOYD-ROCHFORT Scots Guards, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant George Arthur BOYD-ROCHFORT on 3rd August 1915 between Cambria and La Bassee, France, a German trench mortar bomb landed on the side of the parapet of the communication trench in which Second Lieutenant Boyd-Rochfort was standing close to a small working party of his battalion. Instead of stepping back into safety he shouted to his men to look out, rushed at the bomb, seized it and hurled it over the parapet where it at once exploded. This combination of presence of mind and courage saved the lives of many of the working party.

AUG. 4th, 1915

  • Fall of Warsaw.
  • King and Queen attend an Intercession Service at St. Paul's Cathedral.
  • Rumanian Cabinet votes a military credit of £4,000.000.

AUG. 5th, 1915

  • Fall of Ivangorod. New Vosges battle. Desperate actions on the heights dominating the Fecht. Germans capture a blockhouse, from which later driven.
  • Italy reports capture of big entrenchments on the Carso plateau.
  • Russians evacuating Riga.

AUG. 6th, 1915

  • Fighting in the Argonne with great intensity around Hill 213.
  • Petrograd officially announces that Warsaw was evacuated in order to save the city from effects of a bombardment.
  • New landing at Anzac Cove, Gallipoli.

AUG. 7th, 1915

  • Germans held near Riga. Enemy dislodged from the region between Dwina, the Eckau, and the lower course of the Aa.
  • Portion of Sari Bair crest occupied. Turks report landing above the Bulair lines.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 4/515 Cyril Royston Guyton BASSETT, New Zealand Divisional Signal Company, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned:- No. 4/515 Corporal Cyril Royston Guyton Bassett, New Zealand Divisional Signal Company, New Zealand Expeditionary Force. On 7th August 1915 at Chunuk Bair Ridge, Gallipoli, after the New Zealand Brigade had attacked and established itself on the ridge, Corporal Bassett, in full daylight and under continuous fire, succeeded in laying a telephone line from the old position to the new one on Chunuk Bair. He also did further gallant work in connection with the repair of telephone lines by day and night under heavy fire.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 958 Leonard KEYSOR, Australian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 958 Private Leonard Keysor, 1st Battalion (New South Wales), Australian Imperial Force. On 7th August 1915 at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, Private Keysor was in a trench which was being heavily bombed by the enemy. He picked up two live bombs and threw them back at the enemy at great risk to himself, and continued throwing bombs until wounded. On 8th August at the same place, he successfully bombed the enemy out of a position where they had gained temporary mastery over his own trench, again being wounded. He refused to go to hospital and, volunteering to throw bombs for another company which had lost its bomb throwers, continued bombing until the situation was relieved.

AUG. 8th, 1915

  • H.M.S. Ramsey, small armed patrol-vessel, sunk by German auxiliary Meteor.
  • H.M.S. auxiliary cruiser India torpedoed in Norwegian waters.
  • Germans cross the Vistula east of Novo Georgievsk. and take some of outlying forts of latter, and gain further ground south-east of the Narew.
  • German naval repulse in Gulf of Riga; nine battleships and twelve cruisers driven off.
  • In the Argonne Germans penetrated one of French works in the salient in the western part of the front to the north of Fontaine Houyette, but expelled by counter-attacks.
  • Germans heavily shelled whole Belgium front on the Yser.

AUG. 9th, 1915

  • British Advance near Hooge. -All trenches captured by Germans on July 30 retaken, and following up success our troops advanced, extending the front of the trenches captured to 1,200 yards. After violent fighting British line slightly withdrawn.
  • Austrian attack on Serbia in attempt to cross Danube defeated.
  • Turkish battleship Hairredin Barbarossa sunk by British submarine.
  • French air raid on Saarbruek; one hundred and sixty-four bombs dropped on the station and factory.
  • Zeppelin Raid on East Coast. -Twenty-eight casualties, including fourteen deaths. One of hostile airships damaged by gun fire of land defences, and blown up by our aircraft at Ostend. Flight Sub.-Lieut. R. Lord killed on landing after engaging the enemy.
  • H.M.S. Lynx, a destroyer, sunk in North Sea after striking a mine. Four officers and twenty-two men saved.
  • Dardanelles Advance. -Sir Ian Hamilton reports gain east of Krithia road. In Anzac zone a footing on the Chunuk Bair portion of Sari Bair gained, and a crest occupied.
  • Elsewhere a fresh landing of troops successfully effected. Six hundred and thirty prisoners and nine machine-guns taken.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 384 Alexander Stewart BURTON, Australian Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Corporal Alexander Stewart Burton, 7th Battalion (Victoria), Australian Imperial Force. On 9th August 1915, at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, the enemy made a determined counter-attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by a lieutenant, two corporals (one of whom was Corporal Burton) and a few men. The enemy blew in the sand-bag barricade leaving only a foot standing, but the lieutenant and the two corporals repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Twice more the enemy blew in the barricade and on each occasion they were repulsed and the barricade rebuilt, but Corporal Burton was killed while most gallantly building up the parapet under a hail of bombs.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 2130 William DUNSTAN, Australian Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2130 Corporal William Dunstan, 7th Battalion (Victoria), Australian Imperial Force. On 9th August 1915, at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, the enemy made a determined counter-attack on the centre of the newly captured trench held by a lieutenant, two corporals (one of whom was Corporal Dunstan) and a few men. The enemy blew in the sand-bag barricade, leaving only a foot standing, but the lieutenant and the two corporals repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Twice more the enemy blew in the barricade and on each occasion they were repulsed and the barricade rebuilt.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant William Thomas FORSHAW, Manchester Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant William Thomas Forshaw, 1/9th Battalion, The Manchester Regiment. During the period 7th/9th August 1915 in Gallipoli, when holding the north-west corner of "The Vineyard" against heavy attacks by the Turks, Lieutenant Forshaw not only directed his men but personally threw bombs continuously for over 40 hours. When his detachment was relieved. He volunteered to continue directing the defence. Later, when the Turks captured a portion of the trench, he shot three of them and recaptured it. It was due to his fine example and magnificent courage that this very important position was held.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Alfred John SHOUT, Australian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Alfred John Shout, 1st Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. On 9th August 1915, at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, Captain Shout, with a very small party, charged down trenches strongly occupied by the enemy, and personally threw four bombs among them, killing eight and routing the remainder. In the afternoon of the same day, from the position gained in the morning, he captured a further length of trench under similar conditions and continued to bomb the enemy at close range under very heavy fire, until he was severely wounded. He died of his wounds shortly afterwards.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant William John SYMONS, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant William John Symons, 7th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. On 8th/9th August 1915 at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, Second Lieutenant Symons was in command of a section of newly captured trenches and repelled several counter-attacks with great coolness. An enemy attack on an isolated sap early in the morning resulted in six officers becoming casualties and part of the sap being lost, but Second Lieutenant Symons retook it, shooting two Turks. The sap was then attacked from three sides and this officer managed, in the face of heavy fire, to build a barricade. On the enemy setting fire to the head cover, he extinguished it and rebuilt the barricade. His coolness and determination finally compelled the enemy to withdraw.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Frederick Harold TUBB, Australian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Frederick Harold Tubb, 7th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. On 9th August 1915 at Lone Pine, Gallipoli, Lieutenant Tubb held a newly captured trench which was being counter-attacked by the enemy. They blew in a sand-bag barricade, leaving only a foot of it standing, but Lieutenant Tubb led his men back, repulsed the enemy and rebuilt the barricade. Twice more the enemy blew in the barricade, but on each occasion this officer, although wounded in the head and arm, held his ground and assisted by two corporals, rebuilt it. They succeeded in maintaining the position under very heavy fire.

AUG. 10th, 1915

  • Germans reported to have occupied Lomza, evacuated by Russians. South of Riga Germans fall back, leaving prisoners and guns.
  • Severe fighting in Gallipoli, in the Anzac zone. Australian and New Zealand troops treble the area they had held.
  • Admiralty announces sinking of a Turkish gunboat, Berk-i-Salvat, by British submarine in Dardanelles.

AUG. 11th, 1915

  • Poison shell attack in Argonne. French line penetrated temporarily.
  • Austrian submarine U12 torpedoed by Italian submarine in Upper Adriatic.
  • Russians holding in check the German flanks south of Riga and in South-East Poland. Furious enemy attacks on the fortress of Kovno.

AUG. 12th, 1915

  • Germans, repulsed in Mitau region, capture Siedlce.
  • Turkish transport sunk by British seaplane (Flight Commander Edmonds) in Dardanelles.
  • Belgrade again bombarded.
  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast. Six killed, twenty-three injured.

AUG. 13th, 1915

  • Austrian submarine U3 sunk by French torpedo boat Bisson in Adriatic.
  • British transport H.M.T. “Royal Edward” sunk in the Ægean by German submarine, 1,000 men missing.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 7709 David Ross LAUDER, Royal Scots Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 7709 Private David Ross Lauder, 1/4th Battalion, The Royal Scots Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery when with a bombing party retaking a sap. On 13th August 1915 at Cape Helles, Gallipoli, Private Lauder threw a bomb which failed to clear the parapet and fell amongst the bombing party. There was no time to smother the bomb, and Private Lauder at once put his foot on it, thereby localising the explosion. His foot was blown off, but the remainder of the party through this act of sacrifice escaped unhurt.

AUG. 14th, 1915

  • French report repulse of big German attack in the Argonne along the entire front of the sector of Marie Theresa Redoubt.

AUG. 15th, 1915

  • Raid by nineteen French aeroplanes on a German park and depot in the valley of the Spada.
  • National Register Day. - National Register taken in Great Britain
  • At Suvla, in Gallipoli, British advance five hundred yards, capturing a Turkish trench.
  • Operations of the landing at Suvla end

AUG. 16th, 1915

  • English coast towns shelled. A German submarine fired several shells at Parton, Harrington. And Whitehaven (Cumberland), but no material damage done.
  • Von Mackensen and Prince Leopold of Bavaria closing in on Brest Litovsk and Kovno. Russians partly evacuate Bielostok.
  • Greek Ministry resigns and a Venizelist President (pro-Ally) elected.

AUG. 17th, 1915

  • Kovno falls after desperate resistance and Von Mackensen's army cuts Cholm-Brest-Litovsk railway.
  • Zeppelin raid on Eastern Counties. -Ten persons killed, thirty-six injured.

AUG. 18th, 1915

  • Allies' naval victory in Gulf of Riga; two German cruisers, eight torpedo boats, and four barges full of troops which had attempted to land at Pernau reported sunk.
  • German Dreadnought Moltke reported torpedoed and sunk by British submarine. Russian gunboat Sivoutch sunk.
  • Italians report capture of Alpine trenches, and a further progress towards Tolmino (Upper Isonzo) by carrying trenches on the Santa Lucia height. On the Carso (Lower Isonzo) important success gained to the west of Marcottini.

AUG. 19th, 1915

  • White Star liner S.S. Arabic torpedoed; three hundred and ninety-one saved out of four hundred and twenty-three.
  • Severe Fighting in Gallipoli. -Sir Ian Hamilton reports that the recent operation included a fresh landing at Suvla Bay. This enterprise anticipated by about twenty-four hours a projected attack by the enemy. After very severe fighting we won the position at which we aimed.
  • French attack a salient of German lines in Artois, and master the junction of the Béthune-Arras and Ablain Angres roads.
  • Turkish defeats In Caucasus announced by Russia. Eleven divisions routed.
  • British submarine E13 grounded on Danish Island of Saltholm shelled by German destroyer, and crew fired on while in the water.
  • Fall of Novo Georgievsk.

AUG. 20th, 1915

  • French capture two hundred and fifty yards of trenches in Vosges.
  • Italy declares war on Turkey.

AUG. 21st, 1915

  • Bielsk occupied by Germans.
  • M. Venizelos again Greek Premier.
  • Cotton declared absolute contraband by the British Government.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 1300 Frederick William Owen POTTS, Berkshire Yeomanry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1300 Private Alfred (Frederick William Owen) Potts, 1/1st The Berkshire Yeomanry, Territorial Force. On 21st August 1915 in the attack on Hill 70, Gallipoli, Private Potts, although wounded in the thigh, remained for over 48 hours under the Turkish trenches with another private from his regiment who was severely wounded, and unable to move. He finally fixed a shovel to the equipment of his wounded comrade and using this as a sledge, dragged the man back over 600 yards to safety, being under fire all the way.

AUG. 22nd, 1915

  • German destroyer sunk off Ostend by French torpedo boats.
  • Osoviec occupied by the Germans.

AUG. 23rd, 1915

  • French in Vosges take trenches on crests of the Barrenkopf and the Linge.
  • Bombardment of Zeebrugge by forty British ships.

AUG. 24th, 1915

  • Squadron of French aeroplanes bombard the stations of Tergnier and Noyon, dropping over eighty projectiles.
  • Von Scholtz across the Narew east of Tykoein, and Von Gallwitz further south.
  • Report of German plans to invade Serbia through Bulgaria.
  • German troops concentrated at Brasso, opposite Rumanian frontier.
  • Count Bernstorff's apology to U.S.A. regarding the sinking of the Arabic.

AUG. 25th, 1915

  • Important statement issued by Press Bureau, in which announced that “although attacks at Anzac and Suvla have gained ground enough to enable our lines to be connected along a front of more than twelve miles,” at no point has the real objective yet been attained.
  • Fall of Brest Lltovsk.
  • German war works bombed. Sixty-two French aeroplanes threw over one hundred and fifty bombs on the Dillingen shell and armour-plate factory.
  • Allied air raids. Great concerted attack by British, French, and Belgian Army and Navy aeroplanes on Forest of Houthulst.

AUG. 26th, 1915

  • Sir Edward Grey’s reply to German Chancellor's recent speech at opening of Reichstag published.
  • British Aeroplane Destroys Submarine. -Squadron-Commander A. W. Bigsworth, R.N., destroys single-handed a German submarine by bombs dropped from an aeroplane off Ostend.
  • Lord Selborne announces that “the Navy have the submarine menace well in hand.”
  • Count Bernstorff states that German submarines have been ordered not to attack merchantmen without warning.
  • Russians evacuate Olita.
  • French airmen bomb poison-gas factory at Dornach and station at Mulheim.

AUG. 27th, 1915

  • To the north of Arras some German trenches wrecked and munitions depot destroyed.
  • Fresh trouble in South Wales mining district.

AUG. 28th, 1915

  • Mr Baltour says total casualties from Zeppelin raids up to date are eighty-nine civilians killed and two hundred and twenty wounded; no soldiers or sailors killed, but seven wounded.
  • Further advance at Suvla Bay - important tactical feature commanding Biyuk Anafarta Valley to the east and north captured.

AUG. 29th, 1915

  • Germans storm Lipsk, on the Bobr, twenty miles from Grodno; and make progress towards Vilna.

AUG. 30th, 1915

  • Russian success on the Strypa in East Galicia; three thousand prisoners, thirty guns, and twenty-four machine-guns captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Hugo Vivian Hope THROSSELL, Australian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Hugo Vivian Hope Throssell, 10th Light Horse Regiment, Australian Imperial Force. On 29th/30th August 1915 at Kaiakij Aghala (Hill 60), Gallipoli, Second Lieutenant Throssell, although severely wounded in several places, refused to leave his post during a counter-attack or to obtain medical assistance until all danger was passed, when he had his wounds dressed and returned to the firing line until ordered out of action by the Medical Officer. By his personal courage and example he kept up the spirits of his party and was largely instrumental in saving the situation at a critical period.

AUG. 31st, 1915

  • Russian success in the direction of Lutzk (Luck); one hundred officers and seven thousand men captured.

SEPTEMBER 1915

SEPT. 1st, 1915

  • General Alexeieff appointed Chief of Russian Staff.
  • Outer forts of Grodno captured by the Germans. Germany accepts United States demands regarding submarine warfare communicated by Count Bernstorff.

SEPT. 2nd, 1915

  • Fall of Grodno.
  • Rumanian Government stops further export and transit of gold.
  • Announced from Paris that four Turkish transports have been sunk by British submarines in Dardanelles.
  • German intrigue precipitates rising in Persia. British Consul-General at Ispahan attacked and wounded.

SEPT. 3rd, 1915

  • Germans storm bridgehead at Friedrichstadt on the River Dwina.
  • General Joffre visits Italian front.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant Wilbur Taylor DARTNELL, Royal Fusiliers (London Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant Wilbur Dartnell, late 25th (Service) Battalion (Frontiersmen), The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment). For most conspicuous bravery near Maktau (East Africa) on 3rd September 1915. During a mounted infantry engagement the enemy got within a few yards of our men, and it was found impossible to get the more severely wounded away. Lieutenant Dartnell, who was himself being carried away wounded in the leg, seeing the situation, and knowing the enemy's black troops murdered the wounded, insisted on being left behind in the hopes of being able to save the lives of the other wounded men. He gave his own life in the gallant attempt to save others.

SEPT. 4th, 1915

  • Allan liner Hesperlan torpedoed without warning off coast of Ireland; twenty-six persons missing.

SEPT. 5th, 1915

  • Tsar assumes supreme command of Russian armies. Grand Duke Nicholas appointed to the command in the Caucasus.
  • In Black Sea two Russian torpedo-boat destroyers drive away Turkish cruiser Hamidieh and two torpedo-boats.
  • Indian frontier raid in Mohmand country driven off.
  • Mr Balfour describes losses of German submarines as “formidable.”
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private (Shoeing Smith) 1053 Charles HULL, 21st Lancers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Private – Shoeing Smith Charles Hull, 21st Lancers (Empress of India's). On 5th September 1915 at Hafiz Kor, North West Frontier, India, Private Hull rescued an officer from certain death at the hands of the tribesman. The latter's horse had been shot and Private Hull took the officer up behind on his own horse, under heavy fire at close range, and galloped away to safety.

SEPT. 6th, 1915

  • Air raid on Saarbruck by forty French aeroplanes.
  • The station, factories, and military establishments successfully bombarded. French air raid in Freiburg.
  • Turkish destroyer Yar Hissar reported sunk in Sea of Marmora.
  • Indignation in U.S.A. following discovery of documents carried by an American journalist, James Archibald, compromising Dr Dumba, Austro-Hungarian Ambassador to Washington.

SEPT. 7th, 1915

  • Belgian coast bombarded. French artillery in the region of Nieuport co-operated in bombardment of the German coast batteries at Westende by thirty to forty vessels of the British Fleet.
  • Zeppelin raid on Eastern Counties. Fifty-six casualties; seventeen killed.
  • Russian victory near Tarnopol; 8,000 men and thirty guns captured.
  • Germans announce loss of submarine U27.

SEPT. 8th, 1915

  • Zeppelin raid on London. -One hundred and six casualties; twenty killed.
  • Rear-Admiral C. L. Vaughan-Lee appointed Director of Air Services.
  • Heavy German attack in the Argonne, prepared by a bombardment with asphyxiating shells, at first successful, but repulsed by violent counter-attack.

SEPT. 9th, 1915

  • Russian triumph In Galicia. -Officially reported that in fighting in Galicia between Sept. 3 and 9 over 17,000 prisoners were taken, and nearly one hundred guns.
  • Von Mackensen in possession of Rovno.
  • Violent fighting in Argonne. German attack repulsed everywhere except in portion of a trench near Rinarville.
  • French air raids on Lutterbach and Grand Pré.
  • American demand for recall of Dr Dumba.

SEPT. 10th, 1915

  • Russian victory near Trembovla, in Galicia. Seven thousand prisoners and thirty-six guns captured.

SEPT. 11th, 1915

  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast, no casualties.

SEPT. 12th, 1915

  • Continued Russian success in Galicia. North of Tarnopol, ninety-one officers and 4,200 rank and file of enemy captured.
  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast. -No casualties or damage.

SEPT. 13th, 1915

  • French air raids on Germany. Squadron of nineteen aeroplanes flew to Treves, and dropped one hundred bombs. Later, same squadron made a raid on station of Dommary Baroncourt.
  • Dvinsk-Vilna railway cut by Germans at Sventsiany. Skidel, farther south, in German hands.
  • German aeroplanes dropped bombs on Kentish coast; seven persons injured. Chased off by two naval aeroplanes.
  • Another Zeppelin raid on East Coast.

SEPT. 14th, 1915

  • Announced Admiral Sir Percy Scott appointed to take charge of the gunnery defences of London against attack by enemy aircraft.
  • More Russian successes in Galicia. At Dzwiniacz, near Wysznewce, thousands of prisoners and guns captured.
  • Officially reported from Petrograd that during period Aug. 20 to Sept. 12, the number of Austrian and German prisoners taken exceeds 40,000.
  • British success at Maktau in East Africa.

SEPT. 15th, 1915

  • Lord Kitchener in Parliament reviews situation. Announces that Sir John French has received eleven divisions of reinforcements, and has taken over from the French about seventeen miles of additional front. The provision of men to keep up the strength in 1916 “has caused us anxious thought. We shall require large additions.”
  • Mr Asquith in House of Commons says the enlistments in both Services were not far short of 3,000,000; the dally war bill should not now exceed £5,000,000
  • Sir John French reports that during past week there had been twenty-one air fights over the German lines, and in eleven cases the hostile aeroplanes were driven to ground.
  • Battle for Dvinsk and Vilna continued, the Russians counter-attacking vigorously. In Galicia desperate battle raged on the Strypa, west of Trembovla (south of Tarnopol). Russians dislodged enemy, crossed to other bank of the Strypa, and took over 1,500 prisoners.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 8655 Henry Edward KENNY, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8655 Private Henry Edward Kenny, 1st Battalion, The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. On 25th September 1915 near Loos, France, Private Kenny went out on six different occasions under very heavy shell, rifle and machine-gun fire. Each time he carried in to a place of safety a wounded man who had been lying in the open. He was himself wounded as he handed the last wounded soldier over the parapet.

SEPT. 16th, 1915

  • Considerable German progress on the road to Dvinsk.
  • Admiralty announces British submarine E7 lost in Dardanelles.
  • Announced that casualties in Dardanelles up to Aug. 21 amount to 87,630 (officers killed 11,301, wounded 2,371, missing 373; men killed 16,478, wounded 59,257, missing 8,021).

SEPT. 14th, 1915

  • Mining warfare reported from Dardanelles.
  • Official account of Zeppelin raids on London district gives the week's casualties as thirty-eight killed and one hundred and twenty-four injured.

SEPT. 18th, 1915

  • Fall of Vilna. - Vilna taken by German forces.
  • Anglo-French bombardment of German positions on Belgian coast.

SEPT. 19th, 1915

  • Bulgaria mobilises and announces armed neutrality.
  • Germans shell Serbian town eight miles south of the Danube.

SEPT. 20th, 1915

  • French gain footing on Aisne-Marne Canal and progress at Hartmannsweilerkopf in the Vosges.
  • Forest of Houthulst fired by British guns.

SEPT. 21st, 1915

  • Despatch from Sir Ian Hamilton published dealing with operations during May and June.
  • Retreat of Russian Army from Vilna reported successfully carried out.
  • Great War Budget introduced in House of Commons by Mr McKenna. New taxes estimated to bring in additional revenue of more than £100,000,000 in a full financial year.

SEPT. 22nd, 1915

  • Air attack on Stuttgart by French aviators.
  • Russians make vigorous attack between Friedrichstadt and Riga, recapturing a bridge-head on the Dwina at Lennewaden.

SEPT. 23rd, 1915

  • French aeroplanes bombed railway line from Verdun to Metz.
  • Fierce artillery duel in region of Arras.
  • Successful raid by British airmen on German communications near Valenciennes.

SEPT. 24th, 1915

  • Mobilisation of Greek Army.
  • Splendid Russian successes reported. Vileika (east of Pinsk) recaptured, Logishin (north-west of Pinsk) reoccupied and Lutzk recaptured. Several villages seized, together with 5,000 prisoners.

SEPT. 25th, 1915

  • French aeroplanes throw forty bombs on Metz.
  • Belgian coast bombarded. French batteries co-operate with British Fleet in bombarding German positions of Westende and Middelkerke.
  • Great Allied Advance after a twenty-five days bombardment. South of La Bassée Canal British troops capture German trenches on a front of over five miles. We capture the western outskirts of Hulluch, the village of Loos, and the mining works around it and Hill 70. We also make an attack near Hooge, on either side of the Menin Road. North, we occupy the Belewarde Farm and Ridge, but these retaken by enemy. The attack in the south gain five hundred yards of enemy’s trenches, 1,700 prisoners, and eight guns, besides machine-guns captured.
  • In Champagne our ally penetrates the German lines on a front of six miles and for a depth varying from one to three miles; 12,000 prisoners taken. In Artois, cemetery at Souchez, and last trenches of enemy cast of the “Labyrinth” taken.
  • Allied Autumn Offensive begins: - Battle of Loos begins
  • Third Battle of Artois begins
  • Second Battle of Champagne begins
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Second Lieutenant Frederick Henry JOHNSON, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Second Lieutenant Frederick Henry Johnson, 73rd Field Company, Royal Engineers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in the attack on Hill 70, France, on 25th September 1915. Second Lieutenant Johnson was with a section of his company of the Royal Engineers. Although wounded in the leg, he stuck to his duty throughout the attack, led several charges on the German Redoubt, and at a very critical time, under very heavy fire, repeatedly rallied the men who were near him. By his splendid example and cool courage he was mainly instrumental in saving the situation and in establishing firmly his part of the position which had been taken. He remained at his post until relieved in the evening.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Arthur Forbes Gordon KILBY, South Staffordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Arthur Forbes Gordon Kilby, 2nd Battalion, The South Staffordshire Regiment. On 25th September near Cuinchy France, Captain Kilby was selected, at his own request, to attack with his company a strong enemy redoubt. The company charged along the narrow tow-path, headed by the captain, who, although wounded at the outset, continued to lead his men right up to the enemy wire under devastating machine-gun fire and a shower of bombs. Here he was shot down, but although his foot had been blown off, he continued to cheer his men on and to use his rifle. He was missing after this action and was later presumed killed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Piper 15851 Daniel LAIDLAW, King's Own Scottish Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 15851 Piper Daniel Laidlaw, 7th Battalion, The King's Own Scottish Borderers. For most conspicuous bravery prior to an assault on German trenches near Loos and Hill 70, France on 25th September 1915. During the worst of the bombardment when the attack was about to commence, Piper Laidlaw, seeing that his company was somewhat shaken from the effects of gas, with absolute coolness and disregard of danger mounted the parapet, marched up and down and played his company out of the trench. The effect was immediate, and the company dashed out to the assault. Piper Laidlaw continued playing his pipes till he was wounded.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant George Allan MALING, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant George Allan Maling, M.B., Royal Army Medical Corps. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the heavy fighting near Fauquissart, France on 25th September 1915. Lieutenant Maling worked incessantly with untiring energy from 6.15 a.m. on the 25th till 8 a.m. on the 26th, collecting and treating in the open under heavy shell fire more than 300 men. At about 11 a.m. on the 25th he was flung down and temporarily stunned by the bursting of a large high explosive shell, which wounded his only assistant and killed several of his patients. A second shell soon after covered him and his instruments with debris, but his high courage and zeal never failed him and he continued his gallant work single-handed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private R.11941 George PEACHMENT, King's Royal Rifle Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. R.11941 Private George Peachment, 2nd Battalion, The King's Royal Rifle Corps. For most conspicuous bravery near Hulluch, France, on 25th September 1915. During very heavy fighting, when our front line was compelled to retire in order to reorganise, Private Peachment, seeing his Company Commander, Captain Dubs, lying wounded, crawled to assist him. The enemy's fire was intense, but though there was a shell hole quite close, in which a few men had taken cover, Private Peachment never thought of saving himself. He knelt in the open by his Officer and tried to help him, but while doing this he was first wounded by a bomb and a minute later mortally wounded by a rifle bullet. He was one of the youngest men in his battalion and gave this splendid example of courage and self-sacrifice.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Anketell Moutray READ, Northamptonshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Anketell Montray Read, 1st Battalion, The Northamptonshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery during the first attack near Hulloch, France, on the morning of 25th September 1915. Although partially gassed, Captain Read went out several times in order to rally parties of different units which were disorganised and retiring. He led them back into the firing line, and, utterly regardless of danger, moved freely about encouraging them under a withering fire. He was mortally wounded while carrying out this gallant work. Captain Read had previously shown conspicuous bravery during digging operations on 29th, 30th and 31st August 1915 and on the night of the 29th-30th July he carried out of action an Officer, who was mortally wounded, under a hot fire from rifles and grenades.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 3719 Arthur VICKERS, Royal Warwickshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3719 Private Arthur Vickers, 2nd Battalion, The Royal Warwickshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery on 25th September 1915, during operations before Hulluch, France. During an attack by his battalion on the first line German trenches, Private Vickers, on his own initiative and with the utmost bravery, went forward in front of his company under very heavy shell, rifle and machine-gun fire, and cut the wires which were holding up a great part of the battalion. Although it was broad daylight at the time he carried out this work standing up. His gallant action contributed largely to the success of the assault.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant L/8088 Harry Wells, Royal Sussex Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8088 Serjeant Harry Wells, 2nd Battalion, The Royal Sussex Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery near Le Rutoire, Loos, France on 25th September 1915. When his Platoon Officer had been killed he took command and led his men forward to within fifteen yards of the German wire. Nearly half the Platoon were killed or wounded, and the remainder were much shaken, but with the utmost coolness and bravery Serjeant Wells rallied them and led them forward. Finally, when very few were left, he stood up and urged them forward once more, but while doing this he was killed. He gave a magnificent example of courage and determination.

SEPT. 26th, 1915

  • Fierce German counter-attack on ground won by British, with result that we hold all ground gained, including whole of Loos, except some ground just north. Quarries north-West of Hulluch won and lost; on the previous day retaken. Number of prisoners totals 2,600, and nine guns.
  • The attack to north of Arras results in fresh progress.  Whole of village of Souchez occupied. Farther south La Folie reached. 1,000 prisoners taken in this fighting. In Champagne more ground gained. Number of prisoners to date exceeds 16,000 unwounded men.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel Angus Falconer DOUGLAS-HAMILTON, Cameron Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Major (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Angus Falconer Douglas-hamilton, Reserve of Officers, Commanding 6th Battalion, The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when commanding his battalion during operations on 25th and 26th September 1915 on Hill 70. On the 26th, when the battalions on his right and left had retired, he rallied his own battalion again and again, and led his men forward four times. The last time he led all that remained, consisting of about fifty men, in a most gallant manner and was killed at their head. It was mainly due to his bravery, untiring energy and splendid leadership that the line at this point was enabled to check the enemy's advance.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 18274 Robert DUNSIRE, Royal Scots awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 18274 Private Robert Dunsire, 13th Battalion, The Royal Scots (Lothian Regiment). For most conspicuous bravery on Hill 70, France on 26th September 1915. Private Dunsire went out under very heavy fire and rescued a wounded man from between the firing lines. Later, when another man considerably nearer the German lines was heard shouting for help, he crawled out again with utter disregard to the enemy's fire and carried him in also. Shortly afterwards the Germans attacked over this ground.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 3/10133 Arthur Frederick SAUNDERS, Suffolk Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3/10133 Serjeant Arthur Frederick Saunders, 9th (Service) Battalion, The Suffolk Regiment. On 26th September 1915 near Loos, France, when his officer had been wounded during the attack, Serjeant Saunders took charge of two machine-guns and a few men and, although severely wounded in the thigh, closely followed the last four charges of another battalion, giving them all possible support. Later, when the remains of the battalion which he had been supporting was forced to retire, he stuck to one of his guns and in spite of his wound, continued to give clear orders. By keeping his gun in action he helped to cover the retirement.

SEPT. 27th, 1915

  • North-west of Hulluch British repulse counterattacks. East of Loos our offensive progresses. Captures to date amount to fifty-three officers, 2,800 men, eighteen guns, and thirty-two machine-guns.
  • General Evert defeats Germans near Vileika.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 1665 Alfred Alexander BURT, Hertfordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1665 Corporal Alfred Alexander Burt, 1st Battalion, Hertfordshire Regiment, Territorial Force. For most conspicuous bravery at Cuinchy, France on 27th September 1915. His company had lined the front trench preparatory to an attack when a large minenwerfer bomb fell into the trench. Corporal Burt, who well knew the destructive power of this class of bomb, might easily have got under cover behind a traverse, but he immediately went forward, put his foot on the fuse, wrenched it out of the bomb and threw it over the parapet, thus rendering the bomb innocuous. His presence of mind and great pluck saved the lives of others in the traverse.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 12087 James Dalgleish POLLOCK, Cameron Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 12087 Corporal James Dalgleish Pollock, 5th Battalion, The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery near the Hohenzollern Redoubt, France on 27th September 1915. At about 12 noon, when the enemy's bombers in superior numbers were successfully working up the “Little Willie” trench towards Hohenzollern Redoubt, Corporal Pollock, after obtaining permission, got out of the trench alone, walked along the top edge with the utmost coolness and disregard of danger and compelled the enemy's bombers to retire by bombing them from above. He was under heavy machine-gun fire the whole time, but continued to hold up the progress of the Germans for an hour, when he was at length wounded.

SEPT. 28th, 1915

  • Reported Austrian retreat from Brody, fifty miles north-east of Lemberg. Russians occupy Kovel.
  • Severe fighting round Loos, where progress made to the south. Total prisoners to date 3,000, and twenty-one guns and forty machine-guns.
  • French take nine hundred more prisoners in Champagne and threaten the Crown Prince's supply-line in the Argonne.
  • Defeat of Turks at Kut-el-Amara, on the Tigris. They retreat towards Bagdad.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Commander Edgar Christopher COOKSON, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant-Commander Edgar Christopher Cookson, Royal Navy. On the 28th September 1915, the river gunboat Comet had been ordered with other gunboats to examine and, if possible, destroy an obstruction placed across the river by the Turks. When the gunboats were approaching the obstruction a very heavy rifle and machine-gun fire was opened on them from both banks. An attempt to sink the centre dhow of the obstruction by gunfire having failed, Lieutenant-Commander Cookson ordered the Comet to be placed alongside, and himself jumped on to the dhow with an axe and tried to cut wire hawsers connecting it with the two other craft forming the obstruction. He was immediately shot in several places and died within a very few minutes.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Alexander Buller TURNER, Royal Berkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Alexander Buller Turner, 3rd Battalion (attached 1st Battalion), Princess Charlotte of Wales's (Royal Berkshire Regiment). For most conspicuous bravery on 28th September 1915, at “Fosse 8,” near Vermelles, France. When the regimental bombers could make no headway in Slag Alley, Second Lieutenant Turner volunteered to lead a new bombing attack. He pressed down the communication trench practically alone, throwing bombs incessantly with such dash and determination that he drove back the Germans about 150 yards without a check. His action enabled the reserves to advance with very little loss, and subsequently covered the flank of his regiment in its retirement, thus probably averting a loss of some hundreds of men. This most gallant Officer has since died of wounds received in this action.

SEPT. 29th, 1915

  • French progress east of Souchez continued, and Hill 140 on crests of Vimy commanding Lens reached after obstinate fighting.
  • Announced that British force in Mesopotamia captured Turkish positions on the Tigris, in front of Kut-el-Amara.
  • Enemy in full flight towards Bagdad.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Second Lieutenant Arthur James Terence FLEMING-SANDES, East Surrey Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: - Temporary Second Lieutenant Arthur James Terence Fleming-Sandes, 2nd Battalion, The East Surrey Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery at Hohenzollern Redoubt, France, on 29th September1915. Second Lieutenant Fleming-Sandes was sent to command a company which at the time was in a very critical position. The troops on his right were retiring and his own men, who were much shaken by continual bombing and machine-gun fire, were also beginning to retire owing to shortage of bombs. Taking in the situation at a glance, he collected a few bombs, jumped on to the parapet in full view of the Germans, who were only twenty yards away, and threw them. Although very severely wounded almost at once by a bomb, he struggled to his feet and continued to advance and throw bombs till he was again severely wounded. This most gallant act put new heart into his men, rallied them and saved the situation.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 8273 Samuel HARVEY, York And Lancaster Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8273 Private Samuel Harvey, 1st Battalion, The York and Lancaster Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery in “Big Willie” trench, France, on 29th September 1915. During a heavy bombing attack by the enemy, and when more bombs were urgently required for our front, Private Harvey volunteered to fetch them. The communication trench was blocked with wounded and reinforcements, and he went backwards and forwards across the open under intense fire and succeeded in bringing up no less than thirty boxes of bombs before he was wounded in the head. It was mainly due to Private Harvey's cool bravery in supplying bombs that the enemy was eventually driven back.

SEPT. 30th, 1915

  • More Champagne gains at Hill 185, the Butte de Tahure, and before Ripont.
  • Lord Derby assumes control of recruiting in Great Britain.
  • In Belgium French heavy artillery supports the action of British Fleet against German coast batteries.
  • Details of British 'Victory on the Tigris show that we captured 1,650 prisoners and four guns, and that the pursuit to Bagdad is in full swing.
  • Petrograd reports Russians abandoned Lutzk, the Volhynia fortress. East of this place stubborn fighting occurred our ally being obliged to retire in some sectors.

OCTOBER 1915

OCT. 1st, 1915

  • Sir E. Grey announces that German officers are taking control of the Bulgarian Army.
  • Allied aviators attack German railway communications radiating from Valenciennes and Vouziers.

OCT. 2nd, 1915

  • Sir John French reports that our counter-attack recovered two trenches south-west of Fosse 8 and to the north-west of Loos.
  • East of Souchez the French advance on the heights of La Folie.

OCT. 3rd, 1915

  • Petrograd reports that the enemy has been “crumpled up” near Vileika.
  • Germans succeed in retaking the greater part of the Hohenzollern Redoubt.

OCT. 4th, 1915

  • Russian Ultimatum to Bulgaria.
  • Turks defeated in the Caucasus near Van.
  • North of Arras French make progress in the Givenchy Wood, and on Hill 119, where they occupy the cross-roads. Later the enemy gains footing at latter place.

OCT. 5th, 1915

  • Allied Forces land at Salonika.
  • Violent bombardment in Artois and Champagne.
  • Diplomatic relations between Russia and Bulgaria broken off.
  • Lord Derby appointed Official Director of Recruiting.

OCT. 6th, 1915

  • French carry the village of Tahure by assault, and progress in vicinity of Navarin Farm.
  • M. Venizelos, Greek Premier, resigns.

OCT. 7th, 1915

  • Invasion of Serbia by German and Austro-Hungarian troops.
  • In Artois, French progress south of Thélus, near to Arras-Lille road.

OCT. 8th, 1915

  • Serbian official report states that enemy's advance guard which crossed Danube at Belgrade fortress was partly destroyed and partly captured.
  • South-east of Tahure, in Champagne, French gain footing in the “Trapeze,” and capture several trenches.
  • Great German attack on Loos completely repulsed.
  • Battle of Loos ends
  • British submarine sinks German transport in the Baltic.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Serjeant 6738 Oliver BROOKS Coldstream Guards, 3rd Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6738 Lance-Sergeant Oliver Brooks, 3rd Battalion, Coldstream Guards. For most conspicuous bravery near Loos, France on 8th October 1915. A strong party of the enemy having captured 200 yards of our trenches, Lance-Sergeant Brooks, on his own initiative, led a party of bombers in the most determined manner, and succeeded in regaining possession of the lost ground. The signal bravery displayed by this Non-commissioned Officer, in the midst of a hail of bombs from the Germans, was of the very first order, and the complete success attained in a very dangerous undertaking was entirely due to his absolute fearlessness, presence of mind and promptitude.

OCT. 9th, 1915

  • Sir John French reports that we pushed our trenches steadily forward north-east of Loos between Hill 70 and Hulluch, and gained ground varying from 500 to 1,000 yards in depth. Great numbers of the enemy's dead “are lying in front of our lines.”
  • Belgrade occupied by Austro-German troops.

OCT. 10th, 1915

  • In Champagne, French progress to the north-east of Tahure.

OCT. 11th, 1915

  • Sir John French's despatch proves that German attack on the allied positions at Loos was executed on a great scale. He reports that a very severe reverse was inflicted on the enemy. A French estimate gives the total German dead as nearly 8,000 before the allied lines.
  • French make marked progress to the west of the Souchez Angres road, and in the Bois de Givenchy.
  • Bulgarians invade Serbia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Sergeant 36830 John Crawshaw RAYNES, Royal Field Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 36830 Acting Serjeant John Crawshaw Raynes, “A” Battery, 71st Brigade, Royal Field Artillery. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 11th October 1915 at Fosse 7 de Bethune, France, his battery was being heavily bombarded by armour-piercing and gas shells. On “Cease fire” being ordered Serjeant Raynes went out under an intense shell fire to assist Serjeant Ayres, who was lying wounded forty yards away. He bandaged him, and returned to his gun when it was again ordered into action. A few minutes later “Cease fire” was again ordered owing to the intensity of the enemy's fire, and Serjeant Raynes, calling on two gunners to help him – both of whom were killed shortly afterwards – went out and carried Serjeant Ayres into a dug-out. A gas shell burst at the mouth of the dug-out, and Serjeant Raynes once more ran across the open, fetched his own smoke helmet, put it on Serjeant Ayres and then, himself badly gassed, staggered back to serve his gun. On 12 October 1915 at Quality Street, a house was knocked down by a heavy shell, four men being buried in the house and four in the cellar. The first man rescued was Serjeant Raynes, wounded in the head and leg, but he insisted on remaining under heavy shell fire to assist in the rescue of all the other men. Then, after having his wounds dressed, he reported himself immediately for duty with his battery, which was again being heavily shelled.

OCT. 12th, 1915

  • French make progress towards the ravine of La Goutte, in Champagne.
  • Miss Edith Cavell, English nurse, shot by Germans in Brussels.
  • Russian victory in Galicia, near village of Haivarenka, west of Trembovlia. Austrian line pierced at two points, and River Strypa crossed.

OCT. 13th, 1915

  • Zeppelin raid on London. Fifty-six persons killed, and 114 injured.
  • British gas attack in the West. After a bombardment we attacked German trenches under cover of a cloud of smoke and gas south-west of Hulluch to the Hohenzollern Redoubt. South-west of St. Elie enemy's trenches behind Vermelles-Hulluch road captured, also the main trench of the Hohenzollern Redoubt.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 91608 James Lennox DAWSON, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No.91608 Corporal James Lennox Dawson, 187th Company, Royal Engineers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on 13th October 1915, at Hohenzollern Redoubt, France. During a gas attack, when the trenches were full of men, he walked backwards and forwards along the parados, fully exposed to a very heavy fire, in order to be the better able to give directions to his own sappers, and to clear the infantry out of the sections of the trench that were full of gas. Finding three leaking gas cylinders, he rolled them some 16 yards away from the trench again under very heavy fire, and then fired rifle bullets into them to let the gas escape. There is no doubt that the cool gallantry of Corporal Dawson on this occasion saved many men from being gassed.

OCT. 14th, 1915

  • French aerial squadron bombards railway station of Bazancourt, on the Champagne rear front.
  • Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temp. Captain Charles Geoffrey VICKERS, Sherwood Foresters awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant (temporary Captain) Charles Geoffrey Vickers, 1st/7th (Robin Hood) Battalion, The Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment), Territorial Force. For most conspicuous bravery on 14th October 1915 in the Hohenzollern Redoubt, France. When nearly all his men had been killed or wounded, and with only two men available to hand him bombs, Captain Vickers held a barrier for some hours against heavy German bomb attacks from front and flank. Regardless of the fact that his own retreat would be cut off, he had ordered a second barrier to be built behind him in order to ensure the safety of the trench. Finally he was severely wounded, but not before his magnificent courage and determination had enabled the second barrier to be completed. A critical situation was thus saved.

OCT. 15th, 1915

  • Germans retake the summit of the Hartmannsweiler in the Vosges.
  • Third Battle of Artois ends

OCT. 16th, 1915

  • Officially reported that British submarines sank five German transports in the Baltic Sea.
  • Russians pierce German lines at Ustie, on western shore of Lake Boginskoe.
  • French aeroplanes bombard Treves.

OCT. 17th, 1915

  • French regain Hartmannsweilerkopf.
  • Italian occupation of Pregasina.

OCT. 18th, 1915

  • New Dardanelles Commander. -General Sir Charles C. Monro, K.C.B., succeeds Sir Ian Hamilton.
  • Allies occupy Strumnitza (Strumitza).
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 10210 Harry CHRISTIAN, King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Private Harry Christian, 2nd Battalion, The King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment). On 18th October 1915 at Cuinchy, France, Private Christian was holding a crater with five or six men in front of the Allied lines. The enemy started a fierce bombardment of the position, forcing a temporary withdrawal. When he found that three men were missing, Private Christian at once returned alone to the crater and although bombs were continually bursting actually on the edge of the crater, he found, dug out and carried one by one into safety, all the three men. Later he placed himself where he could see the bombs coming and directed his comrades when and where to seek cover.

OCT. 19th, 1915

  • New German thrust at Riga.
  • Germans attack in great force on a front of eight miles just west of the point where the French are attacking in Champagne. Some portions of French first line taken, but counter-attack drove enemy back with important losses.
  • Salonika railway line cut by Bulgarians.
  • German attack at Hulluch. Enemy, after a heavy bombardment, attacks our front from the quarries to Hulluch, but is defeated by our artillery and rifle fire. Attacks in the neighbourhood of the Hohenzollern Redoubt and Fosse 8 repulsed. Enemy's losses very severe.

OCT. 20th, 1915

  • French destroy German munitions stores to the north of the Aisne and to the north of the Navarin Farm.
  • Germans advancing on Riga reach Olai, twelve miles south-west of the city.
  • Great Russian victory. General Ivanoff carries by assault town of Chartoryisk, on the Styr; 750 prisoners and 9 guns taken.

OCT. 21st, 1915

  • German attack in force east of Rheims defeated.
  • Russians carry German positions east of Baranovitschi; 3,500 prisoners taken.
  • Russian fleet bombards Varna.
  • Serbians admit Bulgarians have cut railway between Uskub and Nish.

OCT. 22nd, 1915

  • Allied Fleets bombard Dedeagach.
  • Italian offensive along the Tyrol and Trentino frontier progressing.
  • Bulgarians occupy Uskub.
  • British occupy Bamenda (Cameroon).

OCT. 23rd, 1915

  • Italians take Mount Nodic, on the west bank of Lake Garda, thus completing their command of the Ledro Valley.
  • German cruiser S.M.S Prinz Adalbert sunk by British submarine E.-8 in the Baltic.
  • French troops cross Greek frontier and join forces with Serbian troops.
  • Serbian official report admits capture of Veles, on the Nish-Salonika railway.

OCT. 24th, 1915

  • British submarine near Libau attacks and sinks German cruiser Prince Adalbert.
  • Russian warships shell Bulgarian ports of Varna and Burgas.
  • Strong German salient on the northern slopes of Hill 196, one and a quarter mile to north of Mesnil les Hurlus, known as the Courtine, carried.
  • British occupy Banjo (Cameroon).

OCT. 25th, 1915

  • Germans counter-attack on the whole front of the Courtine work, and reoccupy in the centre some portions of trenches.
  • Franco-Serbians recapture Veles.

OCT. 26th, 1915

  • Announced that the King is in France on visit to his Army.
  • British transport Marquette torpedoed in the Aegean, ninety-nine men missing.
  • French troops carry a German trench north-east of Massiges.

OCT. 27th, 1915

  • Austrians across the Drina, east of Vishegrad.
  • Uskub retaken by Serbians.
  • Varna bombarded by Russian fleet.
  • Total Italian captures for the week along the Isonzo front over 5,000.
  • German attack to the east of Rheims launched on a great scale, backed with use of poisonous gas. Enemy repulsed.

OCT. 28th, 1915

  • French Ministry resigns. -M. Briand forms new Cabinet.
  • Bulgarians holding a line from Zaitchar, through Kniashevatz, to a height north of Pirot, and threatening Nish.
  • H.M.S cruiser Argyll grounds off East Coast of Scotland. All her crew saved.
  • Announced that Lieutenant-General Sir Bryan Mahon is in command of British forces in the Balkans.

OCT. 29th, 1915

  • H.M.S. Hythe, auxiliary mine-sweeper, sunk after being in collision with another ship off Gallipoli Peninsula; 155 men missing.
  • Bulgarians recapture Veles.
  • General Joffre arrives in London to take part in important war consultations.
  • Total British casualties to Oct. 9 published- 493,264.

OCT. 30th, 1915

  • Germans retake summit of the Butte de Tahure.

OCT. 31st, 1915

  • Fierce struggle for possession of portions of trenches recaptured by Germans east of Neuville St. Vaast; French regain possession of some of them.

NOVEMBER 1915

NOV. 1st, 1915

  • Battle for Nish. -Bulgarians force the Tresibaba position, twenty miles north-east of the city and fierce fighting in progress along the heights dominating the Nishava Valley. Kragujevatz, the Serbian arsenal, captured by the Germans.
  • H.M. torpedo-boat No. 96 sunk in Strait of Gibraltar, after being in collision with a mercantile fleet auxiliary.

NOV. 2nd, 1915

  • Despatch on Battle of Loos from Sir John French published.
  • Serbian Campaign. On the north-west front the enemy attacks in force the south-east bank of the Lepenitza. He is repulsed in the centre with heavy losses.

NOV. 3rd, 1915

  • Russian success in Galicia.
  • After the enemy had rushed the village of Siemikowice (on the Strypa), Russians counter-attacked. All the enemy troops, who had penetrated the Siemikowice front, about 5,000 men in all, were captured.
  • Italians pierce enemy's fourth-line trenches on the Podgora heights.
  • British cavalry operating in Serbia with the left wing of the Southern Serbian Army are thrown across the path of the Bulgarians advancing south towards Prilep and Monastir.
  • The Austro-German -army of invasion occupies Ushitze.

NOV. 4th, 1915

  • Greek Ministry defeated in Chamber by party of M. Venizelos. The Prime Minister, M. Zaimis, resigns.
  • French positions in Champagne round the Chausson Farm taken by Germans, retaken by the French, and again violently attacked by the enemy.
  • On the Russian front fighting took place west of Dvinsk and on the Strypa. Both sides claimed successes.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 17424 Thomas KENNY, Durham Light Infantry, 13th (Service) Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 17424 Private Thomas Kenny, 13th (Service) Battalion, The Durham Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on the night of 4 November 1915, near La Houssoie, France. When on patrol in a thick fog with Lieutenant Brown, 13th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry, some Germans, who were lying out in a ditch in front of their parapet, opened fire and shot Lieutenant Brown through both thighs. Private Kenny, although heavily and repeatedly fired upon, crawled about for more than an hour with his wounded officer on his back, trying to find his way through the fog to our trenches. He refused more than once to go on alone, although told by Lieutenant Brown to do so. At last, when utterly exhausted, he came to a ditch which he recognised, placed Lieutenant Brown it, and went to look for help. He found an officer and a few men of his battalion at a listening post, and after guiding them back, with their assistance Lieutenant brown was brought in, although the Germans again opened heavy fire with rifles and machine-guns, and threw bombs at 30 yards distance. Private Kenny's pluck, endurance and devotion to duty were beyond praise.

NOV. 5th, 1915

  • Press Bureau announces Lord Kitchener's temporary absence from the War Office on public duty.
  • Press Bureau announces sinking of British transport Ramazan by shell fire from an enemy submarine on Sept. 19 in the Aegean Sea. Of 380 Indian troops on board, 75 were saved.
  • H.M. armed boarding-steamer Tara sunk by enemy submarine in Eastern Mediterranean.
  • Bulgarians enter Nish.

NOV. 6th, 1915

  • On the Riga front Russians successfully attack the Germans near Olai.
  • Second Battle of Champagne ends
  • In Champagne a fresh German attack against French trenches in the Courtine earthworks completely fails.
  • Announced that Lord Kitchener has left England at request of his colleagues for a short visit to the Near East.

NOV. 7th, 1915

  • Italian liner Ancona torpedoed off Sardinia by Austrian submarine, 222 persons missing.
  • Between the Somme and the Oise the French carry a German post in front of Andechy.
  • German cruiser Undine sunk by submarine E19 in Baltic.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Gilbert Stuart Martin INSALL, Royal Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Gilbert Stuart Martin Insall, No. 11 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. For most conspicuous bravery, skill and determination, on 7th November, 1915, in France. He was patrolling in a Vickers Fighting Machine with First Class Air Mechanic T H Donald as gunner, when a German machine was sighted, pursued and attacked near Achiet. The German pilot led the Vickers machine over a rocket battery, but with great skill Lieutenant Insall dived and got to close range, when Donald fired a drum of cartridges into the German machine, stopping its engine. The German pilot then dived through a cloud, followed by Lieutenant Insall. Fire was again opened, and the German machine was brought down heavily in a ploughed field 4 miles south-east of Arras. On seeing the Germans scramble out of their machine and prepare to fire, Lieutenant Insall dived to 500 feet, thus enabling Donald to open fire on them. The Germans then fled, one helping the other, who was apparently wounded. Other Germans then commenced heavy fire, but in spite of this, Lieutenant Insall turned again, and an incendiary bomb was dropped on the German machine, which was last seen wreathed in smoke. Lieutenant Insall then headed west in order to get back over the German trenches, but as he was at only 2,000 feet altitude he dived across them for greater speed, Donald firing into the trenches as he passed over. The German fire, however, damaged the petrol tank, and, with great coolness, Lieutenant Insall landed under cover of a wood 500 yards inside our lines. The Germans fired some 150 shells at our machine on the ground, but without causing material damage. Much damage had, however, been caused by rifle fire, but during the night it was repaired behind screened lights, and at dawn Lieutenant Insall flew his machine home with First Class Air Mechanic T H Donald as a passenger.

NOV. 8th, 1915

  • Austro-German invaders of Serbia enter Krushevatz.
  • To the north of St. Mihiel French batteries demolish a German anti-aircraft gun.

NOV. 9th, 1915

  • Main line through Nish to Sofia and Constantinople reported almost wholly in enemy hands.
  • In Champagne a very violent cannonade on both sides in, the region of Tahure and of the Butte de Mesnil is reported.

NOV. 10th, 1915

  • British transport Mercian attacked by gun fire from enemy submarine in the Mediterranean; 103 casualties.
  • Near Kolki, on the River Styr Russians break enemy's line, and in the pursuit take 50 officers, 2,000 men, and 20 machine-guns.
  • Lord kitchener arrives at the Dardanelles
  • Announced that H.M torpedo-boat destroyer Louis has stranded in Eastern Mediterranean and become a total wreck. All officers and crew safe.

NOV. 11th, 1915

  • New War Committee of the Cabinet announced.
  • During the temporary absence of Lord Kitchener, it consists of five members-Mr Asquith, Mr Balfour, Mr Lloyd George, Mr Bonar Law, and Mr McKenna.
  • First British advance on Baghdad begins.
  • Germans reported to have abandoned part of the country west of Riga.

NOV. 12th, 1915

  • Bombardment very active on both sides in the sector of Loos.
  • The Greek Government, having failed to come to any working arrangement with Venizelist majority, dissolves the Chamber.
  • Bulgarians, with force of 30,000 men, attack the French left wing in Southern Serbia, but are compelled to retreat.

NOV. 13th, 1915

  • Russian troops in the Schlock region pursue the enemy, inflict great losses on him, and advance west of Kemmern.

NOV. 14th, 1915

  • French army slowly pushing up the Valley of the Vardar towards Veles. West of the river they hold the heights, where they are in touch with the Serbians defending the Babuna district.
  • German attack penetrates the French trenches in the Labyrinth, but the enemy are dislodged by a counter-attack.
  • Air raid on Verona by three Austrian aeroplanes seventy-eight persons killed and injured.

NOV. 15th, 1915

  • Successful attack on Turkish trenches in Gallipoli 160 yards on east of the Krithia Nullah and 120 yards in the west gained.
  • Serbians reported to be still holding the Kathanik Pass and to have retaken Kalkandelen (Tetovo) from the Bulgarians. German army under, Von Gallwitz fighting in the Toplitza Valley, west of Nish.
  • Continuance of fighting in the Labyrinth in Artois.
  • Officially reported from Petrograd that during the past month Russians took 674 officers and 49,200 men prisoners capturing 21 guns and 118 machine-guns.

NOV. 16th, 1915

  • Bulgarians reported to have taken Krushevo, and to be six miles east of Prilep, thus endangering Serbian Southern Army and its allies.
  • Despatch from Sir John French reports that, since November 10, artillery on both sides have been active, especially south of the La Bassée Canal, east of Kemmel, and east of Ypres. He also reports considerable mining activity.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 9730 John CAFFREY, York And Lancaster Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 9730 Private John Caffrey, 2nd Battalion, The York and Lancaster Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery on 16th November 1915, near La Brique, France. A man of the West Yorkshire Regiment had been badly wounded and was lying in full view of and about 300 to 400 yards from the enemy's trenches. Corporal Stirk, Royal Army Medical Corps, and Private Caffrey at once started out to rescue him, but at the first attempt they were driven back by shrapnel fire. Soon afterwards they started again under close sniping and machine-gun fire, and succeeded in reaching and bandaging the wounded man, but, just as Corporal Stirk had lifted him on Private Caffrey's back, he himself was shot in the head. Private Caffrey put down the wounded man, bandaged Corporal Stirk and helped him back into safety. He then returned and brought in the man of the West Yorkshire Regiment. He had made three journeys across the open under close and accurate fire and had risked his own life to save others with the utmost coolness and bravery.

NOV. 17th, 1915

  • Allies' War Council. - Announced that Mr Asquith, Sir Edward Grey, Mr Lloyd George, and Mr Balfour have gone to Paris, accompanied by naval, military, and diplomatic advisers, for the purpose of consultation with the French Government.
  • Slight improvement in Serbian operations reported.
  • Bulgarians driven back on the Babuna front, and withdrew to Mount Arkangel, after an abortive attempt to pierce the French lines on the left bank of the Tserna. Bulgarians lost 4.000 men in the action.
  • Hospital ship S.S Anglia strikes a mine in the Channel and founders; 4 officers, 1 nurse, and 129 men missing.

NOV. 18th, 1915

  • Sir John French rep orts that south-west of Messines our troops forced an entrance into the enemy's front trench.

NOV. 19th, 1915

  • Attempted enemy air raid on Luneville. Fresh German attempts to cross the Dwina north-west of
  • Friedrichstadt failed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 1147 Samuel MEEKOSHA, West Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1147 Corporal Samuel Meekosha, 1/6th Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment, Territorial Force. For most conspicuous bravery near the Yser on 19th November, 1915. He was with a platoon of about 20 Non-Commissioned Officers and men, who were holding an isolated trench. During a very heavy bombardment by the enemy six of the platoon were killed and seven wounded, while all the remainder were more or less buried. When the senior Non-Commissioned Officers had been either killed or wounded Corporal Meekosha at once took command, sent a runner for assistance, and, in spite of no less than 10 more big shells falling within 20 yards of him, continued to dig out the wounded and buried men in full view of the enemy and at close range from the German trenches. By his promptness and magnificent courage and determination he saved at least four lives.

NOV. 20th, 1915

  • Lord Kitchener has audience of King Constantine in Athens.
  • Serbians lose Novi Bazar and Rashka.
  • Bulgarians reported to have occupied Prilep, and advancing on Monastir.

NOV. 21st, 1915

  • Artillery engagements in Artois (around Loos and Hulluch). In the Argonne, at Bolante, the French successfully explode two sets of mines.

NOV. 22nd, 1915

  • Sir John French reports organised bombardment on many portions of the hostile lines during the past four days, and the capture of a German aeroplane.
  • Italian official communiqué describes the struggle during the last eight days for Gorizia. The Italian assaults on every position of defence have brought them within a few yards of the summits of Podgora, San Michele, and San Martino.

NOV. 23rd, 1915

  • Serbian capital removed from Mitrovitza to Prizrend, former being threatened by German and Austrian columns along the roads from Rashka and Novi Bazar.
  • British Victory in Mesopotamia. - Big battle fought at the ruins of Ctesiphon, eighteen miles south-east of Bagdad. Turkish position captured, together with 800 prisoners and war material. Our losses Were 2,000 killed and wounded.
  • Russians capture a first-line enemy trench in the Dwina district. Enemy offensive south-west of Dvinsk repulsed, also on east bank of the Strypa. On the left bank of the Middle Styr Russians attack enemy west of the village of Kozlinitchi, putting him to flight.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal S/107 Alfred George DRAKE, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. S/107 Corporal Alfred Drake, 8th Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own). For most conspicuous bravery on the night of 23rd November 1915, near La Brique, Belgium. Corporal Drake was one of a patrol of four which was reconnoitring towards the German lines. The patrol was discovered when close to the enemy, who opened heavy fire with rifles and a machine-gun, wounding the Officer and one man. The latter was carried back by the last remaining man. Corporal Drake remained with his Officer, and was last seen kneeling beside him and bandaging his wounds regardless of the enemy's fire. Later, a rescue party crawling near the German lines found the Officer and Corporal, the former unconscious but alive and bandaged, Corporal Drake beside him dead and riddled with bullets. He had given his own life and saved his Officer.

NOV. 24th, 1915

  • In Serbia the plain of Kossovo carried by enemy. Serbian army retreats towards the Albanian border.
  • Field-Marshal von der Goltz takes command of Turkish forces in Mesopotamia.
  • Note presented to Greece by the Entente Powers as to the security of the Allied troops in Macedonia.

NOV. 25th, 1915

  • Growing Turkish activity reported in an official French communiqué. Three successive attempts to retake trenches captured by the British on November 15 failed completely.
  • General Sir Charles Monro appointed Commander-in-Chief reconstituted Mediterranean Expeditionary Force with Sir William Birdwood General Officer Commanding Dardanelles Army
  • Russians reported to have concentrated important forces on the Danube.
  • In Galicia, near Siemikowice, on the Strypa, Russian troops attack the enemy, and drive him to the river, where many are drowned.

NOV. 26th, 1915

  • Battle of Ctesiphon. - General Nixon reports that Turks retreated from scene of battle on Nov. 23-25 to Ctesiphon, a point ten miles south of Bagdad; 1,300 prisoners taken.
  • Another Note presented to Greece by Allied Powers demanding assurances.

NOV. 27th, 1915

  • German poison-gas attack between Forges and Bethincourt, to the west of the Meuse, failed.

NOV. 28th, 1915

  • German submarine destroyed off Middelkerke by British aeroplane.

NOV. 29th, 1915

  • British forces withdrawn from Ctesiphon, owing to Turkish reinforcements.

NOV. 30th, 1915

  • Prisrend taken by Bulgarians.
  • Lord Kitchener returns to London.

DECEMBER 1915

DEC. 1st, 1915

  • In Belgium, east of Boesinghe, Allied batteries inflict important damage to enemy defensive works.
  • Russians rout Turks near Lake Van.

DEC. 2nd, 1915

  • Baron Sonnino announces that Italy has signed the Pact of the Allies to make no separate peace.
  • British air raid against Don Station.
  • Fall of Monastir.

DEC. 3rd, 1915

  • General Joffre appointed Commander-in-Chief of the French Armies, with General de Castelnau as his Chief of Staff.
  • British forces, retreating from Ctesiphon, reach Kut.
  • In Belgium, south of Lombaertzyde, the French retake a small post which had been captured by the Germans.

DEC. 4th, 1915

  • It is announced that General Townshend, on the night of Nov 30th - Dec 1st, fought a rear-guard action at Azizie against greatly superior Turkish forces. Two river-boats disabled by shell-fire and abandoned. Our total casualties in the various actions amounted to 4,567.

DEC. 5th, 1915

  • Artillery active in the West. In Artois our batteries vigorously reply to violent bombardment of our trenches at the double slag-heap south-west of Loos

DEC. 6th, 1915

  • Rumanian military authorities commandeer all vessels of foreign ownership anchored in Rumanian ports.
  • British Submarine Exploits. - Admiralty announces that British submarine operating in the Sea of Marmora fired at and damaged a train on Ismid Railway, torpedoed and sank Turkish destroyer Yar Hissar, and sank a supply steamer off Panderma by gun fire.
  • It is announced that General Townshend's force has reached Kut-el-Amara without further fighting.
  • General Joffre presides at first general meeting of Allies Military Council of War in Paris.

DEC. 7th, 1915

  • In Champagne fighting continues for possession of the advanced trench south of St. Soup let. Counter-attacks enable the French to regain a large part of the lost ground.
  • French troops in Balkans reported to have withdrawn from Krivolak to Demir Kapu.

DEC. 8th, 1915

  • Our losses in the action at Ctesiphon announced at 643 killed, 3,330 wounded, and 594 missing.
  • German attacks in Champagne. East of the Souain Hill French counter-attacks succeed in overcoming the German attack, launched on Dec 7th. Artillery violent on both sides.
  • British forces at Anzac and Suvla areas of Gallipoli are ordered to evacuate; begins on 19th December.

DEC. 9th, 1915

  • The first War Office report of Balkan operations states that on Dec 7th the Bulgarians drove our troops out of their position, who, under cover of darkness, withdrew to a new line. On the 8ththey repulsed all attacks, but withdrew to a new position.
  • Hard fighting on the Champagne front. A counterattack by the French east of the Butte de Souain pushes enemy back.

DEC. 10th, 1915

  • Russian Stroke in Persia. - Petrograd announces Russian success between Teheran and Hamadan, in which several thousand Persian rebels were defeated.

DEC. 11th, 1915

  • On the Heights of the Meuse, in the sector of the Bouchet Wood, the French artillery causes serious damage to the German first line and supporting trenches.

DEC. 12th, 1915

  • An official bulletin shows that one British division in the Balkans had to fight its way back against heavy odds.
  • The gallantry of the troops, especially of three Irish regiments, enabled the withdrawal to be successfully accomplished. Eight British guns were lost; our casualties were 1,500.
  • Text of American Note to Austria on sinking of Ancona issued.
  • Close of first Derby Recruiting Campaign.

DEC. 13th, 1915

  • Despatch about Kut-el-Amara published. Turks attacked British positions on Dec 10th and 11th. On latter day enemy repulsed with heavy loss.
  • Announced that Greece has agreed to allow the necessary freedom of action for Allied troops at Salonika.
  • Arab force in Western Egypt defeated by British under Colonel Gordon.

DEC. 14th, 1915

  • Messages from Greece show that the Allied troops have completely retired from Serbia into Greek territory.
  • Salonika fortified by the Allies.
  • Reported that Belgian powder works near Havre have been blown up; 100 killed and over 1,000 injured.
  • General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien appointed to supreme command of the British forces in East Africa.
  • Off the Belgian coast British seaplane chases and destroys a large German seaplane. British machine, severely damaged, falls into sea; pilot and observer both rescued.

DEC. 15th, 1915

  • Sir John French's Successor. - It is announced that General Sir Douglas Haig has been appointed to succeed Field-Marshal Sir John French in command of the army in France and Flanders. The latter appointed Commander-in-Chief of the troops in United Kingdom, and created a Viscount.
  • The last Allied forces in Macedonia withdrawn into Greek territory.

DEC. 16th, 1915

  • Announced that Italian troops safely landed in Albania.
  • General Townshend reports that in the attack against British positions at Kut-el-Amara by the Turks, on Dec 12th, the latter lost 1,000 men.

DEC. 17th, 1915

  • Heavy artillery actions in Champagne north and cast of Massiges and east of the Mesnil Ridge.
  • Russian troops under Grand Duke Nicholas occupy Hamadan.
  • German cruiser Bremen and a torpedo boat accompanying it sunk by Allied submarine in the Baltic.

DEC. 18th, 1915

  • French aeroplanes attack Metz, municipal museum and station damaged.

DEC. 19th, 1915

  • German gas attack against British lines north-east of Ypres frustrated.
  • Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac begun.

DEC. 20th, 1915

  • Men enlisted under Group System who are classified in Groups 2, 3, 4, and 5, notified by Public Proclamation that they are to ·be called up for service forthwith.
  • Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac. - Announced that all the troops at Suvla and Anzac, together with guns and stores, have been successfully transferred with “insignificant” casualties (three men wounded) to another sphere of operations.
  • Another report from General Townshend at Kut-el-Amara published. On night of Dec. 17-18th British and Indian troops surprised Turks in their advanced trenches. In actions on Dec 1st and during night of Dec. 12-13 the Turks lost 2,500 men.
  • Greco-Bulgarian incident. At Koritza, in Albanian Epirus, Greeks and Bulgarian troops exchange shots.

DEC. 21st, 1915

  • Announced that Sir William Robertson, Chief of the General Staff of the Expeditionary Force, has been appointed Chief of Imperial General Staff.
  • General Russky retires through ill-health.
  • General De Wet and 118 other prisoners released.
  • Russians reported to have occupied Kum, 100 miles south-east of Teheran.
  • In the Vosges, on the Hartmannsweilerkopf, French troops occupy a considerable portion of the enemy's works and capture some prisoners.
  • Text of Dr Wilson's Second Ancona Note to Austria published.
  • Japanese steamer, Yasaka Maru, sunk by submarine in Mediterranean.

DEC. 22nd, 1915

  • Continued French success in Alsace. Our ally forces his way from the summit down the, eastern slopes of the Hartmannsweilerkopf, and take 1,300 prisoners.
  • Sir Charles Monro appointed to command the First Army Corps in the West, in place of Sir Douglas Haig, being in turn succeeded by Lieutenant-General Sir A. Murray. Major-General Kiggell appointed Chief of General Staff to Sir Douglas Haig.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 5938 William YOUNG, East Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 5938 Private William Young, 8th Battalion, The East Lancashire Regiment. On 22nd December 1915, East of Fonquevillers, France, Private Young saw from his trench that one of his company's Non-Commissioned Officers was lying wounded in front of the wire. Acting without orders and heedless of his exposure to enemy fire, he climbed over the parapet and went to the rescue of his serjeant. He was hit by two bullets, one shattered his jaw and the other entered his chest. Undeterred, he went on and, with another soldier who came to assist, brought the wounded serjeant back to safety. Later Private Young walked back to the village dressing station to have his injuries attended to.

DEC. 23rd, 1915

  • Renewed fighting in Alsace. French admit that their left wing has returned under pressure of German counterattacks to their former positions on the Hartmannsweilerkopf. Their centre and right retain the ground captured from the enemy.
  • Total Dardanelles casualties to Dec 11th announced as 112,921. Total British casualties on all fronts up to Dec 9th announced as 528,227.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Alfred Victor SMITH, East Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Alfred Victor Smith, 1/5th Battalion, The East Lancashire Regiment. On 23rd December 1915 at Helles, Gallipoli, Second Lieutenant Smith was in the act of throwing a grenade when it slipped from his hand and fell to the bottom of the trench close to several officers and men. He immediately shouted a warning and jumped clear to safety. He then saw that the officers and men were unable to find cover and knowing that the grenade was due to explode at any moment, he returned and flung himself upon it. He was instantly killed by the explosion.

DEC. 24th, 1915

  • Montenegrin troops attacked near Mutchido, but enemy everywhere repulsed.

DEC. 25th, 1915

  • Another German attack on the Hartmannsweilerkopf repulsed.
  • Turkish Christmas Eve Attack on Kut.
  • Hostile Arab force defeated by British in Western Egypt at Mersa Matru.

DEC. 26th, 1915

  • In the Vosges a French battery fires on a munitions train in the railway station of Hachirnette, to the south-east of Bonhomme.
  • Russian forces in Persia occupy Kashan.

DEC. 27th, 1915

  • Germans, after a bombardment, attack near Hill 193 in Champagne, but are easily repulsed.
  • India Office reports that Turks have been repulsed in attacks upon a fort at Kut-el-Amara, on the right flank of the British position. Their loss 900; ours, 190.
  • General de Castelnau, French Chief of Staff, at Athens.

DEC. 28th, 1915

  • Indians leave France. - Official communication gives text of stirring message of thanks from King-Emperor, delivered by Prince of Wales, to the Indian Army Corps, and states that this corps has departed from France, as its services are required “in another field of action.”
  • Evacuation of remainder of Gallipoli Peninsula ordered.
  • French troops capture enemy trenches on the Hartmannsweilerkopf.
  • Cabinet decides by a majority that they are bound by the Prime Minister's pledge, and approves the principle of compulsion.

DEC. 29th, 1915

  • More gains by the French in the Vosges. A series of German works between the Rehfelsen and the Hirzstein captured. Since beginning of the operations 1,668 prisoners taken.

DEC. 30th, 1915

  • Announced that Italian army which landed at Valona approaching frontier of Epirus.
  • Austrian destroyer sunk and another blown up by a mine in sea fight off Cattaro, between Austrian and Allied vessels of war.
  • German, Austrian, Bulgarian, and Turkish Consuls arrested at Salonika, and placed on board French warship.
  • French occupy island of Castellorizo, between Rhodes and the mainland.
  • P. &. O. liner R.M.S Persia torpedoed forty miles off Crete; 192 missing.
  • British cruiser, H.M.S. Natal, sunk in harbour, the victim of internal explosion; 14 officers and 373 men saved.

DEC. 31st, 1915

  • German infantry attack in the Vosges completely repulsed by the French.
  • The last units of Indian Expeditionary Force “G” leave the Dardanelles to amalgamate with Indian Expeditionary Force “E” in Egypt.

The Great War Timeline - 1916

1916 - Great War Timeline & detailed history of WWI

 

JANUARY 1916

JAN. 1st, 1916

  • Russian successes on the front of the River Strypa and in the sector between the Kovel-Sarny railway and the village of Chartoryisk.
  • British Force occupies Yaunde, in German Cameroon.

JAN. 2nd, 1916

  • Slight French retirement in the Vosges. Three mines exploded by British near La Boisselle.

JAN. 3rd, 1916

  • Russian thrust at Czernowitz. Our ally occupies several heights near this town, capturing 15 officers, 855 men.

JAN. 4th, 1916

  • Lord Derby's Report Issued. - It shows that there are 651,160 single men who have not offered themselves for service.
  • Government issue Germany's memorandum on the Baralong incident and Sir Edward Grey's crushing reply.
  • Resignation of Sir John Simon.

JAN. 5th, 1916

  • Military Service Bill introduced in the House of Commons.
  • Capture of German armed steamer on Lake Tanganyika by a British force announced.

JAN. 6th, 1916

  • Conference of Labour representatives in London carry by large majority a motion opposing the Government's Compulsion Bill. Latter passes first reading by majority of 298.
  • Further Russian progress on, the Strypa.
  • H.M.S. King Edward VII mined off north of Scotland
  • In Champagne, during intense bombardment by French artillery against enemy’s trenches north of Navarin Farm, an entire installation for delivering gas attacks destroyed.

JAN. 7th, 1916

  • Russian success south of Pinsk.
  • British submarine sinks off coast of Holland. Her crew of 33 taken into the Helder and interned.
  • Mount Lovtchen heavily attacked by an Austrian squadron.
  • British begin to evacuate Cape Helles at Gallipoli; ends 8th January.
  • Count Bernstorff presents statement to United States re German submarine policy; reparation offered for “damages caused by death or injuries to American citizens.”

JAN. 8th, 1916

  • South of the Pripet the German force makes a fresh attempt to gain possession of Chartoryisk, but twice repulsed.
  • Evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula completed.
  • Continued fighting for the Hartmannsweilerkopf. Germans gain a footing in a portion of a trench between the Rehfelsen and Hirzstein, but are dislodged.

JAN. 9th, 1916

  • H.M.S. King Edward Sinks after Striking a Mine. Ship's company taken off without loss of life.

JAN. 10th, 1916

  • Announced that Gallipoli completely evacuated, without any casualties.
  • Announced that on January 7th the relief expedition for Kut-el-Amara defeated the Turks on both banks of the Tigris, capturing two guns and 700 prisoners.
  • Austrians pressing their offensive in Montenegro up the valleys of the Tara and Lim in the north, and against Mount Lovtchen, overlooking Cattaro.

JAN. 11th, 1916

  • Mr Herbert Samuel appointed Home Secretary in place of Sir John Simon, resigned.
  • Sir John Nixon relinquishes command of the Mesopotamian forces owing to ill-health, and Lieutenant-General Sir Percy Lake succeeds him.
  • Fall of Lovtchen.
  • German defeat in Champagne. Enemy launches strong attack on French positions with three divisions. All its results nullified by French counter-attacks.
  • Report from Sir Charles Monro describes the final evacuation of Gallipoli.
  • Siege of Kut. Further news to hand of General Aylmer's relief force. After battle on 7th near Sheikh Saad, Turks retreated, pursued by British. Owing to weather conditions and necessity of removing our wounded by river, our force was still halting on the 10th.

JAN. 12th, 1916

  • French land at Corfu, and prepare island for the Serbian Army.
  • Munitions magazine at Lille explodes; 70 inhabitants killed, 40 wounded.
  • Armistice between Montenegro and Austria.

JAN. 13th, 1916

  • Announced that Allies have cut Greco-Bulgarian railway line, and railway bridge at Demir-Hissar, about 45 miles north-east of Salonika, blown up.
  • Fall of Cetihje.

JAN. 14th, 1916

  • British artillery heavily bombards enemy's trenches about Givenchy.
  • Austrian cruiser sunk by French submarine off Cattaro.
  • British force under General Aylmer advancing to relief of Kut-el-Amara attack and repulse Turks on north bank of the Tigris at and about Wadi.
  • Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mesopotamia.

JAN. 15th, 1916

  • Reciprocal bombardments about Maricourt, Givenchy, Hill 63, and Hollebeke.

JAN. 16th, 1916

  • Lille Shelled by British.
  • General Sarrail assumes command of all Allied forces at Salonika
  • Announced that III Persia there has been conflict between
  • Russian and Turkish troops at Kangavar. Latter occupied by Russians, and prisoners taken.

JAN. 17th, 1916

  • Unconditional surrender of Montenegro announced by Count Tisza, the Hungarian Premier.
  • Announced that south of Pinsk the Russians have made considerable inroads on the enemy's lines. Kukhotska Volia has been cleared of his troops. In several sectors of the front in this region the Austro-German front has been pierced.

JAN. 18th, 1916

  • French batteries wreck German trenches in the region of Moulin-Sans-Touvent, between Oise and Alsne.

JAN. 19th, 1916

  • Turkish rout in Armenia. Russians report a considerable success by their troops in the Caucasus. The Turkish line has been broken over, a front of about 70 miles, and enemy is in full retreat.
  • Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake takes over command of British forces in Mesopotamia from General Nixon.

JAN. 20th, 1916

  • Announced that the first South African Infantry Brigade has arrived in Egypt.
  • Big Battle in the Bukovina. - North east of Czernowitz, in the region of Rarancze, Russians capture sector of enemy's position. Five desperate counter-attacks by Austrians repulsed with enormous loss.
  • Admiralty announce that British submarine grounded off the Dutch coast. Part of her officers and crew taken off by British destroyer, and remainder rescued by Dutch warship.
  • Allied warships bombard Dedeagach, destroying a train and several buildings.
  • A Montenegrin official statement says that that country has refused the onerous Austrian terms.

JAN. 21st, 1916

  • British submarine operating in the Adriatic torpedoes and sinks Austrian torpedo-boat destroyer, after capturing two of the enemy's aviators from a derelict aeroplane.
  • In Mesopotamia General Aylmer attacks the enemy opposing his march to relieve Kut-el-Amara at Essin. Fierce fighting continues during the day with varying success. Casualties on both sides very heavy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain John Alexander SINTON, Indian Medical Service awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain John Alexander Sinton, M.B., Indian Medical Service. On 21 January 1916 at Orah Ruins, Mesopotamia, Captain Sinton attended to the wounded under very heavy fire and although he was shot through both arms and through the side he refused to go to hospital, remaining on duty as long as daylight lasted. In three previous actions he had also displayed the utmost bravery.

JAN. 22nd, 1916

  • Russian Army in Caucasus pursues defeated Turks towards Erzerum and shells the forts.
  • Rumanian Government open negotiations with Russian Government with a view to military assistance.

JAN. 23rd, 1916

  • Air Raids in Kent. - At one o'clock in bright moonlight a hostile aeroplane visits the east coast of Kent, dropping nine bombs: One man killed; two men, one woman, and three children slightly injured. At noon two hostile seaplanes make a second attack in the same locality, but are chased away by our naval and military machines; no damage and no casualties reported.
  • Twenty-four French aeroplanes bomb the railway station and barracks at Metz.
  • Near Neuville the Germans gain about 270 yards of French advanced trench, but this almost wholly regained.
  • General Wallace's column operating in Western Egypt attacks the camp of the Senussi, burning it and dispersing the enemy's forces. Our losses 28 killed, 274 wounded.
  • Thirty-two French aeroplanes raid Monastir.

JAN. 24th, 1916

  • German seaplane passes over Dover. It is engaged by anti-aircraft guns, and pursued by two British machines.
  • First Military Service Bill passed by British House of Commons
  • German attempt to break through to Calais on the Yser front fails.
  • Success in East Africa. - Our troops advancing from Mbuyuni occupy enemy's camp at Serengeti.
  • Russians again shell the forts of Erzerum.

JAN. 25th, 1916

  • After a fresh series of mine explosions, accompanied by a violent bombardment, the Germans attack on a front of over 1,600 yards in the angle formed by the Arras-Lens road and the Neuville St. Vaast-Thelus road. At two points the enemy occupies the craters caused by his explosions, the greater part of which are taken from him.
  • Two German aeroplanes drop 15 bombs on Dunkirk; 5 persons killed, 3 wounded.
  • German seaplane forced to the water by a British machine north-east of Nieuport.
  • Austrians occupy San Giovanni di Medua.

JAN. 26th, 1916

  • Announced that recent fighting on Tigris took place 23 miles below Kut-el-Amara, and not, as previously stated, 7 miles from Kut.
  • Announced that Austrians pursuing a plan of absorbing Albania have captured Scutari.

JAN. 27th, 1916

  • Report from Genera l Townshend states that enemy have evacuated their trenches on the land side of Kut defences, and retired to about a mile from our entrenchments.
  • Military Service Bill receives the Royal assent, imposing conscription on all single men aged 18 to 41 in Great Britain. Exemptions were made for men in essential war work, those declared medically unfit, religious ministers, and conscientious objectors. (The period of conscription was in force until 1919).

JAN. 28th, 1916

  • British beat back infantry attack near Loos. Further fighting on the French front at Neuville St. Vaast.
  • Total British casualties. These are 549,467 up to January 9th, and include all fields of operations.
  • Big German Blow in the West. - To the south of the Somme, after a violent bombardment, the Germans attack trenched positions, capturing the village of Frise. The first counter-attacks enable the French to reoccupy some of the trenches taken by the Germans.
  • Allied Force occupies. Kara Burun, commanding Gulf of Salonika.

JAN. 29th, 1916

  • French continue to reoccupy the portions of trenches captured by enemy in Artois, west of Hill 140.
  • Press Bureau announces General Sir, Percy Lake has joined General Aylmer's force at Wadi.
  • Zeppelin raid on Paris; over 53 killed and injured. (Last German airship raid on Paris)

JAN. 30th, 1916

  • A second Zeppelin raid on Paris: No casualties reported.
  • British trench raid. A party of troops enter German trenches about the Kemmel-Wytschaete Road. About 40 casualties inflicted on the enemy; three prisoners brought back.

JAN. 31st, 1916

  • Great Zeppelin Raid on England. - Six or seven hostile airships raid the Eastern and North-Eastern and Midland Counties; 183 casualties.
  • Russians signal a violent German artillery fire west of Dvinsk, and a recrudescence of activity in the Riga region.

General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien resigns appointment as Commander-in-Chief British Forces, East Africa.

FEBRURY 1916

FEB. 1st, 1916

  • General Smith-Dorrien, commanding in East Africa, reports good progress being made with branch railway from Voi. It has been pushed on to the site of an enemy camp west of Mbuyuni.

FEB. 2nd, 1916

  • Announced that British liner Appam captured by German armed liner Moewe, and taken, with prize crew aboard, to the American port of Norfolk.

FEB. 3rd, 1916

  • Russia reports that her advance in the Caucasus continues successfully.
  • Heavy hostile shelling against our trenches around Loos.

FEB. 4th, 1916

  • Loss of a Zeppelin. - Germany admits that one of the Zeppelins that took part in raid on Midland Counties, Jan 31st, has been wrecked in the North Sea.
  • Allied columns in the Cameroon closing in on remnant of German force, many of enemy retiring over frontier of Spanish Guinea.

FEB. 5th, 1916

  • Reported from British Headquarters in France that there have been twenty-eight combats in the air. In five cases the German machines were driven down to their lines and a sixth forced to descend with a stopped engine.

FEB. 6th, 1916

  • In Belgium the French, artillery, in co-operation with the British, execute a destructive fire on German trenches facing Boesinghe.
  • Minor Naval Action in the Adriatic. - A British cruiser and a French torpedo-boat, covering the retirement of the Serbian Army, meets four enemy destroyers and fire upon them. Latter flee towards Cattaro.

FEB. 7th, 1916

  • Fire breaks out on board H.M. boarding steamer Peel Castle in Strait of Dover; no loss of life reported.
  • Renewed fighting on Bukovina frontier. From Russian reports it appears the fighting was desperate, our ally doing great execution with the bayonet. The enemy's casualties in one engagement were 2,000 killed.
  • A communiqué regarding operations in Mesopotamia states that General Townshend is holding Kut-el-Amara as a point of strategical value.

FEB. 8th, 1916

  • German long-range gun fires three shells into BeHort.
  • British government requests naval assistance from Japan.
  • French armoured cruiser Amiral Charner torpedoed by enemy submarine and sinks. Most of crew of 375 lost.

FEB. 9th, 1916

  • Air Raid in Kent. - Two enemy seaplanes fly over Margate and Ramsgate in the afternoon, causing few casualties and slight damage.
  • Officially reported that in Galicia the Russians have driven the enemy back to the west of the Dniester, capturing Uscieczko, and establishing themselves on the west bank of the river.

FEB. 10th, 1916

  • General Smuts to Command in East Africa. – Announced that General Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien has resigned owing to ill-health, and General Smuts has succeeded him, with rank of Temporary Lieutenant-General.
  • Military Service Act becomes law in Britain.
  • Germany sends a Note to the United States as to the arming of merchantmen of the Allies will be treated as belligerents from March 1st onwards.

FEB. 11th, 1916

  • French announce that south of the Somme, in the course of separate actions carried out on the 8th and 9th, they retook a considerable part of the trench elements which had remained in the enemy's hands in the region to the south of Frise.
  • H.M.S. Arethusa mined in the North Sea
  • Announced that hostile Arabs attacked British reconnaissance force on its return to Nasiriych from an upper branch of the Tigris named Shat-el-Hai. Our total casualties 373. A small punitive column was later despatched from Nasiriych, surprised the Arabs, and destroyed four of their villages.

FEB. 12th, 1916

  • Reconnaissance carried out within the north-east boundary of German East Africa against main force of Germans at Salaita Hill, with a loss to our troops of 172 men. The 2nd South African Brigade engaged.
  • Forward Move at Salonika. - Announced that French troops have crossed the Varelar and installed themselves on the right bank of the river in the region of Yenitso (Janitza) and at Verria.
  • Russia gains successes in four areas. Towns occupied in Persia and Caucasus, in which latter region guns and stores and 700 prisoners captured; the Erzerum forts bombarded.
  • An important height in Galicia dominating the enemy's railway line recaptured and held; the defence of Dvinsk strengthened by the taking of a village.

FEB. 13th, 1916

  • In Artois the Germans launch a series of attacks from Hill 140 to the road from Neuville to La Folie. In the course of the fourth attack the 'enemy penetrated into the French first-line trench to the west of Hill 140, but driven out by an immediate counter-attack.
  • British spring a mine. west of Hulluch.
  • Russians capture one of forts before Erzerum.
  • After a violent bombardment the Germans storm 200 yards of trench east of Seppois, in Alsace. Most of lost ground retaken by the French.

FEB. 14th, 1916

  • Admiralty announces H.M.S. Arethusa struck a mine off the East Coast, and it is feared she will become a total wreck. About 10 men lose their lives.
  • In Champagne, near Tahure, the Germans capture a trench. South of the Somme the French recover portions of captured trenches.
  • New Ypres Battle. - Between the Ypres-Comines Canal and the Ypres-Comines railway Germans capture 600 yards of the “International trench.” Five hostile air raids in Italy. Eight persons killed in Milan by enemy bombs.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant Eric Archibald McNAIR, Royal Sussex Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant Eric Archibald McNair, 9th (Service) Battalion, The Royal Sussex Regiment. On 14th February 1916 near Hooge, Belgium, when the enemy exploded a mine, Lieutenant McNair and a number of men were flung into the air and many were buried. Although much shaken, the lieutenant at once organised a party with a machine-gun to man the near edge of the crater and opened rapid fire on the enemy who were advancing. They were driven back with many dead. Lieutenant McNair then ran back for reinforcements, but the communication trench being blocked, he went across the open under heavy fire and led up the reinforcements the same way. His prompt and plucky action undoubtedly saved a critical situation.

FEB. 15th, 1916

  • Russians storm and carry another of the Erzerum forts. Thirteen French aeroplanes drop 150 bombs on Strumnitza.
  • Fifth Battle of the Isonzo begins.

FEB. 16th, 1916

  • Fall of Erzerum. Erzerum taken by the Russian forces.
  • War Office take over anti-aircraft defence of London from the Admiralty.
  • Reported that the Austrians and Bulgarians are advancing on Durazzo.
  • War Office take over from the India Office control of operations in Mesopotamia.

FEB. 17th, 1916

  • Conquest of the Cameroon. - War Office announces that operations now practically ended, and conquest of the Cameroon complete, with the exception of the isolated position of Mora Hill (in the extreme north). Later announced that General Dobell, commander of British forces, reports that the Germans have ceased their resistance.

FEB. 18th, 1916

  • General Smuts reports that an enemy force attacked the post of Kachumbe, on the Uganda border, but driven off.

FEB. 19th, 1916

  • Colonial Office announces telegram from Governor General of Nigeria that German garrison at Mora has capitulated.
  • Major-General Tighe succeeded by Lieut.-General Smuts in command of British forces in East Africa.
  • Russian troops take Mush, 81 miles south of Erzerum, and Akhlat, on Lake Van.

FEB. 20th, 1916

  • Four German seaplanes drop 17 bombs on Lowestoft, and six on Walmer. Two men and a boy killed in latter town.
  • Successful night air raid by British airmen against Cambrai aerodrome.

FEB. 21st, 1916

  • Zeppelin LZ-77 brought down in French Lorraine by French motor-gun section at Revigny.
  • Opening of Great Verdun Battle. - Front from Brabantsur-Meuse to Herbebois. Haumont Wood and the Beaumont salient captured by Germans. Attacks against Brabant and Herbebois repulsed.
  • Lieut.-General Sir H.C. Sclater, Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain, resigns.
  • Lieut.-General Sir C.F.N. Macready, Adjutant-General, British Expeditionary Force, France, resigns.

FEB. 22nd, 1916

  • Second day. Front from Brabant to Omes. Haumont village evacuated. Part of the Beaumont salient recaptured. Strong enemy attack on Herbebois stopped.
  • Artillery bombardment on a 25-mile front from Malancourt (west of the Meuse) to near Etain.
  • Lieut.-General Sir G. H. Fowke appointed Adjutant-General, British Expeditionary Force, France.
  • Lieut.-General Sir C. F. N. Macready appointed Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain.

FEB. 23rd, 1916

  • Ministry of Blockade formed in Great Britain. Lord Robert Cecil appointed Minister of Blockade.
  • Third day. Front from Brabant to south of Ornes. French evacuate Brabant, and repulse attack against Samogneux. Part of the recaptured Beaumont salient again lost. French withdraw from Samogneux and Omes. French air raid on Metz-Sablon railway, one of the lines of communication for present operations.

FEB. 24th, 1916

  • Fourth day. No German attacks during the night. French established on the line of heights stretching from the east of Champneuville to the south of Ores. Germans claim capture of Champneuville, Beaumont, Ornes, and the French positions up to the ridge of Lauvemont, as well as over 10,000 prisoners.

FEB. 25th, 1916

  • Fifth day. Several German attacks against the new French positions repulsed.
  • Fort Douaumont (Verdun) stormed by German forces.
  • New Post for Lord Derby. - Announced that he is to be chairman of a joint Naval and Military Air Defence Committee.
  • Russians reported to have taken Kermanshah, 170 miles east of Bagdad.

FEB. 26th, 1916

  • Verdun Battle. - Germans capture Fort Douaumont, a dismantled fort without either guns or garrison in the outer line of defences to the north-east of Verdun, but French report its encirclement. 
  • Evacuation of Albania by Serbian, Montenegrin, and Albanian troops. Italian troops leave Durazzo.
  • Erzerum Captures. - Officially announced that Russians made prisoners 235 Turkish officers and 12,753 men, and captured 323 guns.
  • French take an important position from the enemy at Ste. Marie a Py, in Champagne.

FEB. 27th, 1916

  • Verdun Battle. - French rally beyond Fort Douaumont, and closely encircling the fractions of the German force that survived the terrible artillery fire directed on the ruined fort.
  • P. and O. Liner S.S Maloja sinks off Dover; said to have been torpedoed. One hundred and fifty-five persons missing.

FEB. 28th, 1916

  • Announced that the South Africans and Territorials have routed the Arabs in Western Egypt.
  • Verdun Battle continued. To the north the activity of the opposing artilleries is still very great. To the west of Fort Douaumont the French troops engage in hand-to hand fighting with the enemy, and drive him from small redoubt in which he had established himself.
  • In Champagne, in the region of the Navarin Farm, north of Souain, Germans capture the French position.

FEB. 29th, 1916

  • Reported that General Aylmer's column on the Tigris has moved up three miles nearer Kut.
  • To the north of Verdun, the French maintain their front. Violent hand-to-hand encounters about Douaumont, and a fierce struggle for Manheulles, ten miles east-south-east of Verdun. Enemy take the Village, and French by counterattack regain its western end.
  • French transport Provence II. reported sunk in Mediterranean, Feb. 26.
  • German cruiser S.M.S. Greif and British cruiser R.M.S. Alcantara sink each other

MARCH 1916

MAR. 1st, 1916

  • German seaplane raids the South-East Coast. A child of nine months killed.
  • Germany begins to extend submarine campaign.
  • In the region of Verdun there is no infantry attack. West of the Meuse the German bombardment continues in the zone between Malancourt and Forges.
  • Reported that H.M.S. Primula, a mine-sweeper carrying out patrol duties, torpedoed and sunk in the East Mediterranean. All officers and crew saved but three.

MAR. 2nd, 1916

  • Verdun Battle 12th day. - To the north and in the Woevre district the enemy's artillery fire increases on the whole front, and principally against Dead Man Hill, the Pepper Ridge, and the Douaumont Ridge. At Fresnes, a dozen miles south-east of Verdun, the enemy reach some of the French positions, but are thrown back by counterattack. British explode five mines near the Hohenzollern Redoubt and occupy the craters, and on the Ypres-Comines Canal consolidate positions taken, which include 200 yards of enemy's original trench. Prisoners total 5 officers and 249 other ranks.

MAR. 3rd, 1916

  • Hot fighting near village of Douaumont, French holding the upper part of the knoll on the northern slopes. A sharp counter-attack enables French to regain ground in immediate vicinity of the village.

MAR. 4th, 1916

  • Violent cannonade on left bank of the Meuse at Hill 304 and at Goose Hill. Germans succeed in gaining a footing in village of Douaumont, from which they were driven on March 3.

MAR. 5th, 1916

  • Verdun Battle. In the wood to the east of Vacherauville (on the Meuse north-cast of Verdun) an attack by the Germans against French advanced positions completely repulsed.
  • Zeppelin Raid over Eight Eastern Counties; 13 killed and 33 injured.

MAR. 6th, 1916

  • Germans enter the village of Forges, but are repulsed at Goose Hill. In Champagne they launch an attack, accompanied by jets of liquid fire, upon French positions between Mont Tetu and Maisons de Champagne.
  • Mr. Baker appointed United States Secretary for War.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Corporal 6707 William Reginald COTTER, Buffs (East Kent Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Acting Corporal William Reginald Cotter, 6th Battalion, The East Kent Regiment (The Buffs). On 6th March 1916 near Hohenzollern Redoubt, France, Corporal Cotter's leg was blown off at the knee and he was also wounded in both arms. He nevertheless made his way unaided for 50 yards to a crater, steadied the men who were holding it, controlled their fire, issued orders and altered their dispositions to meet a fresh counter-attack. For two hours he held his position and only allowed his wounds to be roughly dressed when the attack had quietened down. He could not be moved back for 14 hours and during all this time he had a cheery word for everyone.

MAR. 7th, 1916

  • Germans capture Hill 265 at the price of heavy loss.

MAR. 8th, 1916

  • French repulse a great German infantry attack west of the Meuse in the region of Bethincourt.
  • French air squadrons, consisting of 18 machines, drop 124 bombs on the Metz-Sablons station.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 15818 George STRINGER, Manchester Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No.15818 Private George Stringer, Manchester Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion. On 8th March 1916 at Es Sinn, Mesopotamia, after the capture of an enemy position he was posted on the extreme right of his battalion to guard against any hostile attack. His battalion was subsequently forced back by an enemy counter-attack, but Private Stringer held his ground single-handed and kept back the enemy till all his grenades were expended. His very gallant stand saved the flank of his battalion and rendered a steady withdrawal possible.

MAR. 9th, 1916

  • Verdun Battle. French smash a German mass attack in the region of the village of Vaux, north-east of Verdun. West of the Meuse they make further progress in the Crows' Wood.
  • Mesopotamia Campaign. - War Office announces that on March 6th General Aylmer reached Es-Sinn, seven miles east of Kut-el-Amara. He attacked enemy on March 8, but was unable to dislodge him.
  • War Office announces that General Smuts' troops have advanced against German forces in the Kilimanjaro area, and seized the crossings of the Lumi River with insignificant loss.
  • British air raid by thirty-one machines against the Germans railhead and billets at Carvin.

MAR. 10th, 1916

  • Germans succeed in retaking the Crows’ Wood.
  • War Office announces General Aylmer, after operating seven to eight miles from the Tigris on the right bank, in consequence of lack of water, was obliged to fall back on the river.
  • Germany Declares War on Portugal.

MAR. 11th, 1916

  • Italian artillery vigorously bombard enemy posit ions at the bridgehead of Gorizia.

MAR. 12th, 1916

  • Russia reports her troops have occupied Kirind, in Persia, on the way to Bagdad.
  • Admiralty announces that mercantile fleet auxiliary Fauvette strikes a mine off the East Coast and sinks. Casualties, two officers and twelve men.
  • Allied Military Conference held at Chantilly regarding a general summer offensive.

MAR. 13th, 1916

  • Report from General Smuts on battle which commenced on March 11th against the German-prepared positions on the Kitova Hills, west of Taveta (on the north-eastern border of German East Africa), refers to bravery of South African troops, whose final attack secured a hold until reinforced.
  • Russians report that they drove back the Turks in the region of the River Kalapotamos (thirty miles east of Trebizond), and captured eight guns in the operations near Kermanshah.

MAR. 14th, 1916 

  • New Verdun Attack. North-west of the fortress German heavy gun fire redoubled in intensity. Repulsed on the whole front, the enemy gain a footing only at two points of French trenches, between Bethincourt and Dead Man Hill.
  • Italians capture enemy positions in the San Martino zone.
  • War Office reports that the Senussi raid from Tripoli has crumpled up. The British reoccupy Sollum, the frontier post in Western Egypt; fifty Arabs killed and three guns taken.

MAR. 15th, 1916

  • Verdun attack slackens. French recover a portion of the small a rea which Germans took from them on March 13th.
  • German East Africa. - General Smuts reports another success by capturing Moshi, the most important town in the North-east of German East Africa.

MAR. 16th, 1916

  • Despatch from General Lake published, reporting that the Turks were attacked in an advanced position on the Tigris on March 11th, and “a considerable number bayoneted,” but the British column then withdrew.
  • Resignation of Grand-Admiral Tirpitz officially announced from Berlin.
  • British spring mines on the Double Crassier, south-west of Loos.
  • General Gallieni, French Minister of War, resigns through ill-health, and is succeeded by General Roques.

MAR. 17th, 1916

  • To the north of the Aisne an enemy attack directed against a French post to the south-east of the Bois des Buffes repulsed after hand-grenade fighting.

MAR. 18th, 1916

  • Germans, by exploding mines, recapture three craters at the Hohenzollern Redoubt.
  • German attacks between Vaux and the woods to the south of the Hardaumont Farm stopped by French fire.

MAR. 19th, 1916

  • Air Raid on Kent. - Four German seaplanes drop bombs on Ramsgate, Margate, Deal and Dover – thirteen killed and thirty -one wounded. Flight-Commander Bone, R.N.A.S., in a single-seater aeroplane, pursued one of the German seaplanes thirty miles out to sea, where, after an action lasting a quarter of an hour, he forced it to descend.

MAR. 20th, 1916

  • Announced that H.R.H. the Prince of Wales has arrived in Egypt on appointment as Staff Captain on the Staff of the General Officer Commanding-in-Chief the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.
  • Great Allied Air Raid. - Sixty-five British, French, and Belgian machines, carrying four and a half tons of bombs, drop them on the German air stations at Zeebrugge and Houthane.
  • Verdun, 30th Day of Battle. - The Germans, having failed at every other point, extend their attacks on Verdun farther to the west. With a new division and the use of flame projectors they make a violent attack between Malancourt and Avocourt, but their assaults broken up by French with severe loss to the enemy.

MAR. 21st, 1916

  • Germans, after violent fighting and using jets of flaming liquid, make their way to the southern edge of Avocourt Wood. The French inflict heavy loss on enemy, and prevent advance.
  • German forces retreat from Kilimanjaro area.
  • Naval Skirmish in North Sea. - Four British destroyers attack and chase three German destroyers off the Belgian coast. The enemy fled, making for Zeebrugge, but two German boats were hit.' Our casualties were four wounded.

MAR. 22nd, 1916

  • On the small knoll of Haucourt the Germans succeed in gaining a footing.
  • Yuan-Shih-Kai relinquishes the throne of China.
  • Activity along whole Russian front, especially at Jacobstadt, in the Tchermetz Lotra region, and on the southwestern shore of Lake Narotch.
  • Russians occupy Ispahan.
  • General Cadorna arrives in London.

MAR. 23rd, 1916

  • Announced that Major-General Sir George F. Gorringe, K.C.B., appointed temporary Lieutenant-General in Mesopotamia.
  • British Front Extended. -In official report from Headquarters announced that there has been artillery activity about Fricourt, Gommecourt, Hohenzollern Redoubt, and Souchez, the last-mentioned in new line taken over from the French.

MAR. 24th, 1916 

  • Cross-Channel steamship Sussex torpedoed off the French coast on her passage from Folkestone to Dieppe. Feared loss of a hundred persons.
  • S.S. Sussex torpedoed by submarine in the English Channel.
  • Liner Minneapolis torpedoed in the Mediterranean, with loss of eleven lives.

MAR. 25th, 1916

  • German Raider Sunk. - Admiralty announces that an engagement took place on February 29th in North Sea between the armed German raider Greif, disguised as a Norwegian merchant vessel, and H.M. armed merchant cruiser Alcantara (Captain T. E. Wardle, R.N.). The engagement resulted in the loss of both vessels, the German raider being sunk by gun fire, and the Alcantara apparently being torpedoed. Five German officers and 115 men picked up and taken prisoners. British losses, five officers and sixty-nine men.
  • Raid on Zeppelin Sheds. - British seaplanes attack German airship sheds in Schleswig-Holstein, east of the island of Sylt, escorted to their rendezvous, close to the German coast, by a force of light cruisers and destroyers under Commander Tyrwhitt; three of the seaplanes missing. H.M. torpedo-boat destroyer Medusa collides with H.M. torpedo-boat destroyer Laverock, and former sunk. Two German armed patrol vessels sunk.
  • Military Medal. - Instituted on 25th March 1916 (and backdated to 1914), the Military Medal was awarded personnel of the British Army and other services, and formerly also to personnel of other Commonwealth countries, below commissioned rank. It was an award for gallantry and devotion to duty when under fire in battle on land on the recommendation of a Commander-in-Chief in the Field. The Military Medal was the other ranks' equivalent to the Military Cross (MC), (which was awarded to commissioned officers and, rarely, to Warrant Officers, although WOs could also be awarded the MM). The MM ranked below the MC and the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM), which was also awarded to non-commissioned members of the Army.

MAR. 26th, 1916

  • Russian offensive continues; trenches captured at Postavy.

MAR. 27th, 1916

  • British Push near Ypres. - After exploding mines, infantry of the Northumberland Fusiliers and Royal Fusiliers assault the German salient at St. Eloi (south of Ypres), successfully taking the front and second-line trenches on a front of some 600 yards. Heavy casualties caused to the enemy. Our captures were two German officers and 168 men.
  • Great Allied Conference opens in Paris.

MAR. 28th, 1916

  • Russia's fight for Trebizond. Our ally's troops dislodge Turks from their positions in the region of the Baltatchi Darassi River (thirty miles east of the port of Trebizond), and after an engagement occupy the town of Of.

MAR. 29th, 1916

  • French storm Avocourt Redoubt, and advance 300 yards.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Chaplin Edward Noel MELLISH, Army Chaplain's Department awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain, The Reverend, Temporary Chaplain Edward Noel Mellish, Army Chaplains' Department. During the period 27th-29th March 1916 at St Eloi, Belgium, Captain The Reverend Noel Mellish went backwards and forwards under continuous and very heavy shell and machine-gun fire between our original trenches and those captured from the enemy, in order to tend and rescue wounded men. He brought in 10 badly wounded men on the first day from ground swept by machine-gun fire. He went back on the second day and brought in 12 more and on the night of the third day he took charge of a party of volunteers and once more returned to the trenches to rescue the remaining wounded.

MAR. 30th, 1916

  • Heavy fighting round Verdun. Germans attack French positions on skirts of Fort Donaumont with aid of liquid fire, but repulsed.

MAR. 31st, 1916

  • Crown Prince of Serbia arrives in London.
  • Zeppelin raid on Eastern Counties; 43 killed, 66 injured. Zeppelin L15 disabled and crew captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Boy First Class  J.42563 John Travers CORNWELL, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Boy First Class, John Travers Cornwell, O.N.J. 42563 (died 2nd June 1916), for the conspicuous act of bravery specified below. On 31st May 1916, at the Battle of Jutland, Boy First Class Cornwell, of HMS Chester was mortally wounded early in the action, but he remained standing alone at a most exposed post, quietly awaiting orders, until the end of the action, with the gun's crew dead and wounded all round him. His age under sixteen and a half years.

APRIL 1916

APRIL 1st, 1916

  • Zeppelin raid on North-East Coast; sixteen persons killed and one hundred injured.
  • Germans gain a footing in the western part of the village of Vaux.

APRIL 2nd, 1916

  • Zeppelin raid on North and South-East England and South-East Scotland. In latter country twelve killed, eleven injured.
  • Germans make violent attacks on the Avocourt Wood Redoubt, but are repulsed. All day struggle at Douaumont-Vaux.
  • Allied airmen drop eighty-three bombs on enemy cantonments of Keyem, Eessen, Terrest, and Houthulst.

APRIL 3rd, 1916

  • British Crater Success. - Our troops attack the crater at St. Eloi, which had been held by Germans since March 30th, capturing it and establishing our line beyond it. We took eighty-four prisoners.
  • French reoccupy the western portion of the village of Vaux.

APRIL 4th, 1916

  • Ministry of Munitions reports serious fire broke out in a powder-factory in Kent during the week-end, leading to a series of explosions; 106 men killed, and 66 injured.
  • War Office announces Zeppelin raid on East Anglian coast; no damage, and no casualties.
  • Russians appoint General Brusilov to command southern forces.
  • War Budget introduced in House of Commons.
  • German retreat in Verdun sector. Germans launch powerful attack south of village of Douaumont. Successive waves of men mown down by French fire, and enemy retreats in disorder towards the Chaffour Wood.

APRIL 5th, 1916

  • A Zeppelin attacking North-East Coast driven off by anti-aircraft fire.
  • British bombard hostile works near Bois Grenier (south of Armentières) and north of Ypres-St. Julien Road with good effect. About St. Eloi artillery on both sides very active.
  • General Lake reports from Mesopotamia, that Tigris corps attacked and carried the enemy's entrenched position at Umm-el-Hannah (twenty miles north-east of Kut).
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temp. Captain Augus BUCHANAN, South Wales Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant (temporary Captain) Angus Buchanan, South Wales Borderers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 5th April 1916 at Falauyah Lines, Mesopotamia during an attack an officer was lying out in the open severely wounded about 150 yards from cover. Two men went to his assistance and one of them was hit at once. Captain Buchanan, on seeing this, immediately went out and, with the help of the other man, carried the wounded officer to cover under heavy machine-gun fire. He then returned and brought in the wounded man, again under heavy fire.

APRIL 6th, 1916

  • General- Sir John Nixon's despatch on operations in Mesopotamia published.
  • Further details of Mesopotamia campaign to hand. On the right (south) bank the 3rd Division, under General Keary, on April 5th, captured enemy's trenches opposite the Falahijah position. On the left (north) bank General Gorringe carries the, Falahijah positions, fifteen miles north-east of Kut.
  • Germans attack British at St. Eloi.
  • French gain near Fort Douaumont.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 920 Sidney William WARE, Seaforth Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 920 Corporal Sidney William Ware, late Seaforth Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery. On 6th April 1916 at Sanna-i-Yat, Mespotamia, an order was given to withdraw to the cover of a communication trench. Corporal Ware, whose cool gallantry had been very marked during the advance, was one of the few men remaining unwounded. He picked up a wounded man and carried him some 200 yards to cover, and then returned for others, moving to and fro under very heavy fire for more than two hours until he had brought in all the wounded and was completely exhausted.

APRIL 7th, 1916

  • At St. Eloi enemy regains portion of trenches captured by British, March 27th.

APRIL 8th, 1916

  • Further War Office report concerning operations in Mesopotamia issued. During night of April 6th-7th, operations in the north (left) bank of the river confined to close reconnaissance of the Sanna-i-Yat defences.
  • East African Campaign. - General Smuts reports that on April 3rd troops under General Van de Venter surprised a German force in the Arusha district, surrounded it April 4th, and received its surrender April 6th.

APRIL 9th, 1916

  • Renewed Verdun Battle. - German attack on a six-mile front north-west of Verdun everywhere repulsed.
  • French strengthen their position by evacuating Bethincourt.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - The Reverend William Robert Fountaine Addison, Royal Army Chaplains' Department awarded the Victoria Cross - His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Reverend William Robert Fountaine Addison, Temporary Chaplain to the Forces, 4th Class, Army Chaplain's Department. For most conspicuous bravery. On 9th April 1916 at Sanna-i-Yat, Mesopotamia, he carried a wounded man to the cover of a trench, and assisted several others to the same cover, after binding up their wounds under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire. In addition to these unaided efforts, by his splendid example and utter disregard of personal danger, he encouraged the stretcher-bearers to go forward under heavy fire and collect the wounded.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 1/11220 James Henry FYNN, South Wales Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1/11220 Private James Henry Fynn, South Wales Borderers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 9th April 1916 at Sanna-i-Yat, Mesopotamia, after a night attack he was one of a small party which dug in in front of our advanced line and about 300 yards from the enemy's trenches. Seeing several wounded men lying out in front he went out and bandaged them all under heavy fire, making several journeys in order to do so. He then went back to our advanced trench for a stretcher and, being unable to get one, he himself carried on his back a badly wounded man into safety. He then returned and, aided by another man who was wounded during the act, carried in another badly wounded man. He was under continuous fire while performing this gallant work.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Edgar Kinghorn MYLES, Welch Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Edgar Kinghorn Myles, Welsh Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 9th April 1916 at Sanna-i-Yat, Mesopotamia, he went out alone on several occasions in front of our advanced trenches, and, under heavy rifle fire and at great personal risk, assisted wounded men lying in the open. On one occasion he carried in a wounded officer to a place of safety under circumstances of great danger.

APRIL 10th, 1916

  • War Office announces no attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position was made on April 6th, as reported by enemy.
  • According to Sir P. Lake, our attack on April 9th failed to get through Turkish lines.
  • Officially reported British troops capture the mine-crater at St. Eloi remaining in German hands, and by a further attack establish themselves in the enemy's trenches running south-west from the crater.
  • Germans gain five hundred yards of advanced trenches of Hill 295 (Dead Man Hill).

APRIL 11th, 1916

  • Despatch by General Sir C. C. Monro on the evacuation of Gallipoli published.
  • Enemy raids British trenches near La Boisselle (north-east of Albert) after heavy bombardment, in which he used "tear" shells, but was driven out.

APRIL 12th, 1916

  • Allies New Naval Base. - Reported that Allies land forces in the Greek island of Cephalonia, seventy-five miles south of Corfu.
  • German Attacks on British. - Enemy makes three successive attacks west of Pilkem-Ypres Road (north of Ypres). The first gains a footing in our trenches, but quickly driven out, others repulsed north-east of Carnoy (north of the Somme).

APRIL 13th, 1916

  • In the Verdun sector bombardment continued against Hill 304 and the Dead Man - Cumières position.
  • Turkish camp at Jifjaffa (east of Suez Canal) attacked and occupied by Australian troops. The Katia Oasis also occupied.

APRIL 14th, 1916

  • British Air Raid on Constantinople. - Three naval aeroplanes of the Royal Naval Air Service from Mudros drop bombs on the Zoitunlik powder-factory and aeroplane sheds. Another naval aeroplane visits Adrianople and drops bombs on the railway station.

APRIL 15th, 1916

  • Turk division routed by Russian troops in the region of Bitlis.
  • French battleplane, from a height of three hundred feet, attacks enemy ships in North Sea, firing sixteen shells, most of which hit their mark.

APRIL 16th, 1916

  • Kut Relief Force. - General Lake reports gradual, but steady, progress made on the right bank, and the enemy's advanced lines driven in and occupied.
  • French air squadron of nine machines drops bombs on Conflans railway station, on factories at Rombach, on Arnairlle railway station, and on railway at Pagny.

APRIL 17th, 1916

  • On the right of the Meuse, from the river to Douaumont, the Germans launch an attack by two divisions. The assault, hurled on a front of two and a half miles, is repulsed by French, except at one point, where enemy gets a footing in a little salient south of Chaffour Wood.
  • British attack on Kondoa Irangi (German East Africa) begins.
  • Italian Government issue decrees prohibiting trading with Germany.

APRIL 18th, 1916

  • Fall of Trebizond officially reported from Petrograd.
  • War Office announces a check to the Kut relief army.
  • Turkish heavily counter-attacked on the right (south) bank of the Tigris, forcing back our lines.
  • Mr. W. M. Hughes, the Prime Minister of Australia, receives the Freedom of the City of London.
  • United States “Ultimatum” to Germany. – President Wilson’s Note to Berlin demanding that Germany abandon her piracy or the United States will sever relations with her regarded as practically an ultimatum.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Edward Felix BAXTER, King's (Liverpool Regiment) 1/8th (Irish) Battalion Territorial Forces, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Second Lieut Baxter, late Liverpool Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 17th/18th April 1916 near Blairville, France, prior to a raid on the hostile line he was engaged during two nights in cutting wire close to the enemy's trenches. The enemy could be heard on the other side of the parapet. Second Lieutenant Baxter, while assisting in the wire cutting, held a bomb in his hand with the pin withdrawn ready to throw. On one occasion the bomb slipped and fell to the ground, but he instantly picked it up, unscrewed the base plug, and took out the detonator, which he smothered in the ground, thereby preventing the alarm being given, and undoubtedly saving many casualties. Later, he led the left storming party with the greatest gallantry, and was the first man into the trench, shooting the sentry with his revolver. He then assisted to bomb dug-outs, and finally climbed out of the trench and assisted the last man over the parapet. After this he was not seen again, though search parties went out at once to look for him. There seems no doubt that he lost his life in his great devotion to duty.

APRIL 19th, 1916

  • Germans' three successive attacks on French positions at Les Eparges (thirteen miles south-east of Verdun) repulsed. French troops deliver strong attack against the German positions north-west of Vaux Pond, occupy some trench sections, and carry a redoubt.
  • German Attack at Ypres. - Enemy attack our line round Ypres, entering trenches from which they are driven out everywhere except at St. Eloi, and on the Ypres-Langemarck Road, here they hold one trench.
  • Reported death of Field-Marshal von der Goltz at Turkish headquarters.

APRIL 20th, 1916

  • Russian Force in France. - Announced that a detachment of Russian troops has arrived at Marseilles.

APRIL 21st, 1916

  • French gains in the region of Dead Man Hill, and on the northern outskirts of the Caurettes Wood.
  • King's Shropshire Light Infantry recapture the trench about the Ypres-Langemarck Road lost on April 19th.

APRIL 22nd, 1916

  • Battle for Dead Man Hill. After violent artillery preparation Germans attack French positions on the northern slopes of the hill. Gaining a footing in the first line, they are driven out by a counter-attack.
  • War Office announces advance in German East Africa, our troops occupying Umbugwe and Salanga.

APRIL 23rd, 1916

  • General Lake telegraphs that our attack on the Sanna-i-Yat position on the left (north) bank of the Tigris fails owing to the floods.

APRIL 24th, 1916

  • Zeppelin raid over Norfolk and Suffolk coast; one man injured.
  • Outbreak of Irish nationalist rebellion in Dublin.
  • Hostile aeroplane flies over Dover, but is driven off.
  • French air squadrons during the night bomb stations of Longuyon and Stenay, also bivouacs east of Dun, and in the Montfaucon region, and the station of Nautillois.

APRIL 25th, 1916

  • Fighting near Suez. - Announced that on April 23rd Turks attacked our post at Duweidar, but beaten off. On same day enemy attacked Katia, held by small force of Yeomanry. After severe engagement our troops withdrew.
  • Announced that General Van de Venter has occupied Kondona Irangi, in German East Africa.
  • German Attempt to Land Arms in Ireland. – Admiralty announces that on night of April 20th-21st an attempt to land arms and ammunition in Ireland was made by a vessel under the guise of a neutral merchant ship, but in reality, a German auxiliary, in conjunction with a German submarine. The auxiliary sank, and Roger Casement was made a prisoner.
  • Chief Secretary for Ireland announces that at noon on April 24th grave disturbances broke out in Dublin. Rebels seized Post Office and parts of city.
  • Bombardment of Lowestoft and Yarmouth. - At 4.30 a.m. enemy battle-cruisers appear off Lowestoft and shell the town. Forty houses destroyed and two hundred slightly damaged; two men, one woman, and a child killed. At same time shells fired at Yarmouth. Our local naval forces engage the enemy, and he returns to Germany, chased by our light cruisers and destroyers.
  • Secret Session of Parliament.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Commander Charles Henry COWLEY, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Humphrey Osbaldston Brooke FIRMAN, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Humphrey Osbaldston Brooke Firman, Royal Navy. On the night of 24th/25th April 1916 in Mesopotamia, an attempt was made to reprovision the force besieged at Kut-el-Amara. Lieutenant Firman, commanding SS Julnar, with a lieutenant-commander, a sub-lieutenant and 12 ratings, started off with 270 tons of stores up the River Tigris. Unfortunately, Julnar was attacked almost at once by Turkish machine-guns and heavy artillery. At Magasis, steel hawsers stretched across the river halted the expedition, the enemy opened fire at point-blank range and Julnar's bridge was smashed. Lieutenant Firman and several of his crew were killed, the survivors and supplies being captured.

APRIL 26th, 1916

  • Zeppelin raid over the east coast of Kent.
  • Dublin rebellion. Liberty Hall, the rebel base, destroyed and occupied. To date, fifteen killed and twenty-one wounded among troops. In recapture of St. Stephell’s Green eleven insurgents killed.
  • Agreement signed in Berlin for repatriation of sick and wounded British and German POWs to Switzerland; also signed in London 13th May.

APRIL 27th, 1916

  • Germans gain a footing in our front and support lines east-north-east of Loos, but counter-attack by Irish drives them out.
  • German wireless reports H.M. submarine E22 sunk in North Sea.
  • Whole of Ireland under martial law. General Sir John Maxwell sent, with plenary powers over the whole country.
  • H.M.S. Russell strikes a mine in the Mediterranean and sinks. Rear-Admiral Fremantle, 24 officers, and 676 men saved; 124 officers and men missing.

APRIL 28th, 1916

  • German submarine sunk off East Coast. One officer and 17 men of the crew captured.

APRIL 29th, 1916

  • Fall of Kut. - General Townshend surrenders with 2,970 British troops and 6,000 Indian troops.
  • “Havre Declaration” signed by Great Britain, Italy, Russia, France and Japan guaranteeing integrity of Belgian Congo.
  • Russian reverse. Germans retake captured trenches between Lakes Narotch and Svir, to the east of Vilna. Enemy claims to have captured 5,600 men.

APRIL 30th, 1916

  • Lord French reports that the back of the Irish rebellion has been broken.

MAY 1916

MAY 1st, 1916

  • All rebels in Dublin reported to have surrendered and the city “quite safe,” three are executed on 3rd May.
  • Admiralty announces loss through mines of the armed yacht Aegusa and the mine-sweeper Nasturtium.
  • Karl Liebknecht arrested in Berlin for attempting to induce soldiers at Potsdam Railway Station not to return to the front.

MAY 2nd, 1916

  • French attack enemy's positions south-east of Fort Douaumont, and carry 500 yards of a first-line trench.
  • Germans attempt assaults east of Ypres, north of Albert, and on Belgian front, but are stopped by artillery fire.
  • War Office announces General Townshend's sick and wounded have been exchanged for equivalent number of Turkish prisoners.
  • Five Zeppelins (including L20 and LZ98) raid North-East Coast of England and South East Coast of Scotland; about 100 bombs dropped: 9 killed, 29 injured.

MAY 3rd, 1916

  • Hostile aeroplane drops bombs on Deal; two men and one woman injured.
  • French carry German positions to north-west of Dead Man Hill; 100 prisoners and four machine-guns taken.
  • Mr. Birrell resigns Irish Secretaryship.
  • P. H. Pearse, Thomas J. Clarke, and Thomas MacDonagh, signatories to Irish Republican Proclamation shot.
  • Mr. Asquith introduces his Bill for compulsory service of all men between 18 and 41.
  • Zeppelin L20 destroyed oil Stavanger (Norway), on way back from raid on British coast, May 2nd.

MAY 4th, 1916

  • More Russian troops reach Marseilles.
  • British prisoners in enemy hands reported at 37,047.
  • Zeppelin L7 destroyed by British light cruisers H.M.S.S Galatea and Phaeton, and a submarine E31, off Schleswig.
  • Four more Irish rebel leaders shot.

MAY 5th, 1916

  • Zeppelin LZ85 destroyed off Salonika; 4 officers, 8 men made prisoners.

MAY 6th, 1916

  • Germany's reply to the American Note on submarine warfare published.
  • Germans bombard Hill 304 (Verdun).

MAY 7th, 1916

  • Strong German attack on French front between Hill 304 and Dead Man Hill, enemy penetrating into communication trench to east of former. Between Haudromont Wood and Douaumont Fort, he gains a footing in French first line over a distance of 300 yards.
  • General Petain promoted Commander-in-Chief of the Central Armies between Soissons and Verdun.
  • Russians capture Turkish defences north-east of Bagdad.
  • Two naval aeroplanes missing; body of Flight Sub Lieut. H. R. Simms picked up at sea, and the observer, Sub-Lieut. C. J. Mullens, missing.
  • German claim to have sunk submarine E31 by gun fire denied.

MAY 8th, 1916

  • British Trench Raids. - North of Thiepval Wood troops of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers and Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers raid enemy trenches. Near Fromelles also units of these troops raid hostile trenches.
  • Anzacs in France. - War Office announces that Australian and New Zealand troops have arrived in France. General Birdwood in command.
  • White Star liner S.S Cymric torpedoed and sunk in Atlantic by a submarine; five of crew killed.

MAY 9th, 1916

  • Three violent German attacks in the region of Hill 304, with large forces, smashed by the French fire. Counterattacks drive enemy from points of French first line he was occupying north-west of the Thiaumont Farm.
  • Robert Fay, Paul Dasche, and Walter Scholz sentenced in New York for conspiracy to blow up ships.

MAY 10th, 1916

  • Petrograd reports that Russian troops have occupied Kasr-i-Shirin, about 100 miles from Bagdad.
  • President Wilson's reply to German Note published.
  • Agreement signed at Berlin re employment of British and German prisoners of war
  • Strong German attack west of Hill 304 completely repulsed by French.

MAY 11th, 1916

  • Sir John Nixon’s despatch on the Battle of Ctesiphon and retreat to Kut published.
  • Total German losses to end of April officially stated at 2,822,079
  • German attack west of the Vaux Pond (north-east of Verdun) repulsed.
  • Total casualties to date in Irish rebellion published 1,315; 13 rebels executed.

MAY 12th, 1916

  • Enemy captures 500 yards of our front trenches’ northeast of Vermelles. Portion of lost ground regained.
  • At Verdun the French extend their positions south-east of Haucourt.

MAY 13th, 1916

  • Germans, after very heavy bombardment, attack Allied lines about Ploegsteert Wood, but are repulsed.
  • Agreement signed at London for transfer of British and German wounded and sick prisoners of war to Switzerland
  • Small monitor M30 lost in Mediterranean; two men killed and two wounded.

MAY 14th, 1916

  • German East Africa - Reported that three days’ attacks by enemy in direction of Kondoa Irangi have been defeated, and that Belgians have entered Kigali.
  • Austrians begin attack on Italian front, south-cast and south of Trent, and advance slightly.

MAY 15th, 1916

  • Sir Roger Casement charged with high treason at Bow Street.
  • British Success on the Vimy Ridge. - Lancashire Fusiliers seize and occupy the enemy's forward line in Artois, on a front of 250 yards.

MAY 16th, 1916

  • Austrians launch attack against Italians on a narrow front between Zugna Torta and the Val Sugana.
  • Sir Douglas Haig reports 27 combats in the air; an Albatross was attacked, driven down, and wrecked near Lille; another driven down north of Vitry.
  • Second Military Service Bill extending compulsion to married men passes the British House of Commons.
  • North Sea Naval Fight. - An encounter takes place off the Belgian coast between British destroyers and monitors and some German destroyers. After a short engagement the enemy withdraws. Allied force had no casualties.

MAY 17th, 1916

  • Anzac column in Sinai Peninsula successfully attacks enemy troops at Bayoud and Mageibra.
  • Raiding parties of Seaforth’s enter German trenches north of Roclincourt (north-east of Arras). Three dug-outs full of Germans are bombed, one being blown up.

MAY 18th, 1916

  • Big enemy attack on French positions in the Avocourt Wood and Hill 304 repulsed. French seize strong enemy fort on the north-east ern slope of Hill 304.
  • Mine crater on Vimy Ridge captured by the enemy.
  • Royal Commission on Irish rising opens.
  • Successful bombardment of El Arish, important post on the Turkish line of communications from Syria to Egypt, by British ships, aeroplanes, and seaplanes.

MAY 19th, 1916

  • Fierce German attack on French lines between the Wood of Avocourt and Hill 304. The enemy captures a small work south of Hill 287.
  • The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment recapture crater on Vimy Ridge.
  • Hostile seaplanes raid the Kent coast. One brought down later by a naval patrol off the coast of Belgium.

MAY 20th, 1916

  • Lieut.-General Sir Bryan Mahon assumes command in Western Egypt, and is succeeded by Lieut.-General Milne at Salonika.
  • Five German divisions assaulted Mort Homme (Verdun); Summit Hill 295 taken.

MAY 21st, 1916

  • French capture two German trenches between Avocourt Wood and the Meuse, and on the right bank of the river the Haudromont quarries.
  • The Summer Time Act comes into force.
  • German attack on Vimy Ridge.
  • Germans gain 1,500 yards of British front-line trenches on the Vimy Ridge.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Richard Basil Brandram JONES, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Richard Basil Brandram Jones, The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 21st May 1916 at Broadmarsh Crater, Vimy, France, Lieutenant Jones was holding with his platoon a crater recently captured from the enemy. About 7.30pm the enemy exploded a mine forty yards to his right, and at the same time put a heavy barrage of fire on our trenches, thus isolating the platoon. They then attacked in overwhelming numbers. Lieutenant Jones kept his men together, steadying them by his fine example, and shot no less than fifteen of the enemy as they advanced, counting them aloud as he did so to cheer his men. When his ammunition was expended he took a bomb, but was shot through the head while getting up to throw it. His splendid courage had so encouraged his men that when they had no more ammunition or bombs they threw stones and ammunition boxes at the enemy till only nine of the platoon were left. Finally they were compelled to retire.

MAY 22nd, 1916

  • South bank of Tigris as far as the Shat-el-Hai reported clear of the enemy.
  • French troops re-enter part of Douaumont Fort and German trenches on 2,000-yard front at Thiaumount Farm.

MAY 23rd, 1916

  • Forces of disaffected Sultan of Darfur defeated by British column, and his capital, El Fasher, entered.
  • Italians withdraw between the Astico and the Brenta (north-east of Rovereto), and in the Sugana Valley.

MAY 24th, 1916 

  • Verdun Battle. The Germans, after heavy sacrifices, enter the village of Cumiéres, and reoccupy Fort Douaumont.

MAY 25th, 1916

  • Military Service Act receives Royal assent.
  • British aeroplanes bomb Turkish posts at Rodh Salem, EI Hamma, Bir Bayoud, Bir Salmana.

MAY 26th, 1916

  • General Smuts' Advance. - War Office announces that General Smuts' advanced troops have occupied Rufu Lager on the Usambara Railway, Lembeni (on the same railway), and Ngulu, eight miles south-east of Lembeni.

MAY 27th, 1916

MAY 28th, 1916

  • Bulgarian Invasion of Greece. - Reported that Bulgarian troops operating in the Stemma Valley advance and occupy the southern outlet of the Rupel Pass, the adjacent heights, and the Demir Hissar Bridge.

MAY 29th, 1916

  • Germans suffer a sanguinary reverse in a violent attack on Hill 304.
  • Agreement signed at London re the employment of British and German Prisoners of War.
  • Tyrol Battle - Continued Austrian attacks against the Italian positions between the Adige and the Arsa Valley (south of Rovereto) repulsed.

MAY 30th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig's first despatch published.
  • One Hundredth Day of Battle of Verdun. - French report violent attack between Dead Man Hill and Cumiéres.
  • Farther east, in region of the Caurettes Wood, the French withdraw a few hundred yards to south of Bethincourt Cumiéres Road.
  • War Office reports that Brigadier-General Northey has occupied New Langenburg, in south-west of German East Africa.

MAY 31st, 1916

  • With unprecedented artillery fire the Germans make repeated attacks east of Dead Man Hill and around Cumiéres village. The French repulse enemy, but have to evacuate their first-line trench south-west of Cumiéres.
  • Great Naval Fight off Jutland - Admiral Beatty engages German battle-cruiser squadron and battle fleet off Danish coast, inflicting and sustaining heavy losses. On the advent of the British battle fleet, under Admiral Jellicoe, the enemy disperses and retreats. Admiralty counts 18 German ships sunk against our 14, among latter being the battle-cruisers Queen Mary, Indefatigable, Invincible, and the cruisers Defence, Black Prince, and Warrior.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Commander Edward Barry Stewart Bingham, Royal Navy, H.M.S. Nestor awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Commander the Honourable Edward Barry Stewart Bingham, Royal Navy (prisoner of war in Germany). Register of the Victoria Cross citation: - On 31st May 1916, at the Battle of Jutland, Commander Bingham, of HMS Nestor, led his division in their attack, first on enemy destroyers and then on their battle cruisers. He finally sighted the enemy fleet and followed by the one remaining destroyer of his division (HMS Nicator), he closed to within 3,000 yards of the enemy, in order to attain a favourable position for firing the torpedoes. While making this attack Nestor and Nicator were under concentrated fire of the secondary batteries of the High Seas Fleet. Nestor was subsequently sunk
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Commander Loftus William JONES, HMS Shark awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Commander Loftus William Jones, Royal Navy. On 31st May 1916 at the Battle of Jutland, Commander Jones of HMS Shark, led a division of destroyers to attack the enemy Battle Cruiser Squadron. In the course of this attack Shark became disabled by shell-fire and was lying helpless between two enemy fleets. Commander Jones was badly wounded in the leg, but with the help of three surviving seamen he kept the midships gun in action until he was hit by a shell which took off his leg. He continued, however, to give orders to his gun's crew, until Shark was hit by a torpedo and sank. Commander Jones was not among the survivors.

JUNE 1916

JUNE 1st, 1916

  • French repulse German attack on eastern slopes of Dead Man Hill, but later the enemy penetrates a front-line trench.
  • Battle of Jutland ends
  • In Southern Tyrol the Austrians are held on the left and centre, but gain ground in the Asiago region. Heavy gun duel in the neighbourhood of Vimy Ridge.
  • The new Air Board issues details of many British air fights in France and Flanders during the month of May.

JUNE 2nd, 1916

  • Increasing Fury of Verdun Battle. - Germans pierce the French lines in southern part of the Caillette Wood, in the region south of the Vaux Pond, and at Damloup. On the slopes of Vaux Fort there is a struggle of “unprecedented violence.”
  • Battle of Mount Sorrel begins at Ypres.
  • Germans penetrate British front trenches at several points in the salient between Hooge and the Ypres-Roulers railway. 

JUNE 3rd, 1916

  • Reported that General Smuts' troops carried German entrenched positions between the Pangani River and the Pare foothills on May 30.
  • Canadians' counter-attack drives the Germans from much of ground ill the direction of Zillebeke which they captured on June 2nd.
  • Allied troops at Salonika occupy the Government Bureaux, and proclaim martial law throughout the territory occupied by them.

JUNE 4th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports that the situation about Ypres has not altered materially, our troops retaining the ground regained in their counter-attacks of June 3rd.
  • Allies proclaim martial law in Salonika.
  • Russian Offensive Renewed. - Our ally conducts a violent offensive from the Pripet to the Rumanian frontier, and achieves important successes. Austrian prisoners to date number about 13,000; also guns and machine-guns captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 3156 Arthur Herbert PROCTER, King's (Liverpool Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3156 Private Arthur Herbert Procter, Liverpool Regiment, Territorial Force. For most conspicuous bravery. On 4th June 1916 near Ficheux, France, Private Procter, noticing some movement on the part of two wounded men who were lying in the open in full view of the enemy at about 75 yards in front of our trenches, went out, on his own initiative, and, though heavily fired at, ran and crawled to the two men, got them under cover of a small bank, dressed their wounds, and after cheering them with the promise of rescue after dark, and leaving with them some clothing for warmth, regained our trenches, again being heavily fired at. At dusk both men were brought in alive.

JUNE 5th, 1916

  • British infantry enters German trenches in five different places between Cuinchy and Fauquissart.
  • Petrograd reports continued success from the Pripet to the Rumanian frontier.
  • Lord Kitchener Drowned. - H.M.S. Hampshire, with Lord Kitchener and his Staff on board, sunk at 8 p.m., to the west of the Orkneys, by a mine. The late Secretary of State for War was on his way to Russia.

JUNE 6th, 1916

  • Heavy Ypres Fighting - Germans bombard British positions about Hooge and in neighbourhood of Ypres-Comines railway and canal. North of Hooge the enemy explodes a series of mines, and penetrates our front trenches. Our general line is still intact.
  • “Pacific blockade” of Greece by Entente Powers begins.
  • Russians take Lutsk.

JUNE 7th, 1916

  • Fort Vaux cut off. The French claim that at 3.50 a.m. the fort was still in their hands, but no communication with it has been possible. Great artillery activity about Hill 304 (north-east of Verdun) is announced.
  • War Office reports that the British columns which crossed the Nyasaland-German East Africa Frontier pursued the enemy to New Utengule, capturing prisoners and supplies.
  • Announced from British front that enemy captured our front-line trenches running through the ruins of Hooge. Australian troops raid German trenches east of Bois Grenier, inflicting loss and bringing back prisoners.
  • Great Russian Gains. - Officially reported that in recent actions in Volhynia, Galicia, and the Bukovina the armies of General Brussiloff took over 40,000 prisoners and 77 guns.
  • Mr. Asquith takes over duties of Secretary for War, pending appointment of Lord Kitchener's Successor.

JUNE 8th, 1916

  • Russia reports vigorous pursuit of Austrians following on capture of Lutsk, and additional 11,000 prisoners.
  • Loss of Vaux Fort officially admitted by the French.
  • German Admiralty admits loss of battle-cruiser Lutzow in Jutland Battle.
  • Admiral Jellicoe reports twelve survivors of H.M.S. Hampshire washed ashore on a raft.
  • British forces occupy Bismarckburg in German East Africa.

JUNE 9th, 1916

  • Continued Russian offensive. General Brussiloff's troops reported across the Strypa. Nearly 14,000 fresh prisoners, making a grand total from June 5 of 65,857.
  • Verdun Battle. Germans penetrate French lines between Thiaumont Farm and the Caillette Wood.
  • Admiralty publishes news of a patrol action off Zeebrugge, our force chasing the enemy back to port.
  • Allied War Council in London, Generals Joffre, Roques, and M. Briand, French Premier, being present.

JUNE 10th, 1916

  • Violent artillery action by both sides in Verdun sector.
  • New Zealand government passes Compulsory Service Bill.
  • East African Successes. - General Smuts reports his troops have occupied Mombo and Mkalamo. Operating from the Rhodesia-Nyasaland border, Colonel Murray's column occupied Bismarckburg.

JUNE 11th, 1916

  • Continued Russian advance. General Brussiloff's armies reported to have taken Dubno, and on the Bukovina border thrusting towards Czernovitz.
  • German Offensive at Ypres. - The enemy bunches a heavy bombardment at the southern part of the Ypres salient. An infantry attack against Sanctuary Wood repulsed.

JUNE 12th, 1916

  • Russians reported pressing on the heels of the Austrians twenty-four miles south of Lutsk, having driven the enemy back on the Styr and regained Kolki. In the extreme south they are nearing the suburbs of Czernovitz. To date the prisoners, total 114,700.
  • Successive German attacks against the Thiaumont Work repulsed.
  • Heavy mutual bombardment. on the front between Hill 60 and Hooge.
  • Italians continue their offensive, and are slowly pushing the enemy back at several points on the Tyrol frontier. British column under General Sir Percy Sykes enters Kerman, South Persia.

JUNE 13th, 1916

  • Canadians' dash at Ypres. The Canadians by a splendid attack regain all the lost ground south-east of Zillebeke. The Australians make a successful raid on enemy trenches south of Armentières.
  • Germans capture French advanced trenches east of Hill 321.
  • The Italians report some advance in the Lagarino Valley on the Tyrol frontier.
  • Memorial Service for Lord Kitchener at St. Paul's Cathedral.

JUNE 14th, 1916

  • Russian advance continues along the whole front, from the southern part of the Pripet Marshes to the Rumanian frontier. Total prisoners to date, 1,720 officers, 120,000 men.
  • Allied Economic Conference reassembles in Paris.
  • General Smuts’ northern column reaches Makuyuni. He reports the occupation of Wilhelmstal.
  • Baltic Fight. - Russian destroyers and submarines attack a dozen German steamers, escorted by destroyers, armed trawlers, and an auxiliary cruiser, south-west of Stockholm. Three enemy warships sunk.

JUNE 15th, 1916

  • French carry a trench on southern slopes of Dead Man Hill.
  • Signor Boselli appointed Italian Prime Minister.
  • Italy reports capture of the enemy's lines east of Monfalcone and south of Sant' Antonio, 488 prisoners and war material. Her air squadron drops 160 bombs and 60,000 arrows on enemy encampment north of Asiago.

JUNE 16th, 1916

  • Total of prisoners taken by the Russians since June 5th reported at 167,000.
  • War Office announces our trenches on north bank of Tigris, cast of Kut, have been pushed forward to within 200 yards of the Turkish Sanna-i-Yat position. On the South bank an advanced position at Imam Mansura occupied.
  • H.M. torpedo-destroyer Eden collides and sinks in the Channel; 31 saved.

JUNE 17th, 1916

  • Austro-German counter-attack on the Styr repulsed by Russians.
  • French carry enemy trenches to north of Hill 321, and clear first and second line of trenches on Hill 425, east of Thann, in the Vosges.
  • Fall of Czernovitz.

JUNE 18th, 1916

  • French repulse German attacks against Dead Man Hill and Thiaumont.
  • General Moltke, ex-Chief of German General Staff, dies suddenly of heart failure.

JUNE 19th, 1916

  • Russians reported 50 miles from Lemberg. They have taken 3,000 prisoners near Czernovitz, bringing total to date since their offensive opened to 175,000.
  • Italian Advance. - Officially reported that tile Alpini carried a summit of Mount Lidro, taking 200 prisoners. Successful raid carried out by Royal Flying Corps against a large enemy aerodrome five miles south of EI Arish. Two of the ten hangars destroyed, and four hit many times with bombs.

JUNE 20th, 1916

  • In the Bukovina the Russians cross the River Sereth, fifteen miles south-west of Czernovitz.
  • Three German at tacks against French positions northwest of Hill 321 repulsed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 34314 Joseph DAVIES, Royal Welsh Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No 34314 Corporal Joseph Davies, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 20th July 1916 at Delvelle Wood, France prior to an attack on the enemy in the wood he became separated with eight men from the rest of his company. When the enemy delivered their second counter-attack his party was completely surrounded, but he got them into a shell hole, and by throwing bombs and opening rapid fire, succeeded in routing them. Not content with this he followed them up in their retreat and bayoneted several of them. Corporal Davies set a magnificent example of pluck and determination. He has done other gallant work, and was badly wounded in the second battle of Ypres.

JUNE 21st, 1916

  • Full text of Allies' decisions at the Economic Conference in Paris published.
  • Furious fighting continues in Western Volhynia. In the north attacks by Hindenburg repulsed.
  • Advance in East Africa. - General Smuts reports occupation of Handeni, and enemy continuing his retreat towards the central railway. In the southern theatre our troops have occupied Old Langenburg.

JUNE 22nd, 1916

  • French air raid on Treves, Karlsruhe, and Mulheim. Royal Welsh Fusiliers clear Germans from captured trenches. Russia reports capture of Radautz.
  • “Pacific blockade” of Greece suspended.
  • Greek Government accedes to the demands of the Allies.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 7064 John ERSKINE, Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 7064 Acting Sergeant John Erskine, Scottish Rifles, Territorial Force. For most conspicuous bravery. On 22nd June 1916 at Givenchy, France, whilst near the lip of a crater, caused by the explosion of a large enemy mine, was being consolidated, Acting Sergeant Erskine rushed out under continuous fire with utter disregard of danger and rescued a wounded serjeant and a private. Later, seeing his officer, who was believed to be dead, show signs of movement, he ran out to him, bandaged his head, and remained with him for fully an hour, though repeatedly fired at, whilst a shallow trench was being dug to them. He then assisted in bringing in his officer, shielding him with his own body in order to lessen the chance of his being hit again.

JUNE 23rd, 1916

  • In the Bukovina the Austrians are retiring towards the Carpathians. Russians capture Kimpolung.
  • Italians advance in the Vallaza, occupying new positions.
  • Germans reach the village of Fleury, south of Hill 320, but French counter-attack recovers part of the ground.

JUNE 24th, 1916

  • Allies’ blockade of Greece raised.
  • Austrian forces driven out of The Bukovina.
  • Allied artillery begins preliminary bombardment as Battle of the Somme begins.

JUNE 25th, 1916

  • British artillery active on the whole front.
  • The Italians in the Pasubis sector extend their lines of occupation as far as the Piazza Valley. On the Posina-Astico line artillery duels take place.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Arthur Hugh Henry BATTEN-POOLL, Royal Munster Fusiliers, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Arthur Hugh Henry Batten-Pooll, Royal Munster Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery whilst in command of a raiding party. On 25th June 1916 near Colonne, France, at the moment of entry into the enemy's lines he was severely wounded by a bomb, which broke and mutilated all the fingers of his right hand. In spite of this he continued to direct operations with unflinching courage, his voice being clearly heard cheering on and directing his men. He was urged, but refused, to retire. Half an hour later, during the withdrawal, whilst personally assisting in the rescue of other wounded men, he received two further wounds. Still refusing assistance, he walked unaided to within 100 yards of our lines, when he fainted, and was carried in by the covering party.

JUNE 26th, 1916

  • British troops penetrate German trenches at ten different parts.
  • Slight French gain between the Fumin Wood and the Chênois Wood.
  • Further Italian Advance. - Infantry advance from the Val Arsa to the Sette Comuni plateau. On the Posina-Astico line enemy driven back. Pria Fora occupied and infantry pushed on towards outskirts of Arsiero.

JUNE 27th, 1916

  • Fourth day of artillery activity on the British front.
  • Greek Government order general demobilisation.
  • Italians, rapidly advancing, reoccupy Arsiero and Asiago.
  • Recommendations of Allied Economic Conference ratified.

JUNE 28th, 1916

  • General Lechitsky defeats the Austrians on a front of 25 miles east of Kolomea.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 2579 James HUTCHINSON, Lancashire Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2579 Private James Hutchinson, Lancashire Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 28 June 1916 opposite Ficheux, France, during an attack on the enemy's position this soldier was the leading man, and, entering their trench, shot two sentries and cleared two of the traverses. After our object had been gained and retirement ordered, Private Hutchinson, on his own initiative, undertook the dangerous task of covering the retirement, and he did this with such gallantry and determination that the wounded were removed into safety. During all this time this gallant soldier was exposed to fierce fire from machine-guns and rifles at close quarters.

JUNE 29th, 1916

  • British activity all along the line; numerous raids on German positions.
  • Roger Casement sentenced to death.

JUNE 30th, 1916

  • Continued British activity all along the front.
  • Petrograd reports capture of Kolomea.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Company Sergeant Major SD/4 Nelson Victor CARTER awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 4 Company Serjeant-Major Nelson Victor Carter, late Royal Sussex Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 30th June 1916 at Boar's Head, Richebourg l'Avoue, France, during an attack he was in command of the fourth wave of the assault. Under intense shell and machine-gun fire, he penetrated, with a few men, into the enemy's second line and inflicted heavy casualties with bombs. When forced to retire to the enemy’s first line, he captured a machine-gun and shot the gunner with his revolver. Finally, after carrying several wounded men into safety, he was himself mortally wounded and died in a few minutes. His conduct throughout the day was magnificent.

JULY 1916

JULY 1st, 1916

  • Great Allied Offensive Launched. Battles of the Somme 1916 begin with Battle of Albert 1916 (1st/13th) - A Franco-British attack north and south of the Somme, on a front-of twenty-five miles, begins at 7.30 a.m. Our troops carry the German forward system of defences on a front of sixteen miles, storming and occupying the strongly-fortified villages of Montauban and Mametz. Over 2,000 prisoners taken.
  • Royal Flying Corps carries out first contact patrols, communicating with ground troops.
  • Turkish forces reoccupy Kirmanshah in Persia.
  • Lochnagar Mine exploded at 07:28, La Boisselle, France.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Major Eric Norman Frankland BELL, 9th Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers, attached Light Trench Mortar Battery, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned:- Temporary Captain Eric Norman Frankland Bell, late Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 1st July 1916 at Thiepval, France, he was in command of a Trench Mortar Battery, and advanced with the infantry in the attack. When our front line was hung up by enfilading machine-gun fire Captain bell crept forward and shot the machine-gunner. Later, on no less than three occasions, when our bombing parties, which were clearing the enemy's trenches, were unable to advance, he went forward alone and threw Trench Mortar bombs among the enemy. When he had no more bombs available, he stood on the parapet, under intense fire, and used a rifle with great coolness and effect on the enemy advancing to counter attack. Finally, he was killed rallying and reorganising infantry parties which had lost their officers. All this was outside the scope of his normal duties with his battery. He gave his life in his supreme devotion to duty.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant Geoffrey St George Shillington CATHER, Royal Irish Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant Geoffrey St George Shillington Cather, late Royal Irish Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 1st July 1916 near Hamel, France, from 7 p.m. till midnight he searched “No Man's Land,” and brought in three wounded men. Next morning at 8 a.m. he continued his search, brought in another wounded man, and gave water to others, arranging for their rescue later. Finally, at 10.30 a.m., he took out water to another man, and was proceeding further on when he was himself killed. All this was carried out in full view of the enemy, and under direct machine-gun fire and intermittent artillery fire. He set a splendid example of courage and self-sacrifice.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain John Leslie GREEN, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain John Leslie Green, late Royal Army Medical Corps. For most conspicuous devotion to duty. On 1st July 1916 at Foncquevillers, France, Captain Green, although himself wounded, he went to the assistance of an officer who had been wounded and was hung up on the enemy's wire entanglements, and succeeded in dragging him to a shell hole, where he dressed his wounds, notwithstanding that bombs and rifle grenades were thrown at him the whole time. Captain Green then endeavoured to bring the wounded officer into safe cover, and had nearly succeeded in doing so when he was himself killed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Major Stewart Walter LOUDOUN-SHAND, Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Temporary Major Stewart Walter Loudoun-Shand, late Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 1st July 1916 near Fricourt, France, when his company attempted to climb over the parapet to attack the enemy's trenches, they were met by very fierce machine-gun fire, which temporarily stopped their progress. Major Loudoun-Shand immediately leapt on the parapet, helped the men over it and encouraged them in every way until he fell mortal wounded. Even then he insisted on being propped up in the trench, and went on encouraging the non-commissioned officers and men until he died.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 14/18278 William Frederick McFADZEAN, Royal Irish Rifles awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 14/18278 Private William Frederick McFadzean, late Royal Irish Rifles. For most conspicuous bravery. On 1st July 1916, near Thiepval Wood, France, while in a concentration trench and opening a box of bombs for distribution prior to an attack, the box slipped down into the trench, which was crowded with men, and two of the safety pins fell out. Private McFadzean, instantly realising the danger to his comrades, with heroic courage threw himself on the top of the bombs. The bombs exploded blowing him to pieces, but only one other man was injured. He well knew his danger, being himself a bomber, but without a moments hesitation he gave his life for his comrades.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Rifleman 12/18645 Robert QUIGG, Royal Irish Rifles awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 12/18645 Private Robert Quigg, Royal Irish Rifles. For most conspicuous bravery. On 1st July 1916 at Hamel, France, he advanced to the assault with his platoon three times. Early next morning, hearing a rumour that his platoon officer was lying out wounded, he went out seven times to look for him under heavy shell and machine-gun fire, each time bringing back a wounded man. The last man he dragged in on a waterproof sheet from within a few yards of the enemy's wire. He was seven hours engaged in this most gallant work, and finally was so exhausted that he had to give up.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Major Lionel Wilmot Brabazon REES, Royal Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain (Temporary Major) Lionel Wilmot Brabazon Rees, Royal Artillery and Royal Flying Corps. For conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty. On 1st July 1916 at Double Crassieurs, France, whilst on flying duties, Major Rees sighted what he thought to be a bombing party of our own machines returning home. He went up to escort them, but on getting nearer discovered they were a party of enemy machines, about ten in all. Major Rees was immediately attacked by one of the machines, and after a short encounter it disappeared behind the enemy lines, damaged. Five others then attacked him at long range, but these he dispersed on coming to close quarters, after seriously damaging two of the machines. Seeing two others going westwards, he gave chase to them, but on coming nearer he was wounded in the thigh, causing him to lose temporary control of his machine. He soon righted it, and immediately closed with the enemy, firing at a close contact range of only a few yards, until all his ammunition was used up. He then returned home, landing his machine safely in our lines.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Drummer 68 Walter Potter RITCHIE, Seaforth Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 68 Drummer Walter Ritchie, Seaforth Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery and resource, when on 1st July 1916 at Beaumont-Hamel, France, on his own initiative he stood on the parapet of an enemy trench, and, under heavy machine-gun fire and bomb attacks repeatedly sounded the “Charge,” thereby rallying many men of various units who, having lost their leaders, were wavering and beginning to retire. This action showed the highest type of courage and personal initiative. Throughout the day Drummer Ritchie carried messages over fire-swept ground, showing the greatest devotion to duty.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 3203 George SANDERS, West Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3203 Corporal George Sanders, West Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 1st July 1916 near Thiepval, France, after an advance into the enemy's trenches, he found himself isolated with a party of thirty men. He organised his defences, detailed a bombing party, and impressed on his men that his and their duty was to hold the position at all costs. Next morning he drove off an attack by the enemy and rescued some prisoners who had fallen into their hands. Later two strong bombing attacks were beaten off. On the following day he was relieved after showing the greatest courage, determination and good leadership during 36 hours under very trying conditions. All this time his party was without food and water, having given all their water to the wounded during the first night. After the relieving force was firmly established, he brought his party, nineteen strong, back to our trenches.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 15888 James Youll TURNBULL, Highland Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 15888 Serjeant James Youll Turnbull, late Highland Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 01 July 1916 at Leipzig Salient, Authuille, France, Serjeant Turnbull, having with his party captured a post apparently of great importance to the enemy, he was subjected to severe counter-attacks, which were continuous throughout the whole day. Although his party was wiped out and replaced several times during the day, Serjeant Turnbull never wavered in his determination to hold the post, the loss of which would have been very serious. Almost single-handed, he maintained his position, and displayed the highest degree of valour and skill in the performance of his duties. Later in the day this very gallant soldier was killed whilst bombing a counter-attack from the parados of our trench.

JULY 2nd, 1916

  • Second day of allied offensive. Sir Douglas Haig reports heavy fighting in the area between the Ancre and the Somme. Our troops carry Fricourt. Total prisoners to date, 3,500. French engaged north of the Somme in the region of Hardecourt and Curlu. The village of Frise and Mereaucourt Wood captured. Prisoners exceed 6,000.
  • Battle of Baranovichi begins

JULY 3rd, 1916

  • Third day of allied offensive. British take La Boisselle, but are checked north-east of Albert. The French capture five villages and advance to within three miles of Péronne. Prisoners taken by Allies total 12,300.
  • Russian and Japanese Governments conclude treaty with regard to future policy in the Far East.
  • Russians begin a heavy artillery action on the Riga front, assisted by naval units.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Colonel Arian Carton De WIART, Dragoon Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Capt. (temp. Lt.-Col.) Adrian Carton de Wiart, D.S.O., Dn. Gds. For most conspicuous bravery, coolness and determination during severe operations of a prolonged nature. It was owing in a great measure to his dauntless courage and inspiring example that a serious reverse was averted. He displayed the utmost energy and courage in forcing our attack home. After three other battalion Commanders had become casualties, he controlled their commands, and ensured that the ground won was maintained at all costs. He frequently exposed himself in the organisation of positions and of supplies, passing unflinchingly through fire barrage of the most intense nature. His gallantry was inspiring to all.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 20572 Thomas George TURRALL, Worcestershire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 20572 Private Thomas George Turrall, Worcestershire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 3rd July 1916 at La Boiselle, France, during a bombing attack by a small party against the enemy the officer in charge was badly wounded, and the party having penetrated the position to a great depth was compelled eventually to retire. Private Turrall remained with the wounded officer for three hours, under continuous and very heavy fire from machine-guns and bombs, and, notwithstanding that both himself and the officer were at one time completely cut off from our troops, he held to his ground with determination, and finally carried the officer into our lines after our counter-attacks had made this possible.

JULY 4th, 1916

  • French and British Progress. - Sir Douglas Haig reports that La Boisselle, part of which had been in enemy hands, is entirely in our possession. South of the Somme the French make good progress towards Péronne, capturing Estrees and Belloy-en-Santerre.
  • Russian success north of the Pripet. In the Baranovichi region two lines of enemy works carried and 2,700 prisoners taken.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 19384 George William CHAFER, East Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 19384 Private George William Chafer, East Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 3rd/4th June 1916 east of Meaulte, France, during a very heavy hostile bombardment and attack on our trenches, a man carrying an important written message to his Company Commander was half buried and rendered unconscious by a shell. Private Chafer, at once grasping the situation, on his own initiative took the message from the man's pocket, and, although severely wounded in three places, choking and blinded by gas, ran along the ruined parapet under heavy shell and machine-gun fire and just succeeded in delivering it before he collapsed from the effect of his wounds. He displayed great initiative and a splendid devotion to duty at a critical moment.

JULY 5th, 1916

  • Continued gains by British and French. Latter advance north of the Somme to Hem, which they capture, and reach a point on the south bank two miles from Péronne. British prisoners total over 6,000 and the French 9,500.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Second Lieutenant Donald Simpson BELL, 9th Battalion, The Yorkshire Regiment (Alexandra, Princess of Wales's Own), awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: Temporary Second Lieutenant Donald Simpson Bell, late Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 5th July 1916 at Horseshoe Trench, Somme, France, during an attack a very heavy enfilade fire was opened on the attacking company by a hostile machine-gun. Second Lieutenant Bell immediately and on his own initiative, crept up a communication trench and then, followed by Corporal Colwill and Private Batey, rushed across the open under very heavy fire and attacked the machine-gun, shooting the firer with his revolver, and destroying gun and personnel with bombs. This very brave act saved many lives and ensured the success of the attack. Five days later this gallant officer lost his life performing a very similar act of bravery.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant Thomas Orde Lawder WILKINSON, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant Thomas Orde Lawder Wilkinson, late North Lancashire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 5 July 1916 at Boiselle, France, during an attack, when a party of another unit was retiring without their machine-gun, Lieutenant Wilkinson rushed forward and, with two of his men, got the gun into action, and held up the enemy till they were relieved. Later, when the advance was checked during a bombing attack, he forced his way forward and found four or five men of different units stopped by a solid block of earth, over which the enemy was throwing bombs. With great pluck and promptness he mounted a machine-gun on the top of the parapet and dispersed the enemy bombers. Subsequently he made two most gallant attempts to bring in a wounded man, but the second attempt he was shot through the heart just before reaching the man. Throughout the day he set a magnificent example of courage and self-sacrifice.

JULY 6th, 1916

  • British advance near Thiepval.
  • Russian Offensive. - In Volhynia our Ally takes over 2,300 prisoners. West of Lower Strypa the enemy is overthrown and driven back, and 5,000 prisoners taken. General Lechitsky cuts railway communication between Galicia and Hungary.

JULY 7th, 1916

  • Text of Admiral Jellicoe's despatch on Jutland Battle published.
  • Mr. Lloyd George new War Minister. - Sir Edward Grey becomes a viscount.
  • Second Stage of British Advance. - Our troops advance between the Ancre and the Somme. A further portion of the Leipzig Redoubt carried, while east of La Boisselle we advance our line 500 yards on a front of nearly 2,000 yards. The Prussiau Guard, thrown into the battle to bar our progress east of Contalmaison, repulsed.
  • Russians break the German line north of Lutsk salient.

JULY 8th, 1916

  • Text of a Russo-Japanese agreement published.
  • Fighting takes place on the extreme British right flank.
  • Our troops gain a lodgement in the Bois des Trones, while our aeroplanes bomb Douai Aerodrome. The French report their capture of Hardecourt, with 633 prisoners.

JULY 9th, 1916

  • East of Flaucourt French troops carry enemy positions on a depth of from 1,100 yards to a mile and a quarter. They capture the village of Biaches.
  • New Russian Blows. - Our ally north of the Lutsk salient forces the Germans back in disorder six miles to the Stokhod. Thirty miles farther south they push their new wedge into the German front east of Kovel. Reported that since June 4 the Russians have taken 250,000 prisoners.
  • Hostile aeroplane raid on south-east coast of England; five bombs dropped.
  • Battle of Baranovichi ends.

JULY 10th, 1916

  • Germans make slight gain in the Trones Wood, where desperate battle raged. Our progress continued in the Mametz Wood, east of Ovillers, and near Contalmaison.
  • French storm a height near Péronne.
  • Russian army south-east of Kovel reported to have advanced 10.5 miles.
  • General Smuts reports occupation of Tanga, on the coast of German East Africa, on July 7th.

JULY 11th, 1916

  • Despatch from Sir Douglas Haig published, stating that after ten days and nights of continuous fighting, our troops have completed the “methodical capture” of the enemy's first system of defence on a front of eight miles. Our prisoners exceed 7,500, and we captured twenty-six field-guns. An earlier official report announces the retaking of Contalmaison and most of the Trones Wood
  • Big Russian Captures. - Our ally reports that in their offensive, since July 5, they have captured 271,620 officers and men, 312 guns, and 866 machine-guns.
  • German U boat fires thirty rounds of shrapnel at Seaham Harbour.

JULY 12th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports recapture of all ground in Mametz Wood lost during the night, also some progress in the Trones Wood.
  • Mass attack of 18,000 Germans in direction of the Souville Fort (north-east of Verdun) gains for the enemy only a little ground near the Chapelle Sainte Fine Farm.

JULY 13th, 1916

  • British continue their pressure and advance their line.
  • Allied Shell Conference at War Office.

JULY 14th, 1916

  • German Second Line Breached. - Sir Douglas Haig reports that at daybreak our troops carried the enemy's second line on a front of four miles. As the result of the day's fighting we hold the position from Bazentin-Ie-Petit village to Longueval village and the whole of Trones Wood.
  • Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Somme) begins
  • British forces occupy Mwanza in German East Africa.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 14603 William Ewart BOULTER, Northamptonshire Regiment, 6th (Service) Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 14603 Serjeant William Ewart Boulter, Northamptonshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 14th July 1916 at Trones Wood, France, when one company and part of another were held up in the attack on a wood by a hostile machine-gun, which was causing heavy casualties, Serjeant Boulter, with utter contempt of danger and in spite of being severely wounded in one shoulder, advanced alone over the open under heavy fire in front of the gun, and bombed the gun team from their position. This very gallant act not only saved many casualties, but was of great military value, as it materially expedited the operation of clearing the enemy out of the wood, and thus covering the flank of the whole attacking force.

JULY 15th, 1916

  • North of Bazentin-Ie-Grand our troops penetrate the German third line at the Bois des Foureaux. In this neighbourhood a detachment of the enemy successfully accounted for by a squadron of Dragoon Guards. In the past twenty-four hours we captured over 2,000 prisoners and five heavy howitzers.
  • Battle of Delville Wood (Somme) begins

JULY 16th, 1916

  • The detachment of our troops that penetrated to Foureaux withdraw into our main line without molestation from the enemy.
  • Battle of Delville Wood (Somme) ends.
  • Russian successes. In Volhynia our ally captures two batteries and 3,000 prisoners. They report having stormed Baiburt, halfway between Erzerum and Trebizond.

JULY 17th, 1916

  • Our troops, as the result of fresh successes, now hold 4 miles 600 yards of the German second line north of the Somme. North of Longueval they are close to the third line. Since July 1 the total of unwounded German prisoners is 189 officers and 10,779 other ranks.
  • Big Russian success. Our ally gains an important success in Volhynia, on the southern face of the Lutsk salient, pushing back Von Linsingen's army ten miles to the south and capturing 12,954 prisoners and 30 guns.
  • Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Somme) ends

JULY 18th, 1916

  • Germans attack our positions near Longueval and Delville Wood.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 4073 William Frederick FAULDS, South African Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 4073 Private William Frederick Faulds, South African Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 18th July 1916 at Delville Wood, France, a bombing party under Lieutenant Craig attempted to rush across 40 yards of ground which lay between the British and enemy trenches. Coming under very heavy rifle and machine-gun fire the officer and the majority of the party were killed or wounded. Unable to move, Lieutenant Craig lay midway between the two lines of trench, the ground being quite open. In full daylight Private Faulds, accompanied by two other men, climbed over the parapet, ran out, picked up the officer, and carried him back, one man being severely wounded in so doing. Two days later Private Faulds again showed most conspicuous bravery in going out alone to bring in a wounded man, and carrying him nearly half a mile to a dressing-station, subsequently rejoining his platoon. The artillery fire was at the time so intense that stretcher-bearers and others considered that any attempt to bring in the wounded men meant certain death. This risk Private Faulds faced unflinchingly, and his bravery was crowned with success.

JULY 19th, 1916

  • Enemy recaptures a portion of Delville Wood and obtains a footing in Longueval, but British regain most of the lost ground.
  • Battle of Fromelles - Actions by British and Australian troops to divert the German's attention away from the Battles of the Somme.

JULY 20th, 1916

  • Continued Allied Success in the West. - British advance 1,000 yards north of the Bazentin-Longueval line. Heavy fighting continues in the northern outskirts of Longueval village and in Delville Wood.
  • General Sakharoff's troops inflict heavy defeat on the Austrians on the south-western face of the Lutsk salient.
  • Greek Government conclude new loan with the Entente.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Brevet Major William La Touche CONGREVE, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Brevet Major William La Touche Congreve, D.S.O., M.C., late Rifle Brigade. For most conspicuous bravery during a period of fourteen days preceding his death in action. Between 6th and 20th July 1916 at Longueval, France this officer constantly performed acts of gallantry and showed the greatest devotion to duty, and by his personal example inspired all those around him with confidence at critical periods of the operations. During preliminary preparations for the attack he carried out personal reconnaissances of the enemy lines, taking out parties of officers and non-commissioned officers for over 1,000 yards in front of our line, in order to acquaint them with the ground. Al these preparations were made under fire. Later, by night, Major Congreve conducted a battalion to its position of employment, afterwards returning to it to ascertain the situation after assault. He established himself in an exposed forward position from whence he successfully. Observed the enemy, and gave orders necessary to drive them from their position. Two days later, when Brigade Headquarters was heavily shelled and many casualties resulted, he went out and assisted the medical officer to remove the wounded to places of safety, although he was himself suffering severely from gas and other shell effects. He again on a subsequent occasion showed supreme courage in tending wounded under heavy shell fire. He finally returned to the front line to ascertain the situation after an unsuccessful attack, and whilst in the act of writing his report, was shot and killed instantly.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 15280 Albert HILL, Royal Welsh Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 15280 Private Albert Hill, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 20th July 1916 at Delville Wood, France when his battalion had deployed under very heavy fire for an attack on the enemy in a wood he dashed forward, when the order to charge was given, and, meeting two of the enemy suddenly, bayoneted them both. He was sent later by his platoon serjeant to get into touch with the company, and, finding himself cut off and almost surrounded by some twenty of the enemy, attacked them with bombs, killing and wounding many and scattering the remainder. He then joined a serjeant of his company and helped him to fight the way back to the lines. When he got back, hearing that his Company Officer and a scout were lying out wounded, he went out and assisted to bring in the wounded officer, two other men bringing in the scout. Finally, he himself captured and brought in as prisoners two of the enemy. His conduct throughout was magnificent.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 10799 Theodore William Henry VEALE, Devonshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10799 Private Theodore William Henry Veale, Devonshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 20 July 1916 east of High Wood, France, hearing that a wounded officer was lying out in front, Private Veale went out in search, and found him lying amidst growing corn within fifty yards of the enemy. He dragged the officer to a shell hole, returned for water and took it out. Finding he could not single-handed carry in the officer, he returned for assistance, and took out two volunteers. One of the party was killed when carrying the officer, and heavy fire necessitated leaving the officer in the shell hole. At dusk Private Veale went out again with volunteers to bring in the officer. Whilst doing this an enemy patrol was observed approaching. Private Veale at once went back and procured a Lewis gun, and with the fire of the gun he covered the party, and the officer was finally carried to safety. The courage and determination displayed was of the highest order.

JULY 21st, 1916

  • Reported that Russian Army of the Caucasus has captured the town of Gumushkhane, 100 miles from Erzerum.

JULY 22nd, 1916

  • Despatches from Lord French and General Maxwell on the rising in Ireland published.
  • Announced that Russians in Southern Volhynia have captured in eight days 27,000 prisoners and 40 guns. In Armenia they are within thirty miles of Erzindjan.

JULY 23rd, 1916

  • Battle of Pozières Ridge. - Territorial and Australian troops carry the German outer works of Pozieres by assault. Resignation of M. Sazonoff, Russian Foreign Minister.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Arthur Seaforth BLACKBURN, Australian Imperial Force, 10th Battalion (South Australia), awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Arthur Seaforth Blackburn, Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 23rd July 1916 at Pozieres, France, he was directed with fifty men to drive the enemy from a strong point. By dogged determination he eventually captured their trench after personally leading four separate parties of bombers against it, many of whom became casualties. In face of fierce opposition, he captured 250 yards of trench. Then, after crawling forward with a Serjeant to reconnoitre, he returned, attacked and seized another 120 yards of trench, establishing communication with the battalion on his left.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sapper 136414 William HACKETT, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 136414 Sapper William Hackett, late Royal Engineers. For most conspicuous bravery. On 22nd/23rd June 1916 at Shaftesbury Avenue Mine, near Givenchy, France, Sapper Hackett was entombed with four others in a gallery owing to the explosion of an enemy mine. After 20 hours a hole was made through fallen earth and broken timber, and the outside party was met. Sapper Hackett helped three of the men through the hole and could easily have followed, but refused to leave the fourth, who had been seriously injured, saying “I am a tunneller, I must look after the others first.” Meantime the hole was getting smaller, yet he still refused to leave his injured comrade. Finally the gallery collapsed, and though the rescue party worked desperately for four days the attempt to reach the two men failed. Sapper Hackett, well knowing the nature of sliding earth, the chances against him, deliberately gave his life for his comrade.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 2053 John LEAK, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No.2053 Private John Leak, Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 23rd July 1916 at Pozieres, France, he was one of a party which finally captured an enemy strong point. At one assault, when the enemy's bombs were outranging ours, Private Leak jumped out of the trench, ran forward under heavy machine-gun fire at close range, and threw three bombs into the enemy's bombing post. He then jumped into the post and bayonetted three unwounded enemy bombers. Later, when the enemy in overwhelming numbers was driving his party back, he was always the last to withdraw at each stage, and kept on throwing bombs. His courage and energy had such an effect on the enemy that, on the arrival of reinforcements, the whole trench was recaptured.

JULY 24th, 1916

  • Fight for Pozières - All-day stubborn battle for this village, a large portion of which is in our hands. We also gain ground near High Wood. JULY 25.-Russians take Austro-German positions in North Eastern Galicia, about twelve miles from Brody. Fall of Erzindjan.

JULY 25th, 1916

  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 3055 Thomas COOKE, Australian Imperial Forces awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3055 Private Thomas Cooke, late Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 24th/25th July 1916 at Pozieres, France, after a Lewis gun had been disabled, he was ordered to take his gun and gun team to a dangerous part of the line. Here he did fine work, but came under very heavy fire, with the result that finally he was the only man left. He still stuck to his post and continued to fire his gun. When assistance was sent he was found dead beside his gun. He set a splendid example of determination and devotion to duty.

JULY 26th, 1916

  • The whole of Pozieres captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient Private 588 William JACKSON, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 588 Private William Jackson, Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 25th/26th June 1916 near Armentieres, France, on the return from a successful raid, several members of the riding party were seriously wounded in “No Man's Land” by shell fire. Private Jackson got back safely and after handing over a prisoner whom he had brought in, immediately went out again under very heavy shell fire and assisted in bringing in a wounded man. He then went out again, and with a serjeant was bringing in another wounded man, when his arm was blown off by a shell and the serjeant was rendered unconscious. He then returned to our trenches, obtained assistance, and went out again to look for his two wounded comrades. He set a splendid example of pluck and determination. His work has always been marked by the great coolness and bravery.

JULY 27th, 1916

  • Announced that, north of the line Pozieres-BazentinIe-Petit, British capture 200 yards of an important trench. Enemy driven from east and north-east of Delville Wood.
  • Russians capture Brody. 
  • Captain Charles Fryatt, of the captured steamer Brussels, shot by Germans in Bruges.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 2815 Albert GILL, King's Royal Rifle Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2815 Serjeant Albert Gill, late King's Royal Rifle Corps. For most conspicuous bravery. On 27th July 1916 at Delville Wood, France, the enemy made a very strong counter-attack on the right flank of the battalion, and rushed the bombing post after killing all the company bombers. Sergeant Gill at once rallied the remnants of his platoon, none of whom were skilled bombers, and reorganised his defences, a most difficult and dangerous task, the trench being very shallow and much damaged. Soon afterwards the enemy nearly surrounded his men by creeping up through the thick undergrowth, and commenced sniping at about twenty yards range. Although it was almost certain death, Serjeant Gill stood boldly up in order to direct the fire of his men. He was killed almost at once, but not before he had shown his men where the enemy were, and thus enabled them to hold up their advance. By his supreme devotion to duty and self-sacrifice he saved a very dangerous situation.

JULY 28th, 1916

  • German efforts to recapture Delville Wood repulsed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 1352 Claude Charles CASTLETON, Australian Imperial Force, 5th Machine Gun Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1352 Serjeant Claude Charles Castleton, late Australian Machine Gun Company. For most conspicuous bravery. On 28th July 1916 near Pozieres, France, during an attack on the enemy's trenches the infantry was temporarily driven back by the intense machine-gun fire opened by the enemy. Many wounded were left in “No Man's Land” lying in shell holes. Serjeant Castleton went out twice in face of this intense fire and each time brought in a wounded man on his back. He went out a third time and was bringing in another wounded man when he was himself hit in the back and killed instantly. He set a splendid example of courage and self-sacrifice.

JULY 29th, 1916

  • Serbians gain a success over the Bulgarians east of Monastir.
  • German government rejects British offer to permit sea passage of humanitarian foodstuffs going to Poland from United States.
  • Three Zeppelins raid the East Coast, dropping thirty-two bombs in Lincolnshire and Norfolk.

JULY 30th, 1916

  • New Allied Advance from the east of the Delville Wood to the Somme.
  • Russian troops from France land at Salonika to join Allied force.
  • First aerial operations carried out by combined French and British air services on French Western front.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Company Serjeant Major 10947 George EVANS, Manchester Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10947 Company Serjeant-Major George Evans, 18th Battalion, Manchester Regiment (Manchester). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the attack at Guillemont on the 30th July, 1916, when under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire he volunteered to take back an important message after five runners had been killed in attempting to do so. He had to cover about 700 yards, the whole of which was under observation from the enemy. Company Serjeant-Major Evans, however succeeded in delivering the message, and although wounded, rejoined his company, although advised to go to the dressing station. The return journey to the company again meant a journey of 700 yards under severe rifle and machine-gun fire, but by dodging from shell-hole to shell-hole he was able to do so, and was taken prisoner some hours later. On previous occasions at Montauban and Trones Wood this gallant Warrant Officer displayed great bravery and devotion to duty, and has always been a splendid example to his men.

JULY 31st, 1916

  • General Smuts reports occupation of Dodoma.
  • Zeppelin raid on seven Eastern and South-Eastern counties.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 12639 James MILLER, King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 12639 Private James Miller, late Royal Lancaster Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 30/31 July 1916 at Bazentin-le-Petit, France, his battalion was consolidating a position after its capture by assault. Private Miller was ordered to take an important message under heavy shell and rifle fire and to bring back a reply at all costs. He was compelled to cross the open, and on leaving the trench was shot almost immediately in the back, the bullet coming out through his abdomen. In spite of this, with heroic courage and self-sacrifice, he compressed with his hand the gaping wound in his abdomen, delivered his message, staggered back with the answer, and fell at the feet of the officer to whom he delivered it. He gave his life with a supreme devotion to duty.

AUGUST 1916

AUG. 1st, 1916

  • The British hold their gains north of Bazentin-le-Petit against the enemy's attempts to drive them out.
  • French capture a German trench between Estrees and Belloy-en-Santerre. A new German attack at Verdun, West and south of the Thiaumont Work, repulsed.
  • Russians cross the Koropiec River, just north of the Dniester.

AUG. 2nd, 1916

  • French Gains on the Somme. - North of the river the French capture a strongly-fortified enemy work between Hem and the Monacu Farm. South of the Somme they occupy an enemy trench in the Estrees region. At Verdun, west and south of the Thiaumont Work, and in the ravine south of Fleury, they carry German trenches, taking 800 prisoners.

AUG. 3rd, 1916

  • Zeppelin raid on Eastern and South-Eastern Counties; one airship hit.
  • French Successes at Verdun. -They retake the village of Fleury, and, towards Thiaumont, all the trenches between it and Fleury as far as the south-east of the Thiaumont Work and the approaches of Hill 320.
  • Roger Casement hanged in Ireland.

AUG. 4th, 1916

  • After being driven from Fleury and the Work of Thiaumont, the French regain possession of both positions.
  • Turk Attack on Egypt. - An enemy force, 14,000 strong. attacks our positions near Romani, 23 miles east of the Suez Canal, but fails disastrously.

AUG. 5th, 1916

  • New British Advance. - North of Pozieres an attack, in which the Australians and New Army troops take part, penetrates the German main second-line system on a front of over 2,000 yards. A later despatch states that during August 4-5 we pushed our line north and west of Pozieres some 400 to 600 yards over a frontage of about 3,000 yards.
  • Suez Canal Victory. - Our forces start the pursuit of the Turks at dawn, and by the evening. take more than 2,500 unwounded prisoners, four mountain guns, and a number of machine-guns.

AUG. 6th, 1916

  • Germans counter-attack north-west of Pozieres, and in one attack, by the use of liquid fire, temporarily force us back along one of the trenches we had captured, Later, we recover all but some forty yards of lost ground.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 12067 William Henry SHORT, Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 12067 Private William Short, late Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 6th August 1916 at Munster Alley, France, he was foremost in the attack, bombing the enemy with great gallantry, when he was severely wounded in the foot. He was urged to go back, but refused and continued to throw bombs. Later his leg was shattered by a shell, and he was unable to stand, so he lay in the trench adjusting detonators and straightening the pins of bombs for comrades. He died before he could be carried out of the trench. For the last eleven months he had always volunteered for dangerous enterprises, and has always set a magnificent example of bravery and devotion to duty.

AUG. 7th, 1916

  • Italian success on Isonzo front; 4,000 prisoners announced to have been taken since Aug. 4.
  • Announced that pursuit of Turks in Egypt pressed for eighteen miles, and the Katia-Elm-Aisha basin cleared of invaders.
  • In German East Africa Van Deventer's men reported now on the Central Railway at three points, the enemy retreating to the coast.
  • French troops carry a line of trenches between Hem Wood md the Somme to the east of the Monacu Farm.

AUG. 8th, 1916

  • Great Italian Gains. - Officially reported that on the Lower Isonzo the Mt. Sabotino and the Mt. San Michele strongholds are completely in the possession of the Italians.
  • General Lechitsky reported to have driven the enemy back along the whole line on the south of the Russian front, and to be ten miles from Stanislau.
  • British right wing moves against Guillemont, our line having been advanced about 400 yards south-west of the town.
  • Portugal decides, on the invitation of the British Government, to extend her co-operation to Europe.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Gabriel George COURY, South Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Gabriel George Coury, South Lancashire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 8th August 1916 near Arrow Head Copse, France during an advance he was in command of two platoons ordered to dig a communication trench from the old firing line to the position won. By his fine example and utter contempt of danger he kept up the spirits of his men and completed his task under intense fire. Later, after his battalion had suffered severe casualties and the Commanding Officer had been wounded, he went out in front of the advanced position in broad daylight and in full view of the enemy, found his Commanding Officer, and brought him back to the new advanced trench over ground swept by machine-gun fire. He not only carried out his original task but saved his Commanding Officer, but also assisted in rallying the attacking troops when they were shaken and in leading them forward.

AUG. 9th, 1916

  • Fall of Gorizia. - Gorizia taken by Italian forces.
  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast; eight persons killed, seventeen injured.
  • French artillery bombards Doiran.
  • North-west of Pozieres the Australians advance our line 200 yards on a frontage of 600 yards.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Noel Godfrey CHAVASE, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Noel Godfrey Chavasse, M.C., M.B., Royal Army Medical Corps. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 9th August 1916, at Guillemont, France, during an attack he tended the wounded in the open all day, under heavy fire, frequently in view of the enemy. During the ensuing night he searched for wounded on the ground in front of the enemy's lines for four hours. Next day he took one stretcher-bearer to the advanced trenches, and under heavy shell fire carried an urgent case for 500 yards into safety, being wounded in the side by a shell splinter during the journey. The same night he took up a party of twenty volunteers, rescued three wounded men from a shell hole twenty-five yards from the enemy's trench, buried the bodies of two Officers, and collected many identity discs, although fired on by bombs and machine-guns. Altogether he saved the lives of some twenty badly wounded men, besides the ordinary cases which passed through his hands. His courage and self-sacrifice were beyond praise.

AUG. 10th, 1916

  • Russians occupy Stanislau.
  • British again advance north-west of Pozieres, and the French north of Hem Wood.

AUG. 11th, 1916

  • The French follow up their bombardment of Doiran by occupying Hill 227, south of the town.
  • Mpwapwa (German East Africa) occupied by British forces.
  • Great British Air Offensive. - Our squadrons bomb airship sheds at Brussels and at Namur, and railway sidings and stations at Mons, Namur, and Busigny.

AUG. 12th, 1916

  • French attack the third German position from east of Hardecourt as far as the Somme opposite Buscourt, carry all the trenches to a depth of 1,000 yards, and penetrate into the village of Maurepas.
  • Enemy retreat in Galicia. Count Bothmer driven out of his fortified positions west and south-west of Tarnopol. Seaplane attack on Dover; one officer, six men slightly injured.
  • Italian troops land at Salonika and join Allied force.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Private 3970 Martin O’MEARA, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3970 Private Martin O'Meara, Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. Between 9th/12th August 1916 at Pozieres, France, during four days of very heavy fighting he repeatedly went out and brought in wounded officers and men from “No Man's Land” under intense artillery and machine-gun fire. He also volunteered and carried up ammunition and bombs through a heavy barrage to a portion of the trenches, which was being heavily shelled at the time. He showed throughout an utter contempt of danger, and undoubtedly saved many lives.

AUG. 13th, 1916

  • Important British Advance. - Our troops progress north-west of Pozieres, gaining 300 to 400 yards of a front of over a mile. Enemy trenches captured on the plateau north-west of Bazentin-le-Petit towards Martinpuich.
  • French progress on the slopes of Hill 109 to the south-cast of Maurepas.
  • Continued Italian advance. Our allies press on east of the. Nad Logem (Hill 212), and pierce another strong line of enemy entrenchments.
  • H.M.S. destroyer Lassoo torpedoed or mined off the Dutch coast.

AUG. 14th, 1916

  • South of the Somme the French extend their positions south-west of Estrees. On the British front west of Pozieres the enemy gain a temporary footing in a portion of the trenches captured by us on Aug. 13.

AUG. 15th, 1916

  • Announced that British retake nearly the whole of the remainder of the trenches in which the enemy gained a footing on the 13th.
  • At Verdun the French force back the German lines close to Fleury.
  • Russians occupy Jablonica, two miles from the Carpathians crest.

AUG. 16th, 1916

  • Announced that King George has spent a week with his Army in France.
  • French Advance on Somme Front. - They carry a line of trenches on a length of almost a mile, and at certain points reach the Guillemont-Maurepas road. They occupy all the enemy positions east of the Maurepas-Clery road. Russians publish the total of their captures from June 4 to Aug. 12: 7,757 officers, 350,858 men, 405 cannons.

AUG. 17th, 1916

  • British line pushed forward both west and south-west of Guillemont.
  • Reported that the Arab town and military coastal station of Bagamoyo, thirty-six miles North of Dar-es-Salaam, occupied by naval forces.

AUG. 18th, 1916

  • New Allied Advance. - The British and French attack all along the front from Pozieres to the Somme. Our troops carry strong positions and gain ground towards Ginchy and Guillemont. The French carry a further great part of Maurepas village.

AUG. 19th, 1916

  • North Sea Naval Fight. - German High Seas Fleet comes out, but retires in face of British forces in considerable strength. We lose two light cruisers, the H.M.S Nottingham and the Falmouth, which were torpedoed. One enemy submarine destroyed, another rammed.
  • Submarine E23 torpedoes and sinks German battleship of the Nassau class.
  • Thiepval Ridge Captured. - Sir Douglas Haig reports capture of the western outskirts of Guillemont, and the ridge south-east of and overlooking Thiepval, and the northern slopes of the high ground north of Pozieres.

AUG. 20th, 1916

  • British gain more ground north of Bazentin-le-Petit.
  • Activity in Balkans. - Bulgarians reported advancing on Kavalla. On Struma front our cavalry in touch with the enemy.

AUG. 21st, 1916

  • Sir Charles Monro succeeds Sir Beauchamp Duff as Commander-in-Chief in India.
  • German counter-attacks in the region of the High Wood.
  • Our guns severely damage the enemy's trenches south of Thiepval, causing a conflagration in one of the enemy's batteries.
  • General Smuts, moving on Dar-es-Salaam, supported by warships operating at sea. Deventer defeats a German force near Kidete Station.

AUG. 22nd, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports progress near Pozieres, in the Leipzig salient, and south of Guillemont.
  • Russian and Italian troops in Macedonia. - Announced that troops of our allies have landed at Salonika, the Russians arriving on July 30, the Italians on Aug. 11.
  • Occupation of Kilossa, East Africa.

AUG. 23rd, 1916

  • British troops gain another 200 yards of German trench south of Thiepval.
  • War Office issues communique dealing with position in Macedonia, in which the enemy line east of the Struma is defined.
  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast.

AUG. 24th, 1916

  • Several Zeppelins carry out raid on East and South East Coasts, one reaching outskirts of London; eight killed, many injured.
  • French take Maurepas, and progress beyond the village.
  • British troops push forward 300 yards towards Thiepval.
  • Russia reports her troops have retaken Mush.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Captain William Anderson BLOOMFIELD, South African Mounted Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain William Anderson Bloomfield, Scout Corps, 2nd South African Mounted Brigade. On 24th August 1916 at Mlali, East Africa, when consolidating his new position after being heavily attacked and being forced to retire, Captain Bloomfield found that one of the wounded – a corporal – had not been evacuated with the rest. At considerable personal risk the captain went back over 400 yards of ground swept by machine-gun and rifle fire and managed to reach the wounded man and bring him back to safety

AUG. 25th, 1916

  • Admiralty announces H.M. armed yacht Zaida sunk; four officers and nineteen men of her crew prisoners of the Turkish.
  • H.M. armed boarding steamer Duke of Albany torpedoed and sunk in North Sea.
  • Naval aeroplanes bomb airship sheds at Namur.
  • Prussian Guard's Defeat. - In the Thiepval salient a determined attack by the Prussian Guard repulsed by Wiltshire and Worcestershire troops.

AUG. 26th, 1916

  • British gain 200 yards of German trench north of Bazentin-le-Petit, and make headway north-west of Ginchy. Russian troops gain fresh ground on the frontier heights near Mt. Kowerla.
  • British forces in East Africa capture Morogoro.

AUG. 27th, 1916

  • Rumania Declares War on Austria-Hungary.
  • British troops gain ground north-west of Ginchy.

AUG. 28th, 1916

  • Italy at War with Germany. Bulgarians announced to have reached the Aegean coast at Kavalla.
  • Germany declares war on Rumania.
  • British long-range guns successfully fire on troops and traffic between Bapaume and Miraumont.
  • British monitors bombard Bulgarian forces at the mouth of the Struma.
  • Zeppelin raid on Bukarest.

AUG. 29th, 1916

  • Rumania in Action. - Rumanian Army moves in the passes of the Transylvanian Alps. South of Kronstadt Austrian troops compelled to retire by “an encircling movement.”
  • Field-Marshal von Hindenburg succeeds General von Falkenhayn as Chief of the General Staff of the German Field Armies, with General von Ludendorff as Chief Quartermaster-General.
  • Officially announced that the total prisoners captured by British since July 1 are: 266 officers, and 15,203 other ranks, with 26 guns, 160 machine-guns.

AUG. 30th, 1916

  • Lechitsky's troops, advancing in the Carpathians, capture Mt. Pantyr.
  • Turkey declares war on Rumania.

AUG. 31st, 1916

  • British launch discharge of gas “over a broad front” near Arras and near Armentières, with good results.
  • Battle of Verdun ends.
  • Russian troops march across the Dobruja Delta; Rumanian Army twenty miles into Hungary.

SEPTEMBER 1916

SEPT. 1st, 1916

  • Allied naval demonstration at Athens. Twenty-three warships, with seven transports, anchor four miles outside the port of Piræus.
  • Compulsory Military Service Bill in New Zealand comes into operation.
  • A revolt of Greek troops in Salonika results in the surrender of the garrison to General Sarrail. Insurrection breaks out in various parts of Macedonia, and a “Committee of National Defence” is appointed.
  • General Smuts announces enemy in full retreat both east and west of the Uluuguru Mountains, south of Mrogoro.  Rumanian victory at Orsova, on the Danube.

SEPT. 2nd, 1916

  • Russians capture the Ploska Height, just north of the Jablonica Pass.
  • German raid by 14 airships on London and other parts of England; SL11 brought down at Cuffley.
  • Allied warships enter port of Piræus and seize three German vessels. The Allied Governments demand the control of posts and telegraphs, the banishment of enemy agents, and punishment of Greek subjects in collusion with the Germans.

SEPT. 3rd, 1916

  • Battle of Guillemont - British capture Guillemont and part of Ginchy. French capture the village of Forest and Clery.
  • Zeppelin destroyed near London. - Hostile airship, one of thirteen raiding Eastern Counties, attempting to approach the London area, is brought down by Lieut. W. L. Robinson, R.F.C., at Cuffley, near Enfield. Lieut. Robinson was later awarded the Victoria Cross.
  • Russians conquer new ground on the Zlota Lipa front, in Galicia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Captain William Barnsley Allen, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain William Barnsley Allen, M.C., M.B., Royal Army Medical Corps. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 3rd September 1916, near Mesnil, France, when gun detachments were unloading high explosive (H.E.) ammunition from wagons which had just come up, the enemy suddenly began to shell the battery position. The first shell fell on one of the limbers, exploded the ammunition and caused several casualties. Captain Allen saw the occurrence and at once with utter disregard of danger, ran straight across the open, under heavy shell fire, commenced dressing the wounded, and undoubtedly by his promptness saved many of them from bleeding to death. He was himself hit four times during the first hour by pieces of shells, one of which fractured two of his ribs, but he never even mentioned this at the time, and coolly went on with his work till the last man was dressed and safely removed. He then went over to another battery and tended to a wounded officer. It was only when this was done that he returned to his dug-out and reported his own injury.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant John Vincent HOLLAND, Leinster Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant John Vincent Holland, Leinster Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 3rd September 1916 at Guillemont, France, during a heavy engagement, when, not content with bombing hostile dug-outs within the objective, he fearlessly led his bombers through our own artillery barrage and cleared a great part of the village in front. He started out with 26 bombers and finished up with only five, after capturing some fifty prisoners. By this very gallant action he undoubtedly broke the spirit of the enemy, and thus saved us many casualties when the battalion made a further advance. He was far from well at the time, and later had to go to hospital.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 3/5027 Thomas HUGHES, Connaught Rangers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3/5027 Private Thomas Hughes, Connaught Rangers. For most conspicuous bravery and determination. On 3rd September 1916 at Guillemont, France, Private Hughes was wounded in an attack, but returned at once to the firing line after having his wounds dressed. Later, seeing a hostile machine-gun, he dashed out in front of his company, shot the gunner, and single-handed captured the gun. Though again wounded, he brought back three or four prisoners.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 14951 David Jones, King’s (Liverpool Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 14951 Serjeant David Jones, Liverpool Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery, devotion to duty and ability displayed in the handling of his platoon. On 3rd September 1916 at Guillemont, France, the platoon to which he belonged was ordered to a forward position, and during the advance came under heavy machine-gun fire, the officer being killed and the platoon suffering heavy losses. Serjeant Jones led forward the remainder, occupied the position, and held it for two days and two nights without food or water, until relieved. On the second day he drove back three counter-attacks, inflicting heavy losses. His coolness was most praiseworthy. It was due entirely to his resource and example that his men retained confidence and held their post.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant William Leefe ROBINSON, R.F.C awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant William Leefe Robinson, Worcestershire Regiment and Royal Flying Corps. On the night of 2nd/3rd September 1916 over Cuffley, Hertfordshire, Lieutenant Robinson sighted a German airship – one of 16 which had left bases in Germany on a mass raid over England. The Lieutenant made an attack at a height of 11,500 ft. approaching from below and closing to within 500 ft., raked the aircraft (a wooden-framed Schutte Lanz) with gunfire. As he was preparing for another attack, the airship burst into flames and crashed in a field.

SEPT. 4th, 1916

  • Great French Advance. - South of the Somme our ally attacks over a front of twelve miles, from Barleux to the district south of Chaulnes. As the result, their new line runs from Barleux, touches Berny, comprises Soyecourt, sweeps through the western part of Chaulnes Wood, and includes the village of Chilly. Unwounded prisoners exceed 2,700.
  • Surrender of Dar-es-Salaam to British naval forces.
  • British air raid on Mazar, Sinai Peninsula.

SEPT. 5th, 1916

  • From Mouquet Farm to the junction of our line with that of the French our troops carry the whole of the German second line, and gain a footing in Leuze Wood. East of Clery the French reach the Bouchavesnes - Clery road.
  • Russians in touch with German-Bulgarian forces in the Dobruja.
  • British air raid on El Arish.

SEPT. 6th, 1916

  • British capture whole of Leuze Wood.
  • Battle of Guillemont (Somme) ends
  • General Brussiloff's troops in a new attack towards Halicz capture a fortified position and take 4,500 prisoners.

SEPT. 7th, 1916

  • Russians capture bridge-head of Halicz.
  • French gain at Verdun. Attacking the German line on the Vaux-Chapitre Wood-Le Chenois front, they carry it to a length of 1,600 yards, taking 250 prisoners and ten machine-guns.
  • Rumanians sustain a reverse at Tutrakau (Turtukai) on the south bank of the Danube.
  • British naval forces and Marines, with military landing parties, occupy the ports of Kilwa Kivinje and Kilwa Kissiwani (German East Africa).
  • British naval aeroplanes raid enemy's aerodrome at St. Denis Western.

SEPT. 8th, 1916

  • Four massed attacks by the Germans between Vermandovillers and Chaulnes repulsed by the French.
  • Capture of Orsova by Rumanian troops officially announced.

SEPT. 9th, 1916

  • Battle of Ginchy - Sir Douglas Haig reports the whole of Ginchy village now in our hands.
  • Bulgarian and German invaders of the Dobruja reported driven back.
  • On the Euphrates a mixed British force from Nasiriyeh drives Turkish irregulars’ northwards, killing 200.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Corporal 73132 Leo CLARKE, Eastern Ontario Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 73132 Private (Acting Corporal) Leo Clarke, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 9th September 1916 near Pozieres, France, he was detailed with his section of bombers to clear the continuation of a newly-captured trench and cover the construction of a “block.” After most of his party had become casualties, he was building a “block” when about twenty of the enemy with two officers counter-attacked. He boldly advanced against them, emptied his revolver into them and afterwards two enemy rifles which he picked up in the trench. One of the officers then attacked him with the bayonet, wounding him in the leg, but he shot him dead. The enemy then ran away, pursued by Acting Corporal Clarke, who shot four more and captured a fifth. Later he was ordered to the dressing station, but returned next day to duty.

SEPT. 10th, 1916

  • Reported fall of Silistria to a German-Bulgarian force.
  • A British Headquarters despatch summarises our gains during the week Sept. 2-9. We advanced on a front of 6,000 yards to a depth varying from 300 to 3,000 yards. The ground between Ginchy and Leuze Wood is also captured.

SEPT. 11th, 1916

  • The British operating on the Salonika front cross the Struma, and drive Bulgarians out of villages east of the river.
  • M. Zaimis, the Greek Prime Minister, resigns.

SEPT. 12th, 1916

  • Brilliant French advance. Our ally carries Hill 145, the village of Bouchavesnes, the woods of Marrieres, and all the enemy trench system up to the Bapaume-Péronne road, capturing 1,500 prisoners.
  • Russians win a considerable success in the capture of the Kapul Mountain, with a number of other Carpathian heights. Austrian air raid on Venice.

SEPT. 13th, 1916

  • Continued French advance. They carry by assault the Farm of L' Abbe Wood, 600 yards east of the Béthune road, and hold the German third line.
  • Italian air raid on Trieste.

SEPT. 14th, 1916

  • French increase their gains south-east of Combles by storming Le Priez Farm. South of the Somme they progress by the use of grenades to the east of Belloy-en-Santerre.
  • Activity on the Salonika Front. - British troops move forward through Machukovo, and capture a salient in the enemy's line north of the village.
  • Serbians push forward towards Monastir, taking Garnichevo and most of the Malka Nidje ridge.

SEPT. 15th, 1916

  • Great British Advance on the Somme. - Our attack is made on a front that goes from a point north of the Albert-Bapaume road to Bouleaux Wood, a distance of six miles. We advance at various places some 3,000 yards, and take Flers, Martinpuich, and Courcelette, with most of Bouleaux Wood, and the whole of High Wood. Announced that we use for the first time a new type of heavy armoured car (“tanks”). Over 2,300 prisoners taken, Battle of Flers-Courcelette begins.
  • Aeroplane co-operation with tanks instituted by the British Air Force.
  • Italian stroke on the Carso. Our ally storms enemy positions east of the Vallone, and takes 2,117 prisoners, thus taking a long step farther on the way to Trieste.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel John Vaughan CAMPBELL, Coldstream Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) John Vaughan Campbell, D.S.O., Coldstream Guards. For most conspicuous bravery and able leading in an attack. On 15th September 1916 at Ginchy, France, seeing that the first two waves of his battalion had been decimated by machine-gun and rifle fire he took personal command of the third line, rallied his men with the utmost gallantry and led them against the enemy machine-guns, capturing the guns and killing the personnel. Later in the day, after consultation with other unit commanders, he again rallied the survivors of his battalion, and at a critical moment led them through a very heavy hostile fire barrage against the objective. He was one of the first to enter the enemy trench. His personal gallantry and initiative at a very critical moment turned the fortunes of the day and enabled the division to press on and capture objectives of the highest tactical importance.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 8/3504 Donald Forrester BROWN Otago Infantry Regiment, 2nd Battalion, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8/3504 Serjeant Donal Forrester Brown, late Infantry Battalion, New Zealand Forces. For most conspicuous bravery and determination in attack, when, on 15th September 1916 south-east of High Wood, France, the company to which he belonged suffered very heavy casualties in officers and men from machine-gun fire. At great personal risk this non-commissioned officer advanced with a comrade and succeeded in reaching a point within thirty yards of the enemy guns. Four of the gun crew were killed and the gun captured. The advance of the company was continued till it was again held up by machine-gun fire. Again Serjeant Brown and his comrade with great gallantry rushed the gun and killed the crew. After this second position had been won, the company came under very heavy shell fire, and the utter contempt for danger and coolness under fire of this non-commissioned officer did much to keep up the spirit of his men. On a subsequent occasion in attack, Serjeant Brown showed most conspicuous gallantry. He attacked single-handed a machine-gun which was holding up the attack, killed the gun crew and captured the gun. Later, whilst sniping the retreating enemy, this very gallant soldier was killed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Sergeant 13301 Frederick McNess, Scots Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 13301 Lance-Sergeant Fred McNess, Scots Guards. For most conspicuous bravery. On 15th September 1916 near Ginchy, France, during a severe engagement he led his men on with the greatest dash in face of heavy shell and machine-gun fire. When the first line of enemy trenches was reached, it was found that the left flank was exposed and that the enemy was bombing down the trench. Serjeant McNess thereupon organised a counter-attack and led it in person. He was very severely wounded in the neck and jaw, but went on passing through the barrage of hostile bombs in order to bring up fresh supplies of bombs to his own men. Finally he established a “block” and continued encouraging his men and throwing bombs till utterly exhausted by loss of blood.

SEPT. 16th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports continued progress, and estimates total number of prisoners captured at 4,000. Our line now runs 500 yards to the north of High Wood.
  • Russian victory north of Halicz.
  • Russo-Rumanian forces in the Dobruja retire to strong positions between Rasova and Tuzla.
  • The allied forces in Macedonia drive the Bulgarians before them, and capture the heights overlooking Florina.
  • The Italians advancing in the Carso capture the height of San Grado and strong entrenchments towards Loquizza and east of Oppacchiasella.
  • M. Kalogeropoulos forms new Greek Ministry.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 101465 John Chipman KERR, Canadian Expeditionary Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 101465 Private John Chipman Kerr, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 16th September 1916 at Courcelette, France, during a bombing attack he was acting as bayonet man, and, knowing that bombs were running short, he ran along the parados under heavy fire until he was in close contact with the enemy, when he opened fire on them at point blank range, and inflicted heavy loss. The enemy, thinking they were surrounded, surrendered. Sixty-two prisoners were taken and 250 yards of enemy trench captured. Before carrying out this very plucky act one of Private Kerr's fingers had been blown off by a bomb. Later, with two other men, he escorted back the prisoners under fire, and then returned to report himself for duty before having his wound dressed.

SEPT. 17th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports we have improved our position near Mouquet Farm, and beaten off counter-attacks.
  • British naval force occupies Lindi on coast of East Africa.
  • The French advance south of the Somme, capturing the villages of Vermandovillers and Berny.
  • In Macedonia French troops take Florina by storm.
  • A mobile column, comprised of Anzac mounted troops, camel corps, with artillery, surprises the Turks at Bir-el-Mazar, 65 miles from the canal, penetrates their trenches, inflicting considerable casualties.

SEPT. 18th, 1916

  • North-west of Combles we straighten our line by the capture of a strongly-fortified German work.
  • French troops carry the whole of the village of Deniecourt, and advance towards Ablaincourt.

SEPT. 19th, 1916

  • French troops make progress east of Berny. Five enemy attacks against Russian detachments in Champagne repulsed.
  • Reported heavy fighting in the Defile of Merisov, in Transylvania. The Rumanians are moving towards Hatszeg.

SEPT. 20th, 1916

  • Great German attacks upon the French lines in the salient which cuts the Péronne-Béthune road between Le Priez Farm and the Farm of the Abbe Wood repulsed with very heavy losses.
  • Sir Douglas Haig in a despatch quotes an order by Falkenhayn while he was Chief of the German General Staff which refers to the enemy's shortage of guns and ammunition.
  • Allies declare a blockade of the Greek coast from the mouth of the Struma to the mouth of the Mesto.

SEPT. 21st, 1916

  • Enemy makes strong counter-attacks south of the Ancre against the New Zealand troops, all of which are beaten off with severe loss to the enemy.
  • East of Gorizia the Italians occupy a new position near Santa Caterina.
  • Rumanian Victory in the Dobruja. - Bukarest officially announces that the Battle of Dobruja, ended in the defeat of the enemy.

SEPT. 22nd, 1916

  • British Line Advanced. - On a mile front, between Martinpuich and Flers, our troops carry two lines of enemy trenches.
  • Battle of Flers-Courcelette ends.
  • Hostile seaplane attack on Dover; three bombs dropped; no damage caused.

SEPT. 23rd, 1916

  • British advance to the east of Courcelette, where a strongly-fortified system of enemy trenches is captured and our line advanced on a half-mile front.
  • Great Zeppelin Raid on London and the Eastern, South-Eastern, and East Midland Counties. Two Zeppelins (L32 and L33) brought down, one in South Essex, the crew being destroyed. The crew of the other set fire to their craft and surrender. Casualties: 38 killed, and 125 injured.
  • Italians take the summit of the Gardinal, south of the Avisio.

SEPT. 24th, 1916

  • British Cross the Struma. - Officially reported from Salonika that British troops cross the Struma in three places.
  • Air Raid on Essen. - Two French airmen-Capt. de Beauchamps and Lieut. Daucourt-drop bombs on Krupps works at Essen.

SEPT. 25th, 1916

  • Forward move on the Somme. - The British and French, after a long and violent bombardment, resume their offensive. Our troops take Morval and Lesbceufs, and practically sever the enemy's communications with Combles.
  • Battle of Morval (Somme) begins
  • Crisis in Greece. – M. Venizelos leaves Athens with a number of highly-placed officers and many supporters. Zeppelin raid on Northern and North-Eastern Counties; 36 killed, 27 injured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 11000 Thomas Alfred JONES, Cheshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1100 Private Thomas Alfred Jones, Cheshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 25th September 1916 at Morval, France, Private Jones was with his company consolidating the defences in front of a village, and, noticing an enemy sniper at 200 yards distance, he went out, and, though one bullet went through his helmet and another through his coat, he returned the sniper's fire and killed him. He then saw two more of the enemy firing at him, although displaying a white flag. Both of these he also shot. On reaching the enemy trench he found several occupied dug-outs, and, single-handed, disarmed 102 of the enemy, including three or four officers, and marched them back to our lines through a heavy barrage. He had been warned of the misuse of the white flag by the enemy, but insisted on going out after them.

SEPT. 26th, 1916

  • Battle of Thiepval Ridge (Somme) begins
  • Thiepval and Combles Captured. -The British take the former, and, in conjunction with the French, the latter.
  • Reported that the Rumanians are again masters of the Vulkan Pass.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 3281 Robert Edward RYDER, Middlesex Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3281 Private Robert Ryder, Middlesex Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and initiative during an attack. On 26th September 1916 at Thiepval, France, Private Ryder's company was held up by heavy rifle fire, and all his officers had become casualties. For want of leadership the attack was flagging. Private Ryder, realising the situation, without a moments thought for his own safety dashed absolutely alone at the enemy trench, and, by skilful manipulation of his Lewis gun, succeeded in clearing the trench. This very gallant act not only made possible, but also greatly inspired the subsequent advance of his comrades, and turned possible failure into success.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 2442 Frederick Jeremiah EDWARDS, Middlesex Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2442 Private Frederick Jeremiah Edwards, Middlesex Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and resource. On 26th September 1916 at Thiepval, France, his part of the line was held up by machine-gun fire, and all officers had become casualties. There was some confusion and indication of retirement. Private Edwards, grasping the situation, on his own initiative dashed out alone towards the gun, which he knocked out with bombs. This very gallant act, coupled with great presence of mind and a total disregard of personal danger, made further advance possible and cleared up a dangerous situation.

SEPT. 27th, 1916

  • British Gains Extended. - North of Flers, on a 2,000 yards front, we advance to the eastern side of Eaucourt-'L Abbaye. North-east of Thiepval the British capture the Stuff Redoubt.
  • Naval aeroplanes attack enemy airship sheds at Evere, Berche, St. Agathe, and Etterbeck, near Brussels.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Temporary Second Lieutenant Tom Edwin Adlam, Bedfordshire Regiment awarded Victoria Cross for actions between 27-28th September, 1916 - His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Temporary Second Lieutenant Tom Edwin Adlam, Bedfordshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery during operations. On 27th September 1916 at Thiepval, France, a portion of the village which had defied capture on the previous day had to be captured at all costs to permit subsequent operations to develop. This minor operation came under very heavy machine-gun and rifle fire. Second Lieutenant Adlam realising that time was all important, rushed from shell hole to shell hole under heavy fire collecting men for a sudden rush, and for this purpose also collected many grenades. At this stage he was wounded in the leg, but nevertheless he was able to outthrow the enemy and then seizing his opportunity, and in spite of his wound, he led a rush, captured the position and killed the occupants. Throughout the day he continued to lead his men in bombing attacks. On the following day he again displayed courage of the highest order, and though again wounded and unable to throw bombs, he continued to lead his men. His magnificent example and valour, coupled with the skilful handling of the situation, produced far-reaching results.

SEPT. 28th, 1916

  • British line advanced north and north-east of Courcelette.
  • Battles of Morval and Thiepval Ridge end
  • Text of the Proclamation of the Greek Provisional Government published, signed by M. Venizelos and Admiral Condouriotis

SEPT. 29th, 1916

  • British gains south-west of Le Sars, on the Bapaume Road.

SEPT. 30th, 1916

  • Completion of three-months Battle of the Somme.

OCTOBER 1916

OCT. 1st, 1916

  • British Forward Move. - Attacking the German lines in the Somme area, our troops capture the whole of their objective on a front of 3,000 yards, and take Eaucourt l’Abbaye.
  • Zeppelin raid on East Coast; one airship L31 brought down in flames at Potter's Bar.
  • Renewed Russian offensive south-west of Brody and north-east of Halicz. In latter area our ally takes 112 officers and 2,268 men.
  • Rumanian diversion across the Danube between Ruschuk and Tutrakan.
  • Battle of le Transloy (Somme) begins.
  • Battle of the Ancre Heights (Somme) begins.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel Roland Boys BRADFORD, Durham Light Infantry, 9th Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Roland Boys Bradford, M.C., Durham Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and good leadership in attack, whereby he saved the situation on the right flank of his Brigade and of the Division. On 1st October 1916 at Eaucourt L'Abbaye, France, Lieutenant-Colonel Bradford's Battalion was in support. A leading Battalion having suffered very severe casualties, and the Commander wounded, its flank became dangerously exposed at close quarters to the enemy. Raked by machine-gun fire, the situation of the Battalion was critical. At the request of the wounded Commander, Lieutenant-Colonel Bradford asked permission to command the exposed Battalion in addition to his own. Permission granted, he at once proceeded to the foremost lines. By his fearless energy under fire of all description, and his skilful leadership of the two Battalions, regardless of all danger, he succeeded in rallying the attack, captured and defended the objective, and so secured the flank.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temp. Captain Archie Cecil Thomas WHITE, Green Howards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Captain Archie Cecil Thomas White, Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. During the period 27th September – 1st October 1916 at Stuff Redoubt, France, Captain White was in command of the troops that held the southern and western faces of a redoubt. For four days and nights, by his indomitable spirit, great personal courage, and skilful dispositions, he held his position under heavy fire of all kinds and against several counter-attacks. Though short of supplies and ammunition, his determination never wavered. When the enemy attacked in greatly superior numbers and had almost ejected our troops from the redoubt, he personally led a counter-attack, which finally cleared the enemy out of the southern and western faces. He risked his life continually, and was the life and soul of the defence.

OCT. 2nd, 1916

  • Germans regain a footing in some of the buildings of Eaucourt l’Abbaye.
  • Russians defeat enemy counter-attacks south of Brzezany, on the Zlota Lipa.
  • Naval aeroplanes attack enemy airship sheds near Brussels.

OCT. 3rd, 1916

  • Russians continue their offensive in Volhynia, attacking on both sides of the main road from Lutsk to the enemy's fortified base at Vladimir Volynsk.
  • British recapture Eaucourt I’Abbaye.
  • French success near Rancourt, 120 prisoners taken.

OCT. 4th, 1916

  • General Haig's comprehensive review of the Somme operations states that to the end of September the British had taken 26,735 prisoners, and engaged 38 German divisions.
  • Rumanian Campaign. - Our ally captures 13 enemy guns in Dobruja. The Rumanian forces which had crossed the Danube withdrawn. The Rumanian Second Army at Fogaras retreating.
  • Greek Cabinet resigns.
  • Transport Franconia sunk in the Mediterranean by enemy submarine.
  • French troopship Gallia torpedoed in the Mediterranean, 600 soldiers missing.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Captain, Henry KELLY Duke Of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Second Lieutenant Henry Kelly, West Riding Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery in attack. On 4th October 1916 at Le Sars, France, Second Lieutenant Kelly twice rallied his Company under the heaviest fire, and finally led the only three available men into the enemy trench, and there remained bombing until two of them had become casualties and enemy reinforcements had arrived. He then carried his Company Serjeant-Major, who had been wounded, back to our trenches, a distance of 70 yards, and subsequently three other soldiers. He set a fine example of gallantry and endurance.

OCT. 5th, 1916

  • British advance north-east of Eaucourt l'Abbaye.
  • General Sakharoff attacks General Boehm-Ermolli between Brody and Tarnopol railway lines on a twenty-five-mile front.
  • Rumanian retreat towards Brasso continues; withdrawal in the Fogaras-Vladeni sector.

OCT. 6th, 1916

  • British make further progress towards Seres.

OCT. 7th, 1916

  • British capture Le Sars.
  • French carry their line forward over 1,300 yards northeast of Morval.
  • Reported that British troops have established a bridgehead ten miles in width across the Struma towards Seres

OCT. 8th, 1916

  • Rumanian forces in Southern Transylvania are withdrawing to the frontier from Orsova to Predeal. Enemy claim to have retaken Brasso (Kronstadt).
  • German submarine U-53 captures and destroys five ships outside Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A.
  • Hundredth Day of Battle of the Somme.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Piper 28930 James Cleland RICHARDSON, Canadian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 28930 Private (Piper) James Richardson, late Manitoba Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when, on 8th October1916 at Regina Trench, Somme, France, prior to attack, he obtained permission from his Commanding Officer to play his company “over the top.” As the company approached the objective, it was held up by very strong wire and came under intense fire, which caused heavy casualties and demoralised the formation for the moment. Realising the situation, Piper Richardson strode up and down outside the wire, playing his pipes with the greatest coolness. The effect was instantaneous. Inspired by his splendid example, the company rushed the wire with such fury and determination that the obstacle was overcome and the position captured. Later, after participating in bombing operations, he was detailed to take back a wounded comrade and prisoners. After proceeding about 200 yards Piper Richardson remembered that he had left his pipes behind. Although strongly urged not to do so, he insisted on returning to recover his pipes. He has never been seen since, and death has been presumed accordingly owing to lapse of time.

OCT. 9th, 1916

  • British make progress, and establish posts east of Le Sars, in the direction of Butte de Warlencourt.
  • Falkenhayn in his attack on the frontier between Transylvania and Rumania reported to be approaching the defensive positions in the mountains, and reaches Torzburg.
  • Reported from New York that eight vessels torpedoed off Nantucket Lightship by German submarines
  • M. Venizelos arrives at Salonika.

OCT. 10th, 1916

  • War Office reports that British cavalry patrols in Macedonia have reached the Demirhissar-Seres railway at some points.
  • French attacking south of the Somme, between Berny-en-Santerre and Chaulnes, take the hamlet of Bovent, and hold the outskirts of Ablaincourt and most of the woods of Chaulnes.
  • Italian Advance on Three Fronts. - On the line from the River Vippacco and south of Oppacchiasella the Italians captured all the entrenchments of the enemy and over 5,000 prisoners. In the Julian Alps, just south of Gorizia, the Austrian line has been broken. By a third thrust in the Trentino the enemy is ejected from the northern slops of Mt. Pasubio

OCT. 11th, 1916

  • In Macedonia the French carry the first Bulgarian lines on the hights west of Ghevgeli.
  • Allied Ultimatum to Greece. - It demands surrender of Greek Fleet, except three warships. Greek Government complies under protest.

OCT. 12th, 1916

  • Fresh British Advance. - Our troops attack the low heights between their front trenches and the Bapaume Péronne road, and secure successes.
  • Both in the Gorizia area and on the Carso the Italians materially increase their gains. Officially announced that since August 6 they have taken in all 30,881 prisoners.

OCT. 13th, 1916

  • Despatch from Lt.-Gen. Sir Percy Lake relative to operations in Mesopotamia, Jan. 19-April 30, 1916, published.
  • Franco-British squadron of 40 aeroplanes raids Mauser Works at Oberndorf, on the Neckar.
  • British advance their lines between Gueudecourt and Lesbœufs.
  • Rumanian retreat in the Torzburg Pass.

OCT. 14th, 1916

  • South of the Ancre British improve their position in the neighbourhood of the Schwaben Redoubt.
  • West of Belloy-en-Santerre the French take the first German line on a front of a mile and a quarter, the hamlet of Genermount, and the sugar refinery, 1,300 yards northeast of Ablaincourt.

OCT. 15th, 1916

  • British line advanced slightly north-east of Gueudecourt. Progress at Stuff Redoubt.
  • French enter Sailly-SailliseI.
  • Austro-German attacks on the passes between Transylvania and Rumania continue, the enemy making progress in the Torzburg Pass.
  • In the Black Sea, near the Bosphorus, Russians seize the 6,000-ton Turkish armed transport Rodosto.

OCT. 16th, 1916

  • French consolidate themselves in the captured portion of Sailly-Saillisel, and carry a small wood between Genermount and Ablaincourt.
  • Flame attack on British at Schwaben Redoubt repulsed with heavy loss.
  • Russian communique reports an Austro-German offensive with strong forces near the point in the Carpathians where the Russian and Rumanian armies join. Enemy captures Gyimes Pass.

OCT. 17th, 1916

  • Allied Landing at Athens. - Troops to the number of about 1,200 land to help the police in keeping order, and occupy municipal buildings and railway stations.
  • Rumanians check enemy in the Gyimes Pass.
  • Italians carry the Tooth of Pasubio, in Southern Trentino.

OCT. 18th, 1916

  • Allied Advance North of the Somme. - British extend the front north of Gueudecourt and towards the Butte de Warlencourt. French take the whole of Sailly-Saillisel. South of the Somme they capture the whole of the front between La Maisonette Château and Biaches.
  • Battle of the Transloy Ridges (Somme) ends.
  • Bukarest announces enemy repulsed in the Buzau Valley.

OCT. 19th, 1916

  • Slight British progress at the Butte de Warlencourt.
  • British Headquarters review of fighting on our front since the beginning of October gives our total captures since July 1 at 28,918.
  • General Smuts reports main forces of the enemy driven into the Rufigi Valley.
  • Fighting at Goioasa, twelve miles from within the Gyimes Pass; enemy repulsed at Oitoz Pass to Polana Sarata. New offensive by Mackensen in Dobruja.
  • Announced that a reconnaissance has been made against the Turks at Maghara, in the Sinai Desert.
  • Serbians occupy Veliselo.

OCT. 20th, 1916

  • German attacks on Schwaben and Stuff Redoubts defeated.
  • Rumanian withdrawal in the Buzau Pass.
  • Anglo-French Conference held at Calais to discuss Greek participation in the war.
  • German Note to Norway on her submarine policy.

OCT. 21st, 1916

  • British advance on a three-mile front between Schwaben Redoubt and Le Sars, and capture Stuff and Regina Redoubts. Our prisoners total 1,018.
  • French success in the region of Chaulnes.
  • German cruiser of the Kolberg class torpedoed by British submarine.
  • Assassination of Count Sturgkh, Austrian Premier.
  • Rumanians evacuate Tuzla.
  • British Camel Corps detachments and armoured cars sweep the Dakhla and Baharia oases, in the western Libyan desert, taking 175 prisoners

OCT. 22nd, 1916

  • Aeroplane raid on Sheerness. Later in day it is shot down and destroyed at sea by naval aircraft.
  • French carry whole of Ridge 128, west of Sailly-Saillisel.
  • Fall of Constantsa.

OCT. 23rd, 1916

  • British right wing advances east of Gueudecourt and Lesbœufs.
  • H.M.S. Genista, a mine-sweeper, torpedoed and sunk. All her officers and 73 men lost.
  • Hostile aeroplane raid on Margate.
  • British air raid on blast furnaces of Hagondange.
  • On the Transylvanian frontier the enemy take the village of Predeal.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 11213 Robert DOWNIE, Royal Dublin Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 11213 Serjeant Robert Downie, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in attack. On 23rd October 1916 east of Lesboeufs, France, when most of the officers had become casualties, this Non-commissioned Officer, utterly regardless of personal danger, moved about under heavy fire and reorganised the attack, which had been temporarily checked. At the critical moment he rushed forward alone, shouting “Come on the Dubs.” This stirring appeal met with immediate response, and the line rushed forward at his call. Serjeant Downie accounted for several of the enemy, and in addition captured a machine-gun, killing the team. Though wounded early in the fight, he remained with his company, and gave valuable assistance whilst the position was being consolidated. It was owing to Serjeant Downie's courage and initiative that this important position, which had resisted four or five previous attacks, was won.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 16224 Hubert William LEWIS, Welsh Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 16224 Private Herbert William Lewis, Welsh Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during a raid. On 22nd/23rd October 1916 at Macukovo, near Seres, Salonika, on reaching the enemy trenches Private Lewis was twice wounded, but refused to be attended to, and showed great gallantry in searching enemy dug-outs. He was again wounded and again refused attendance. At this point three of the enemy were observed to be approaching, and Private Lewis immediately attacked them single-handed, capturing all. Subsequently, during the retirement, he went to the assistance of a wounded man, and under heavy shell and rifle fire brought him to our lines, on reaching which he collapsed. Private Lewis showed throughout a brilliant example of courage, endurance and devotion to duty.

OCT. 24th, 1916

  • French Victory at Verdun. - Enemy's line pierced along a front of five miles to a depth of two. Douaumont village and fort, the farm of Thiaumont, and the quarries of Haudromont captured. Prisoners total 3,500.

OCT. 25th, 1916

  • Russo-Rumanian retreat in the Dobruja. Enemy troops occupy Cerna Voda, the Danube bridgehead of the Bukarest-Constantsa railway. On the. Transylvanian front Falkenhayn’s armies capture the Vulkan Pass.

OCT. 26th, 1916

  • Officially announced that the pressure of the enemy in the Dobruja has weakened. On the Transylvanian frontier the chief pressure of the enemy is being exercised in the passes south of Brasso, and mainly in the Torzburg and the Predeal.
  • German Raid on Channel Transports. - Ten destroyers attempt a raid on our cross-Channel transport service. One empty transport, the Queen, is sunk, two of the enemy destroyers believed to be sunk, and the rest driven off. H.M.S. Flirt missing, and H.M.S. Nubian disabled by a torpedo and grounded.

OCT. 27th, 1916

  • French closing round Fort Vaux.
  • Rumanians repulse enemy attacks in the Valley of Pravatz, and advance in the Uzal Valley, taking 900 prisoners.

OCT. 28th, 1916

  • British reconnaissance’s to the north-east of Lesboeufs result in the capture of several important enemy trenches.
  • At Verdun French troops carry a quarry which had been organised by the enemy north-east of Fort Douaumont.
  • British liner S.S. Marina sunk by submarine; American sailors believed drowned.
  • British hospital ship Galecka mined off Le Havre.

OCT. 29th, 1916

  • British make further advance north-east of Lesboeufs.
  • French progress in the regions of Sailly-Saillisel and Biaches. The Germans penetrate the Château of La Maisonette.
  • Sherif of Mecca proclaimed “King of the Arabs”.
  • Successful Rumanian Actions. -Our ally continues her offensive in the Jiul Valley (north-western front).

OCT. 30th, 1916

  • North and south of the Somme the French win two successes. North of the river their troops carry a system of trenches north-west of Sailly-Saillisel. East of Sailly they advance towards Saillisel. North of Veliselo the Serbians engage German-Bulgarian troops and score some successes.
  • Lieutenant-General von Stein succeeds Lieut-Gen Wild von Hohenborn as German Minister for War.

OCT. 31st, 1916

  • Rumanians surprise and repulse the enemy on Mount Rosca, and occupy it.

NOVEMBER 1916

NOV. 1st, 1916

  • British, in conjunction with the French, make a local attack east of Lesbœufs, and gain ground. The French carry a strongly organised system of trenches on the western outskirts of the St. Pierre Vaast Wood.
  • British strengthen hold on the Seres-Demirhissar railway by the capture of Barakli Djuma.
  • Vaux Fort abandoned by the Germans.
  • Italian Thrust on Carso. - An advance is made over a six-mile front, from east of Gorizia to beyond the Oppacchiasella-Kostanjevica road; 4,731 prisoners taken.
  • Successful raid on Pola by Italian torpedo-boats.
  • Battle of the Somme continues. Fighting on the Ancre heights

NOV. 2nd, 1916

  • Dutch vessel Oldambt, being taken to Zeebrugge by a German prize crew, captured by British scouting craft.
  • Italians continue their advance from Gorizia to the sea, and take strong defences and 3,498 prisoners.

NOV. 3rd, 1916

  • French carry their lines forward as far as the outskirts of Vaux village.

NOV. 4th, 1916

  • French take all the village of Vaux, and occupy Damloup.
  • Coronation of the “King of the Arabs” at Mecca.

NOV. 5th, 1916

  • New Somme Blows. - French take most of Saillisel, and British in their centre progress on a front of about 1,000 yards, and take the high ground near the Butte de Warlencourt.
  • Germany and Austria declare an “independent state of Poland.”
  • German Dreadnought torpedoed by British submarine in North Sea.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Eugene Paul BENNETT, Worcestershire Regiment, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned:- Temporary Lieutenant Eugene Paul Bennett, 2nd Battalion, The Worcestershire Regiment. On 5th November 1916 near Le Transloy, France, Lieutenant Bennett was in command of the second wave of the attack, and finding that the first wave had suffered heavy casualties, its commander killed and the line wavering, he advanced at the head of the second wave and reached his objective with only 60 men. Isolated with his small party he took steps to consolidate his position under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire from both flanks, and although wounded he remained in command. But for his example of courage the attack would have been checked at the outset.

NOV. 6th, 1916

  • Lieut.-General Sir Bryan Mahon appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Forces in Ireland in succession to Lieut.-General Sir John Maxwell, who takes the Northern Command.
  • P. and O. liner R.M.S Arabia torpedoed in Mediterranean; all passengers saved.
  • British troops forced to relinquish part of ground gained in central region near the Butte de Warlencourt.
  • Conquest of Darfur. - Our mounted troops round up the rebels, capturing 200 prisoners. Ali Dinar, the ex-Sultan, killed.

NOV. 7th, 1916

  • French take all the villages of Ablaincourt and Pressoir, push east of Ablaincourt, capture the strongly fortified cemetery, and advance as far as the approaches to Gommecourt. 
  • Officially announced that from July 1st to November 1st Franco-British troops, in Somme fighting, take 72,000 prisoners.
  • Mr. Woodrow Wilson is re-elected as President of the United States of America.
  • Admiralty reports that submarine officer claims to have hit two German battleships of the Kaiser class.
  • Russia reports success in the Carpathians; south of Dorna Watra over 800 prisoners captured.

NOV. 8th, 1916

  • Violent enemy artillery bombardment in the Prahova Valley, where Rumanians repulse an infantry attack. In the Dobruja they advance towards the south.
  • Serbians repulse three Bulgarian attacks in the loop of the Tcherna.
  • Russian southern flank advanced five miles into Transylvania.

NOV. 9th, 1916

  • Rumanians report they have re-occupied Hirsova (Dobruja), with assistance of gunboats on the Danube.
  • East of Armentières the British discharge gas, and bomb the enemy's trench line.
  • Prime Minister of Portugal announces Portuguese Army ready to leave for the European battlefields.

NOV. 10th, 1916

  • British naval aeroplanes attack the harbour and submarine shelters at Ostend and Zeebrugge.
  • Air Squadrons in Action. - A pitched battle takes place between a British and a German squadron on the west front, each of 30 machines or more. Enemy squadron broken up and dispersed, 15 of his machines fall out or driven down, 7 British machines missing.
  • Fast German destroyers shell Baltic Port, west of Reval. In their retreat the majority are sunk by Russian fleet.
  • Reported that allied force has driven enemy from Dumarea, at the Rumanian side of Danube bridge at Cerna Voda.
  • Dutch mail steamer Konigin Regentes captured by enemy and taken to Zeebrugge.
  • British storm and capture eastern portion of Regina Trench on a front of 1,000 yards.
  • Serbians storm the Chuke Heights and carry the village of Polog, taking 600 prisoners.

NOV. 11th, 1916

NOV. 12th, 1916

  • French take whole of SaiIIisel.
  • Rumanians report they have advanced in the Dobruja as far as the Topalu (Danube), Iuan-Cisme, Caranasuff (Black Sea) front.
  • British forces occupy Shiraz in western Persia.

NOV. 13th, 1916

  • Battle of the Ancre 1916 begins.
  • Capture of Beaumont-Hamel. - Our troops attack on both sides of the Ancre, and penetrate the German defences on a front of nearly five miles, taking the strongly-fortified village of St. Pierre Divion, Beaumont-Hamel, and over 3,000 prisoners.
  • Further Serbian Successes. - Continuing their offensive towards Monastir, they drive the Bulgarians out of Iven, fifteen miles east of Monastir, taking 1,000 prisoners.
  • Rumanians admit yielding ground in the region of Sarcinesti, to the south of the Roter Turm Pass.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 12/21 John CUNNINGHAM, East Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 12/21 Private Cunningham, East Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and resource during operations. On 13th November 1916 opposite Hebuterne Sector, France, after the enemy's front line had been captured, Private Cunningham proceeded with a bombing section up a communication trench. Much opposition was encountered, and the rest of the section became casualties. Collecting all the bombs from the casualties, this gallant soldier went on alone. Having expended all his bombs, he returned for a fresh supply and again proceeded to the communication trench, where he met a party of ten of the enemy. These he killed and cleared the trench up to the enemy line. His conduct throughout the day was magnificent.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Bernard Cyril FREYBERG, Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain (temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Bernard Cyril Freyberg, D.S.O., Royal West Surrey Regiment and Royal Naval Division. For most conspicuous bravery and brilliant leading as a Battalion Commander. On 13th November 1916 at Beaucourt sur Ancre, France, by his splendid personal gallantry he carried the initial attack straight through the enemy’s front system of trenches. Owing to mist and heavy fire of all descriptions, Lieutenant-Colonel Freyberg's command was much disorganised after the capture of the first objective. He personally rallied and re-formed his men, including men from other units who had become intermixed. He inspired all with his own contempt of danger. At the appointed time he led his men to the successful assault of the second objective – many prisoners being captured. During this advance he was twice wounded. He again rallied and re-formed all who were with him, and although un-supported in a very advanced position, he held his ground for the remainder of the day, and throughout the night, under heavy artillery and machine-gun fire. When reinforced on the following morning, he organised the attack on a strongly fortified village and showed a fine example of dash in personally leading the assault, capturing the village and five hundred prisoners. In this operation he was again wounded. Later in the afternoon, he was again wounded severely, but refused to leave the line till he had issued final instructions. The personality, valour and utter contempt of danger on the part of this single Officer enabled the lodgement in the most advanced objective of the Corps to be permanently held, and on this point d'appui the line was eventually formed.

NOV. 14th, 1916

  • The Victory on the Ancre. - Sir Douglas Haig reports continued success, our troops capturing Beaucourt-sur-Ancre, and advancing east of the Butte 'de Warlencourt. Prisoners to date number over 5,000.
  • Aeroplane raid on Cairo, a number of civilians killed and wounded.

NOV. 15th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports our troops establish the positions gained north and south of the Ancre.
  • Heavy German attacks on the French north and south of the Somme. Enemy sets foot in Pressoir, but repulsed everywhere else.
  • British advance into Sinai begins.
  • Rumanian retreat in the western valleys south of the Roter Turm and Vulkan Passes.
  • British air raid on Ostend and Zeebrugge.
  • Bulgarians abandon Kenali line.
  • Inter-Allied Conference held in Paris to discuss: (a) the relations between Governments and Staffs; (b) policy and strategy; (c) Greece; (d) Poland.

NOV. 16th, 1916

  • French drive Germans out of Pressoir.
  • Rumanians admit retirements in the valley of the Aluta and in the region of the Jiul.

NOV. 17th, 1916

  • Flight-Captain de Beauchamps bombs Munich, then flies across the Alps, landing north of Venice, making a nonstop flight of 437 miles.
  • British naval aeroplanes make another raid on Ostend and Zeebrugge.

NOV. 18th, 1916

  • Official recognised end date of Battle of the Somme.
  • Battle of the Ancre, 1916, ends.
  • British advance north and south of the Ancre, and reach the outskirts of Grandcourt.
  • Germans claim to have broken the Rumanian front in the western valley of the Jiul.
  • Capture of Monastir by allied troops.

NOV. 19th, 1916

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports a total of 6,962 prisoners taken since Nov. 13th.
  • Monastir (Serbia) captured by Allied forces.
  • Ultimatum to Ministers of the enemy Powers at Athens to leave the capital by Nov 22nd  

NOV. 20th, 1916

  • Allies pursuing enemy from Monastir; advance on Prilep.
  • Officially reported that in the valley of the Jiul the Rumanians continue to retire towards the south.

NOV. 21st, 1916

  • Death of Emperor Francis Joseph.
  • German troops occupy Craiova, the chief town in Western Wallachia.
  • British hospital ship H.M.H.S Britannic sunk by mine or torpedo in the Zea Channel, in the Aegean Sea; 1,106 survivors, over 100 lost.
  • Germans raid British front south-west of Cite St. Elie (north-west of Hulluch). A part of our front-line trench is obliterated, and 26 men missing.

NOV. 22nd, 1916

  • Hostile artillery active in the Beaumont-Hamel and Ypres areas. We bombard the enemy's lines near Ransart (south of Arras), east of Angres, and north of the La Bassée Canal.
  • On the western shore of Lake Prespa (west of Monastir) French troops occupy Leskovetz (about 10 miles south-east of Ochrida), and continue their advance towards the north.
  • Zeebrugge raided by British naval aeroplanes, an enemy destroyer hit.

NOV. 23rd, 1916

  • Petrograd reports that on Oct. 20th the Russian battleship Imperatritsa Maria was sunk as the result of internal explosion; 64 dead, 152 missing.
  • Greek Provisional Government (M. Venizelos) at Salonika declare war on Germany and Bulgaria.
  • Naval Raid on South-East Coast. - Six German destroyers during the night attempt to approach the north end of the Downs, fire about twelve rounds, and steam off at once. One shell hits a drifter without injuring any of her crew. It is denied that shells hit Ramsgate, as the enemy's communique reports.

NOV. 24th, 1916

  • British hospital ship Braemar Castle announced mined or torpedoed in Aegean Sea; all on board saved.
  • Mackensen reported to have forced the Danube. Rumanians give up Orsova and Turnu Severin, and continue retreat.

NOV. 25th, 1916

  • Bukarest admits her troops retire on the left bank of the Alt, in the direction of Dragasani and Slatina.
  • German air force established as a separate branch of the army.

NOV. 26th, 1916

  • Falkenhayn's army has come into touch with Mackensen's, which has crossed the Danube at Zimnicea. German advance continued in south-western part of Wallachia.
  • Zouaves carry by storm Hill 1,050, north-east of Monastir.
  • German sea raid near Lowestoft; armed trawler Narval sunk.

NOV. 27th, 1916

  • Rumanian Retreat. - Our ally abandons the line of the Olt (Aluta), and falls back. Alexandria, on the Vedea River, reported in German hands. On the Rumanian right, Rymmk, on the Olt River, has fallen to the enemy.
  • Zeppelin Raid on Northern Counties. - airship L34 destroyed by aeroplane off Hartlepool and L21 destroyed by aeroplane off Yarmouth.
  • Serbians carry a height north-west of Grunishta. Zouaves storm a crest east of Hill 1,050.

NOV. 28th, 1916

  • Another Zeppelin which took part in the raid on the night of Nov. 27th brought down in flames nine miles out at sea off the Norfolk coast.
  • Mid-day Raid on London. - Enemy aeroplane drops six bombs, nine persons injured, material damage slight. Later in day the same machine brought down by the French off Dunkirk.
  • March on Bukarest. - Germans holding Giurgevo, on the Danube, almost due south of Bukarest, and Curtea de Arges in the north.
  • Russian success in Carpathians. Our ally seizes heights four miles west of Worochta, in the region of Wakarka, and in the region of Kirlibaba gain possession of a ridge of heights east of Kirlibaba, compelling the enemy to retire from their positions, capturing 800 prisoners.

NOV. 29th, 1916

  • Important Naval Changes. - Sir John Jellicoe becomes First Sea Lord; Sir David Beatty is appointed to command the Grand Fleet.

NOV. 30th, 1916

  • Mackensen reported attacking 12 miles from inner forts of Bukarest. Rumanian Government removed to Jassy.
  • Greek Government refuses Admiral du Fournet's demand for the surrender of arms.

DECEMBER 1916

DEC. 1st, 1916

  • Allied troops land at Athens, and are attacked by Greek troops; many casualties.
  • War Office issues statement recording the defeat and dispersal of enemy force in German East Africa, which, driven out of Tabara by the Belgians in September, attempted to join the German troops in the south-central region of the territory. The force has been divided into two pints, one of which surrendered.

DEC. 2nd, 1916

  • Rumanian troops turn in their retreat and oppose the enemy's advance. Latter driven back on the road from Bukarest to Alexandria. Rumanians recapture Comana and Gostinari.
  • Russian premier Trepov announces that Allies have acknowledged Russia's right to the Dardanelles and Constantinople.

DEC. 3rd, 1916

  • Announced that Government is to be reconstructed.
  • Admiral Sir Henry Jackson, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, resigns.
  • Rumanians defeated at battle of the Arges.

DEC. 4th, 1916

  • Petrograd announces Rumanians under uninterrupted enemy pressure retiring in the Pitesci-Targovistea area.
  • Admiral Sir John Jellicoe appointed as First Sea Lord, replacing Admiral Sir Henry Jackson.
  • Russians storm a height two miles south-west of Tablonitza.
  • Serbians carry by assault the village of Staravina.

DEC. 5th, 1916

  • Mr. Asquith resigns Premiership, and Mr. Lloyd George resigns as Secretary for War.
  • Continued Rumanian retreat towards the east; enemy advancing towards Ploesti.

DEC. 6th, 1916

  • Mr. Lloyd George to form a National Government.
  • Fall of Bukarest.
  • Russians lose again the commanding height of the Jablonica Pass.
  • Germans attacking at Verdun win slight gains on Hill 304.

DEC. 7th, 1916

  • Mr. Lloyd George, Premier. He accepts the King's offer of the post of Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury, and kisses hands upon his appointment.
  • Germans announce Rumanian rear guard at Orsova forced into engagement on River Olt, and obliged to capitulate with 8,000 men.

DEC. 8th, 1916

  • Admiralty announces German armed raider sighted in the North Atlantic on December 4.
  • Russians attack three miles south of Jawornik, in the south-east corner of Galicia.
  • Allied Blockade of Greece.

DEC. 9th, 1916

  • First meeting of new British War Cabinet.
  • British raid enemy trenches at Neuville St. Vaast and Souchez.
  • French make successful coup de main against a German salient in the region of the Butte du Mesnil.

DEC. 10th, 1916

  • British bombard heavily various points behind the enemy's line.
  • Russians report that in Wallachia the Rumanian troops, under unceasing hostile pressure, continue to retire eastward.

DEC. 11th, 1916

  • Names of the new “War Cabinet” announced.
  • Allied raid on Zeebrugge.
  • British Ministry of Labour is established.
  • Allies note to Greece demands complete demobilisation.
  • Russians reported to have advanced in the Carpathians in the region of Kirlibaba and in the valley of the Trotus River.

DEC. 12th, 1916

  • French troops carry five small Bulgarian posts south of the Lumnitza River (S.W, of Ghevgeli).
  • Germany's Peace Move. At a specially summoned meeting of the Reichstag, the Chancellor makes a speech outlining Germany's willingness to open peace negotiations. Overtures for such negotiations to be made through neutral Governments by the four enemy powers.
  • Rumanian retreat continued; enemy in possession of Urziceni and Mizil.

DEC. 13th, 1916

  • Changes in French Higher Command. General Nivelle to command in the field on the Western front. General Joffre becomes “technical military adviser” to the new French War Committee. Vice-Admiral Gauchet to command Allied Fleet in the Mediterranean in place of Admiral du Fournet.
  • Advance on Kut. British troops advance from the south on the Hai River. Crossing to the west bank of the river, they clear the Turkish trenches and hold a position two a half miles from Kut.

DEC. 14th, 1916

  • Near the Jablonica Pass, Russian artillery bombards Kovosmezo.
  • French report enemy's artillery bombards the whole of the Serbian front and the town of Monastir.

DEC. 15th, 1916

  • Great French Victory at Verdun. Attacking the enemy on the east bank of the Meuse, to the north of Douaumont, our ally breaks his front over a depth of two miles, taking Vacherauville and Louvemont, and the works of Hardaumont and Bezonvaux. Prisoners amount to 7,500.
  • Allies Ultimatum to Greece results in compliance of latter.
  • British Government recognise the “King of the Arabs” as the King of the Hejaz.
  • British outposts pushed on to within three-quarters of a mile of the Tigris, south of Kut.

DEC. 16th, 1916

  • French victory at Verdun extended. The village of Bezonvaux carried, and prisoners now total 10,000.
  • British troops near Kut extend their hold over the Hai.

DEC. 17th, 1916

  • Successful British trench raids near Ransart, and south-west of Wytschaete.

DEC. 18th, 1916

  • German counter-attack at Verdun gains a footing in the farm of Chambrettes, but driven out. The French report that they have taken 11,387 prisoners since December 15th, 115 guns, 107 machine-guns.
  • President Wilson issues Circular Note suggesting negotiations for peace.

DEC. 19th, 1916

  • French report lively artillery fighting on both sides of the right bank of the Meuse.
  • British government decides to institute National Service.
  • Reported that German advance in Rumania has been checked before Braila, at the village of Botogu, thirty miles away from the town.
  • Great speech by Mr. Lloyd George in Parliament on German peace offer and new Government's war policy.

DEC. 20th, 1916

  • Russians report that an enemy attack south-west of' Brody, near Bonikowica, breaks down.

DEC. 21st, 1916

  • EI Arish Recaptured. - Our troops occupy the Egyptian town of El Arish, which had been for two years in the hands of the Turks.
  • Advance on Kut. Our aeroplanes drop a ton of explosives on Turkish advanced base and shipping near Bargela, and our guns heavily bombard hostile trenches on the south bank of the Tigris near Kut-el-Amara and on the north bank at Sanna-i-Yat.
  • Two torpedo-boat destroyers sunk in collision in North Sea; 55 lives lost.

DEC. 22nd, 1916

  • British air raid on Turkish base near Bargela, Magdhaba, Beersheba, Auja, and railway bridge at Tel-el-Sharia.
  • British government forms new Ministries of Food, Pensions and Shipping.
  • Rumanians abandon Isaccea and Tultcha in the Dobrllja.
  • New Peace Move. - Text of President Wilson's Note on peace to all the belligerents published.
  • New Allied Note delivered to Greece.

DEC. 23rd, 1916

  • Great Victory in Egypt. - Mounted troops carry strong enemy position at Magdhaba. Total captures amount to 1,350 prisoners and much war material.
  • Austrian naval raid in Strait of Otranto; enemy's force driven off by allied units.

DEC 24th, 1916

  • Officially announced that on the Struma front our troops carry out 8. successful raid on Kavakli, and the Royal Navy effectively bombards enemy entrenchments in neighbourhood of Neochari.

DEC. 25th, 1916

  • British artillery active north of the Somme.
  • On the Doiran front our troops successfully raid enemy's mai11-line trenches between Lake Doiran and Doldzeli.

DEC. 26th, 1916

  • Announced that Rumanians have evacuated Filipesti.
  • Great artillery activity on both sides in the sectors Belloy-en-Santerre and Fouquescourt.
  • British naval raid on Galata (Gallipoli).
  • Central Powers agree to President Wilson's suggestion of negotiations.
  • Lord Davenport appointed as first Food Controller in Britain.
  • General Joffre created Marshal of France.
  • British aviators bomb Dillingen, and French aviators bomb Neunkirchen and Hagondangoy

DEC. 27th, 1916

  • Imperial War Conference. -Announced that an invitation has been sent to the Dominion Prime Ministers to attend “a Special War Conference of the Empire.”
  • General Joffre nominated Marshal of France.
  • British Front Extended. - Announced that more of the allied line in France has been taken over by the British army. The operation was completed on the night of Christmas.
  • Germans claim success in Rumania in a battle lasting five days, and announce they have taken Rimnic-Sarat.
  • British naval airmen destroy Chikaldir Bridge on Bagdad Railway.
  • French battleship Gaulois torpedoed in Mediterranean; four lives lost.

DEC. 28th, 1916

  • Germans claim further successes at Rimnic-Sarat, and 10,000 prisoners.

DEC. 29th, 1916

  • New German offensive on Moldavian border.
  • Enemy attack north-west of Verdun repulsed.

DEC. 30th, 1916

  • Allies reply to German peace proposals with a direct negative; the proposals are characterised as sham, lacking all substance and precision, less an offer of peace than a War manoeuvre.
  • Italian guns very active against the whole front of the enemy, especially east of Gorizia and on the Carso. Enemy shells Gorizia without doing damage of importance.
  • North-west of Zborow (in Galicia), Russian scouts attack an enemy outpost in the region of Presowce, annihilated part of the post, and take the remainder prisoners.

DEC. 31st, 1916

  • British effectively bombard the enemy's defences south-east of Le Transloy. An enemy ammunition dump is blown up as the result of our fire.
  • Rasputin murdered in Petrograd, Russi

The Great War Timeline - 1917

1917 - Great War Timeline & detailed history of WWI

 

JANUARY 1917

JAN. 1st, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig created Field-Marshal.
  • Transport Ivernia sunk by submarine in· Mediterranean; 155 missing.
  • Russians report successful counter-attack near Braila. Attacking the bridge-head 12 miles from Braila itself, the enemy is thrown back by the Allies.
  • Renewed Offensive in East Africa. - Our forces in vicinity of Kissaki, south of the Uluguru Hills, storm the strongly entrenched lines of the enemy in the Mgeta Valley.

JAN. 2nd, 1917

  • Text of New Allied Note to Greece published.
  • Mackensen’s army reported before the Sereth lines at Focsani.

JAN. 3rd, 1917

  • Lord Cowdray appointed Air Minister.
  • General Sir Douglas Haig promoted to Field Marshal.
  • First elements of Portuguese Expeditionary Force land at Brest in France.
  • Enemy clear the Dobruja by the capture of the Macin bridge-head, but checked in the Valley of the Buzeu.

JAN. 4th, 1917

  • Russian Success in the Carpathians. - Our ally breaks through the front of General von Kovess’s army near Mount Botosul, capturing 600 prisoners and three guns.
  • Germans report that the Milcovu sector, some distance west of Focsani, has been captured.
  • East African “round-up.” Announced that while the operations of Jan. 1st were in progress, a detached column reached the Rufiji River in the vicinity of Mkalinso, and established itself on both banks of that stream. Farther east our forces hold a line east and west, through Kibata in the Matumbi Hills, astride the tracks leading south from the Rufiji delta.
  • British airmen again bomb the railway bridge at Kuleli Burgas.

JAN. 5th, 1917

  • Capture of Braila announced by the Germans.
  • Allied Conference in Rome. - Mr. Lloyd George and Lord Milner arrive in Rome to take part with the French and Italian Governments in an exchange of views upon the general situation.
  • North of Beaumont-Hamel British troops seize two hostile posts.

JAN. 6th, 1917

  • British carry out successful daylight raid against the enemy's positions south-east of Arras, penetrating as far as his third line.
  • Russian rally on the Sereth. Our ally delivers an attack on a front of 15 miles, and gains ground in the direction of Obilesti.

JAN. 7th, 1917

  • Russians report heavy fighting near Riga, where they vigorously attack. They advance their line and take 800 prisoners.
  • British carry out a successful raid south of Armentières.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 1396 Thomas MOTTERSHEAD, Royal Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1396 Serjeant Thomas Mottershead, late Royal Flying Corps. For most conspicuous bravery, endurance and skill, on 7th January 1917 near Ploegsteert Wood, Belgium, when attacked at an altitude of 9,000 feet, the petrol tank was pierced and the machine set on fire. Enveloped in flames, which his observer, Lieutenant Gower was unable to subdue, this very gallant soldier succeeded in bringing his aeroplane back to our lines, and though he made a successful landing, the machine collapsed on touching the ground, pinning him beneath wreckage from which he was subsequently rescued. Though suffering extreme torture from burns, Serjeant Mottershead showed the most conspicuous presence of mind in the careful selection of a landing place, and his wonderful endurance and fortitude undoubtedly saved the life of his observer. He has since succumbed to his injuries

JAN. 8th, 1917

  • The Drive in East Africa. - War Office announces that General Smuts has pressed his operations against the main body of the enemy in the valley and delta of the Lower Rufiji River. Our troops have reached Kibambwe.
  • Germans capture Focsani.
  • New Allied Note to Greece, with 48 hours’ time limit.

JAN. 9th, 1917

  • Sinai Cleared of the Turkish. -  Our troops capture a strong enemy position covering Rafa (30 miles north-cast of EI Arish). A Turkish relief force is engaged about four miles from the Rafa position, and entirely destroyed. Om unwounded prisoners total 1,600; enemy killed and wounded in our hands amount to 600.
  • Russians attacking in the Riga region capture an island in the River Dwina, east of Glaudan.
  • British seize and consolidate section of enemy trench cast of Beaumont-Hamel, taking 140 prisoners.
  • Advance near Kut. - An Indian division captures enemy’s trenches on a front of 1,000 yards in the bend of the Tigris on the right bank.
  • H.M.S. Cornwallis sunk by enemy submarine in Mediterranean; 13 men missing.

JAN. 10th, 1917

  • Russians report continued advance in the Riga district. They take enemy's position between the Tirul Marsh and the River Aa, and advance one and a half miles towards the south.
  • Allies send formal note to President W. Wilson outlining their war aims; Belgium places itself in Allied hands.

JAN. 11th, 1917

  • British carry through another “local operation” north-east of Beaumont-Hamel, taking three-quarters of a mile of trench and a number of prisoners.
  • Our cavalry occupies Hai town, on the Shatt-el-Hai.
  • H.M.S seaplane-carrier Ben-My-Chree sunk by gun fire in Kastelorizo Harbour (Asia Minor), 1 officer and 4 men wounded.
  • Allies' Reply to President Wilson's Peace Note published.
  • Greek reply to allied ultimatum complies with demands on the main points.

JAN. 12th, 1917

  • New War Loan issued.
  • Rome announces that during night of December 11-12, 1916, the warship Regina Margherita struck two mines and sank; 675 lives lost.
  • Rumanian success reported in the Valley of the Casin, enemy driven back over a mile.

JAN. 13th, 1917

  • British post north-west of Serre lost and regained.
  • On the Lower Sereth Mackensen's Turkish troops storm the village of Mihalea. In the Casin Valley, in the Moldavian Highlands, the Rumanians attack and occupy enemy trenches.

JAN. 14th, 1917

  • British bombard enemy's trenches north-west of Lens with good results.
  • British troops on the Struma front defeat a Turkish patrol.  Enemy positions at Neohari are bombarded in co-operation with the Navy.

JAN. 15th, 1917

  • Rumanian Success. - Our ally successfully repulses enemy attack on the heights south-east of MonestirkaI Kachineel.
  • Activity in Macedonia. - Italians repulse Bulgarian attack near Lake Prespa; the French destroy ammunition depot at Putures, while other engagements take place in the neighbourhood of Lake Ochrida, particularly at Veliterna.
  • Sir Douglas Haig and General Nivelle attend conference with the War Cabinet in London.

JAN. 16th, 1917

  • Closer Grip on Kut. - War Office announces that the south bank of the Tigris east of Kut-el-Amara has been cleared of the Turkish, save for one small stretch in the bend of the river.
  • Announced that General Smuts is to represent South Africa at the special War Conference of the Empire.
  • Fighting in Rumania confined to the valleys of Southern Moldavia, where the enemy is checked.
  • Italian advance in Albania. Cavalry occupy Salesi and Arza, thus making a further advance towards their line of posts extending from Valona.

JAN. 17th, 1917

  • British Success on the Ancre. - Our troops occupy a line of enemy posts north of Beaumont-sur-Ancre, the whole of our objectives being gained on a frontage of 600 yards.
  • Splendid Canadian Raid. - Canadian troops carry out a very successful daylight raid north-east of Cité Calonne, entering the enemy's trenches on a front of 700 yards and penetrating to a depth of 300 yards.
  • Greece accepts the demands of the Allies in their entirety.
  • Rumanians Recapture a Height. - Between the Valleys of the Casin and Susitza the Rumanians surround a height occupied by the enemy and take a great number of prisoners.

JAN. 18th, 1917

  • Despatch of General Smuts, covering operations in East Africa from end of March to the end of October, 1916, published.
  • British make further progress during the night north of Beaucourt-sur-Ancre.
  • Germans announce the Yarrowdale, captured by German raider, taken into German port on December 31st, with 469 prisoners on board.

JAN. 19th, 1917

  • Great Munitions Explosion. - Explosion occurs at a munition’s factory in the neighbourhood of London, 69 killed, 72 seriously injured, and 328 slightly injured.

JAN. 20th, 1917

  • Mackensen's Renewed Activity. - Enemy announces he has captured the village of Nanesti; forming part of the advanced bridge-head position on the south of the Sereth. Later the Germans claim to have taken the whole of the bridge-head.
  • British Air Raid on Bagdad.
  • Lieut. - General Hoskins succeeds Lieut.-General Smuts in East African command.

JAN. 21st, 1917

  • In the fighting for the Sereth bridge-head and near Pralea, in South Moldavia, the Germans claim to have taken over 900 prisoners.
  • British carry out successful daylight raid south-cast of Loos.
  • War Office announces the capture of the last trenches in the Tigris bend, north-east of Kut-el-Amara.

JAN. 22nd, 1917

  • Officially announced that the encircling movement against the Germans on the Lower Rufiji River is making progress. In the Makenge region they are being harassed by converging columns.
  • Naval Actions in North Sea. - Our light forces meet a division of enemy torpedo-boat destroyers off the Dutch Coast, and in a short engagement one of the enemy torpedo-boat destroyers is sunk, the rest scattered after suffering “considerable punishment.” In a short and sharp engagement between enemy torpedo-boat destroyers and British destroyers in the vicinity of the Sehouwen Bank, one of our torpedo-boat destroyers struck by; torpedo; 46 casualties.

JAN. 23rd, 1917

  • Germans report that Bulgarian troops have crossed the southern branch of the Danube opposite Tultcha.

JAN. 24th, 1917

  • Russians attack Bulgarians who had occupied part of the Danube delta, take 337 prisoners, and annihilate the rest of the battalion.
  • Dimitrieff's army, forced to give up part of its gains near Riga, is driven back a mile and a half, and loses a third of the ground previously won.

JAN. 25th, 1917

  • Obstiliate fighting continues west and south-west of Riga.
  • British carry out a very successful daylight raid near Hulluch.
  • The Greek Government presents formal apologies to the Ministers of the Allied Powers for the regrettable occurrences of December 1st, 1916.
  • Allied Naval Conference. - Admiralty announces that the results of an important Naval Conference held in London between representatives of Great Britain, France, and Italy were entirely satisfactory.
  • Small German vessel bombards Suffolk coast; no casualties.
  • British gain 1,100 yards of first-line and a considerable length of second-line trenches south-west of Kut.
  • H.M. auxiliary cruiser Laurentic sunk off Irish Coast by German submarine or mine; 121 officers and men saved.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Major Edward Elers Delaval HENDERSON, North Staffordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Major (Acting Lieutenant-Colonel) Edward Elers Delavel Henderson, late North Staffordshire Regiment, attached 9th Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery, leadership and personal example when in command of his battalion. On 25th January 1917 on the west bank of the River Hai, near Kut, Mesopotamia, Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson brought his battalion up to our two front-line trenches, which were under intense fire, and his battalion had suffered heavy casualties when the enemy made a heavy counter-attack, and succeeded in penetrating our line in several places, the situation becoming critical. Although shot through the arm, Lieutenant-Colonel Henderson jumped on to the parapet and advanced alone some distance in front of his battalion, cheering them on under the most intense fire over 500 yards of open ground. Again wounded, he nevertheless continued to lead his men on in the most gallant manner, finally capturing the position by a bayonet charge. He was again twice wounded, and died when he was eventually brought in.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 9887 Edward John MOTT, Border Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 9887 Serjeant Edward John Mott, Border Regiment. For most conspicuous gallantry and initiative when, in an attack, on 27th January 1917 south of Le Transloy, France, the company to which he belonged was held up at a strong point by machine-gun fire. Although severely wounded in the eye, Serjeant Mott made a rush for the gun, and after a fierce struggle seized the gunner and took him prisoner, capturing the gun. It was due to the dash and initiative of this non-commissioned officer that the left flank attack succeeded.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant Robert Edwin PHILLIPS, Royal Warwickshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant and Adjutant Robert Edwin Phillips, 13th Battalion, attached 9th (Service) Battalion, Royal Warwickshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 25th January 1917 near Kut, Mesopotamia, after his Commanding Officer had been mortally wounded in leading a counter-attack, Lieutenant Phillips went out under the most intense fire to his assistance, and eventually, with the help of a comrade, succeeded in bringing him back to our lines. Lieutenant Phillips had in the first instance tried to get a telephone wire across the open following the battalion in their counter-attack. This was impossible when the Signallers were killed. His Commanding Officer lay wounded in the open, and as the counter-attack had succeeded, he turned all his energies on getting him in. He showed sustained courage in its very highest form, and throughout he had but little chance of ever getting back alive.

JAN. 26th, 1917

  • War Office reports continued falling back of enemy on the Lower Rufiji; 100 miles east of Lake Nyasaa German force has surrendered.

JAN. 27th, 1917

  • Brilliant operation near Le Transloy carried out by British; 350 prisoners.

JAN. 28th, 1917

  • Russians break through enemy's line on front of 3,000 yards near the meeting-place of the Bukovina, Transylvania, and Rumania.

JAN. 29th, 1917

  • British raid north-cast of Vermelles.

JAN. 30th, 1917

  • Duke of Connaught appointed Colonel-in-Chief of the Volunteer Force.

JAN. 31st, 1917

  • Tsar receives Lord Milner and other British, French, and Italian delegates arrived in Petrograd for Allied conference.
  • German government announces forthcoming unrestricted submarine warfare and threaten to sink hospital ships.

FEBRURY 1917

FEB. 1st, 1917

  • Intensified U Boat Warfare. - From this date Germany to prevent, “by all weapons,” sea traffic in wide zones round Great Britain, France, Italy, and in the Eastern Mediterranean. The United States to be allowed access to Falmouth with one steamer per week, and a Dutch paddle-steamer to be allowed to ply between Flushing and Southwold.
  • Germans break through Russian line 15 miles south of Halicz, but arc driven back again.
  • Further British success at Kut-el-Amara; last line of trenches but one, east of Tigris-Hai junction, taken.

FEB. 2nd, 1917

  • Food Controller issues important statement asking for voluntary restriction of food consumption to avoid compulsory rationing.
  • British naval air raid on Bruges Harbour.

FEB. 3rd, 1917

  • United States Rupture with Germany. - Count Bernstorff given his passports, and Mr. Gerard recalled from Berlin.
  • British line east of Beaucourt advanced 500 yards on front of three-quarters of a mile.

FEB. 4th, 1917

  • President Wilson's Note to neutrals, inviting them to take action similar to his.
  • British occupy 500 yards of trench north-east of Gueudecourt.
  • Senussi Main Force Defeated. - British forces find enemy main body just south of Girba (15 miles west of Siwa), and defeat it after all-day engagement, enemy fleeing.

FEB. 5th, 1917

  • British troops enter Siwa, finding it evacuated by the enemy. In the meantime, a portion or a British force occupies the Munasib Pass (24 miles west of Girba), captures an enemy convoy, and successfully ambushes the leading party of the enemy fleeing from Girba.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Henry William MURRAY, Australian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Henry William Murray D.S.O., Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery when in command of the right flank company in attack. On 4th/5th February 1917, at Stormy Trench, north-east of Gueudecourt, France, Captain Murray led his company to the assault with great skill and courage and the position was quickly captured. Fighting of a very severe nature followed, and three heavy counter-attacks were beaten back, these successes being due to Captain Murray's wonderful work. Throughout the night his company suffered heavy casualties through concentrated enemy shell fire, and on one occasion gave ground for a short way. This gallant officer rallied his command and saved the situation by sheer valour. He made his presence felt throughout the line, encouraging his men, heading bombing parties, leading bayonet charges, and carrying wounded to places of safety. His magnificent example inspired his men throughout.

FEB. 6th, 1917

  • British Advance on the Somme. - British line advanced near Grandcourt (east of Beaucourt); about 1,000 yards of hostile trench occupied.
  • National Service plans outlined by Mr. Neville Chamberlain at great London meeting.

FEB. 7th, 1917

  • British capture Grandcourt and defensive works adjoining it.
  • Anchor liner California torpedoed; 43 passengers and crew missing.

FEB. 8th, 1917

  • British capture Sailly Hill.
  • One of H.M.  torpedo-boat destroyers of an older type mined in Channel.
  • Allied naval air raid on Bruges.

FEB. 9th, 1917

  • British renew offensive at Kut, and secure portion of enemy's new front-line west of the River Hai
  • Heroism on Transport Tyndareus. - Transport Tyndareus, having on board a battalion of Middlesex Regiment, with whom was Colonel John Ward, M.P., mined off Cape Agulhas (105 miles south-east of Cape Town). The incident occurred not far from spot where Birkenhead was lost, and the troops maintained steadfast courage, singing as the vessel began to settle. All on board were saved, and the Tyndareus reached port under her own steam.

FEB. 10th, 1917

  • Rapid Progress at Kut. - British troops, after a heavy bombardment, attack enemy trenches west of the Liquorice Factory, and carry latter and trenches on a front of 50 yards. As result of operations On Feb. 9th – 10th a new line occupied on a frontage of over 6,000 yards; Turkish suffer heavy casualties.
  • Announced that an Austrian attack near Gorizia has been repulsed.
  • British capture strong system or trenches at southern foot of the Serre Hill; 215 prisoners taken.

FEB. 11th, 1917

  • British occupy 600 yards of hostile trench north of the Ancre in neighbourhood of the Beaucourt-Puisieux Road.
  • Italians report that on the range of hills east of Gorizia they have re-established their lines, inflicting serious loss upon the enemy.
  • Enemy driven back to the last line of trenches in the Dahra bend of the Tigris, west of Kut. British advance 2,000 yards.

FEB. 12th, 1917

  • Announced that small British force has completed punitive expedition into Ovamboland, in north of S.W. Africa, against turbulent native chief on Portuguese border.
  • Submarine shells French coast near Biarritz.

FEB. 13th, 1917

  • Announced that White Star liner Afric has been sunk by submarine.
  • Successful raid east of Souchez. British troops penetrate several hundred yards into the enemy's positions, and do great damage to his defences; many Germans killed, and 47 prisoners taken.
  • President Wilson refuses to listen to the German proposal to discuss the situation until and unless Germany cancels her illegal practices.

FEB. 14th, 1917

  • Great Raid at Arras. - British troops penetrate 250 yards into enemy's defences, and reach his third line of trenches. Many Germans killed in dug-outs, and 40 prisoners taken. A strong enemy point south-east of Grandcourt is captured.
  • Germans report that, as result of a counter-stroke on borders of Bukovina, near Jakobeny, they have won back part of lost ground.
  • Britain informs the Japanese government that they will support Japanese claims to German possessions north of the Equator if it is understood that Japan will support similar British claims south of the Equator.
  • Great French raid north-west of Compiegne, reaching enemy second line.

FEB. 15th, 1917

  • Announced that all coal-mines in United Kingdom taken over by Government for period of the war.
  • Mr. Hughes announces formation of National Government in Australia.
  • Germans penetrate into salient in French lines between Maisons de Champagne and Butte du Mesnil, on a front of a mile and a half, but sustain heavy losses.
  • Victory on the Tigris. - The offensive against the Turkish on the right bank of the Tigris in the Dahra bend results in clearing the loop of the enemy and the capture of 1,995 prisoners.

FEB. 16th, 1917

  • A further advance of 1,200 yards is made south of the Shumran loop of the Tigris.
  • Lists for the great War Loan closed. £ 1,000,312,950 “new money” raised.

FEB. 17th, 1917

  • Advance on the Ancre. - Enemy positions covering Miraumont on the north and Petit Miraumont on the south of the river captured on a front of a mile and a half; 773 prisoners taken.
  • Australian War Government formed.
  • On the north of the Ancre an important position on upper slopes of the spur north of Baillescourt Farm is carried on a front of 1,000 yards.
  • Zeppelin raid on Boulogne; no damage or casualties.
  • General Maude's troops assault the Sanna-i-Yat position on the left (north) bank of Tigris, and-occupy enemy's two front lines. Turkish counter-attack forces British right back on the original line. British left withdrawn under cover of artillery barrage.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Commander Gordon CAMPBELL, Royal Navy awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Commander Gordon Campbell, D.S.O., Royal Navy. In recognition of his conspicuous gallantry, consummate coolness, and skill in command of one of H.M. ships in action.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Serjeant 731 Frederick William PALMER, Royal Fusiliers (London Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 731 Lance-Serjeant (now Second Lieutenant) Frederick William Palmer, Royal Fusiliers. On 16th/17th February 1917 north of Courcelette, France, Lance-Serjeant Palmer assumed command of his company when all his officers had become casualties. Having cut his way under point-blank fire, through wire entanglements, he dislodged an enemy machine-gun and established a “block”. He then collected some other men and held the barricade for nearly three hours against seven determined counter-attacks. While he was fetching more bombs an eighth counter-attack was delivered, threatening the advance of the whole flank. At this critical moment, although suffering from extreme exhaustion, he rallied his men, drove back the enemy and maintained his position.

FEB. 18th, 1917

  • Futile German counter-attack on British new positions on the spur above Baillescourt Farm.
  • Russians report a success in Moldavia.
  • Contact established between Italians and French in Southern Albania.

FEB. 19th, 1917

  • Successful British raid south of Souchez.
  • Germans rush small British advanced post near Le Transloy.

FEB. 20th, 1917

  • Great Raid at Ypres. - British raid enemy's lines south east of Ypres on a front of 500 yards, and reach his support line. Many Germans killed, and great damage to defences; 114 prisoners.
  • Successful French raids on enemy trenches to the north of Flirey and to the west of Wattwiller (north-west of Mulhouse).

FEB. 21st, 1917

  • Announced that British troops surprise Turkish established at Bir-el-Hassana, and capture the whole garrison. The Nakhl garrison, about 100 strong, fled towards Akaba (Sinai Peninsula).
  • New British Blockade Order published.
  • Transport Mendi carrying last batch of the South African native labour contingent to France sunk in collision twelve miles from Isle of Wight. Loss of over 600 lives.

FEB. 22nd, 1917

  • German raids attempted east of Vermelles and south of Neuve Chapelle repulsed.
  • Seven Dutch ships torpedoed by German submarines outside Falmouth; three sunk.
  • British launch attack on Sanna-i-Yat position, and secure two lines of trenches at the south end.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 811 Thomas STEELE, Seaforth Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 811 Lance-Serjeant Thomas Steele, 1st Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 22nd February 1917 near Sannaiyat, Mesopotamia, at a critical moment when a strong enemy counter-attack had temporarily regained some of the captured trenches, Serjeant Steele rushed forward and assisted a comrade to carry a machine-gun in action till relieved, being mainly instrumental in keeping the remainder of the line intact. Some hours later another strong attack enabled the enemy to reoccupy a portion of the captured trenches. Again Serjeant Steele showed the greatest bravery, and by personal valour and example was able to rally troops who were wavering. He encouraged them to remain in their trenches and led a number of them forward, thus greatly helping to re-establish our line. On this occasion he was severely wounded. These acts of valour were performed under heavy artillery and rifle fire.

FEB. 23rd, 1917

  • French Ministry of Marine announces mail steamer Athos, carrying troops to France, torpedoed in the Mediterranean; 1,450 persons saved.
  • German trench and post seized north of Gueudecourt and south of Petit Miraumont.
  • Important Speech by Mr. Lloyd George in House of Commons on restriction of imports, and increase of home-grown food.
  • Fresh Gains at Kut. - British cross the Tigris in the neighbourhood of the Shumran bend, and secure a position on the north bank. The enemy, who offered a stubborn resistance, lose 544 prisoners. Simultaneously with the crossing of the river, third and fourth Turkish lines of trenches at Sanna-i-Yat are captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Major George Campbell WHEELER, Gurkha Rifles awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Major George Campbell Wheeler, Gurkha Rifles, Indian Army. For the most conspicuous bravery and determination on 23rd February 1917 at Shumran on the River Tigris, Mesopotamia. This officer, together with one Gurkha officer and eight men, crossed a river and immediately rushed the enemy's trench under heavy bombing, rifle, machine-gun, and artillery fire. Having obtained a footing on the river bank, he was almost immediately afterwards counter-attacked by a strong enemy party with bombers. Major Campbell Wheeler at once led a charge with another officer and three men, receiving a severe bayonet wound in the head, but managed, in spite of this, to disperse the enemy. This bold action on his part undoubtedly saved the situation. In spite of his wound, he continued to consolidate his position.

FEB. 24th, 1917

  • Progress on the Ancre. British troops advance south and south-east of Miraumont and enter Petit Miraumont.
  • Capture of Kut-el-Amara. 1,730 prisoners taken in two days’ fighting.

FEB. 25th, 1917

  • German Withdrawal on the Ancre. - Germans yield ground and fall back a distance of three miles on an eleven-mile front. Serre, Miraumont, Pys, and Warlencourt occupied.
  • Cunard liner R.M.S Laconia torpedoed. President Wilson calls it the “overt act” for which he was waiting.
  • Destroyer Raid on Kent Coast. - At 11.15 p.m. enemy torpedo-boat destroyers’ fire a number of shells at Broadstairs and Margate; woman and two children killed, material damage slight. A short engagement takes place in the Channel between a British destroyer and of force of several enemy destroyers.
  • British naval seaplanes bombard ironworks at Brebach, near Saarbrucken.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 18233 John READITT, South Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 18233 Private John Readitt, South Lancashire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when working down a broad, deep water-course on 25th February 1917 at Alqayat-al-Gaharbigah Bend, Mesopotamia. Five times he went forward in the face of very heavy machine-gun fire at very close range, being the sole survivor on each occasion. These advances drove back the enemy machine-guns, and about 300 yards of water-course was made good in an hour. After his officer had been killed Private Readitt, on his own initiative, organised and made several more advances. On reaching the enemy barricade, he was forced by a counter-attack to retire, giving ground slowly and continuing to throw bombs. On supports reaching him, he held a forward bend by bombing until the position was consolidated. The action of this gallant soldier saved the left flank and enabled his Battalion to maintain its position.

FEB. 26th, 1917

  • British advance on the Ance. Sir Douglas Haig reports continued progress; our troops occupy Le Barque, two miles south of Bapaume, and reach the outskirts of IrIes and Puisieux-au-Mont.
  • U.S President W. Wilson asks Congress for power to arm US merchant ships.
  • Franco-British Conference at Calais, at which French and British Prime Ministers attended.
  • Gun boats’ dash up the Tigris. H.M. river gunboats Tarantula, Mantis, and Moth come into contact with and pass the Turkish Army while it is in retreat to westward of Shumran, and inflict heavy loss on it. These gunboats capture or destroy four Turkish steamers and a number of barges, full of ammunition. The British gunboat Firefly, abandoned in retreat from Ctesiphon, recaptured.

FEB. 27th, 1917

  • Further British advance towards Bapaume, Ligny, and western and northern outskirts of Puisieux-au-Mont taken.

FEB. 28th, 1917

  • Capture of Gommecourt.
  • On the ridge of Sailly-Saillisel British attack and capture a trench, taking 83 prisoners, and in a raid near Clery take 22 prisoners.
  • Sir Douglas Haig reports that during the month of February the British captured 2,133 German prisoners, including 36 officers, and 11 villages have been captured or surrendered.
  • Rumanian troops attack enemy's positions north of the River Zaval, and dislodge the enemy occupying a height, capturing a machine-gun and some prisoners.
  • Russians lose ground near the Bukovina border, on the Kimpolung-Jakobeny roads, but win back part of the ground during the night.
  • To the north of Dixmude Belgians repulse by grenades a German patrol.

MARCH 1917

MAR. 1st, 1917

  • North of Miraumont British line advanced 600 yards on a front of one and a half miles.
  • Aeroplane raid on Broadstairs, one woman slightly injured.
  • British hospital ship H.M.H.S Glenart Castle damaged by mine on run from Le Havre to Southampton.
  • British destroyer mined in North Sea; all hands lost.

MAR. 2nd, 1917

  • Russians take Hamadan, in Persia.
  • British progress north of Warlencourt-Eaucourt, and north west of Puisieux-au-Mont.

MAR. 3rd, 1917

  • British advance a quarter of a mile on a front of five miles, north of Puisieux-au-Mont, and east of Gommecourt.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Robert Grierson COMBE, Manitoba Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Robert Grierson Combe, late Canadian Infantry Battalion. For most conspicuous bravery and example. On 3rd May 1917, south of Acheville, France, Lieutenant Combe steadied his Company under intense fire, and led them through the enemy barrage, reaching the objective with only five men. With great coolness and courage Lieutenant Combe proceeded to bomb the enemy, and inflicted heavy casualties. He collected small groups of men and succeeded in capturing the Company objective, together with eighty prisoners. He repeatedly charged the enemy, driving them before him, and, whilst personally leading his bombers, was killed by an enemy sniper. His conduct inspired all ranks, and it was entirely due to his magnificent courage that the position was carried, secured and held.

MAR. 4th, 1917

  • British Advance on Somme. Enemy’s front and support lines east of Bouchavesnes (north of the Somme) on a front of 1,200 yards’ captured; 173 prisoners taken. East of Gommecourt advance along a two-mile front to a depth of 1,200 yards is made.
  • British naval air raid on blast furnaces of Brebach.
  • German attack at Verdun. Enemy launches big, attack on a two-mile front on northern defences between Bezonvaux and the Fosses wood, and gains foothold in trenches north of Caurières Wood.
  • British line extended south of Somme to Roye.

MAR. 5th, 1917

  • French eject enemy from part of line he occupied to the north of Caurières Wood.
  • Further British advance north-west of Irles and north of Puisieux-au-Mont.
  • Russians in Persia occupy Kangaver.
  • Advance on Bagdad. - British cavalry engage a Turkish rear-guard at Lajj (nine miles south-east of Ctesiphon).
  • Turkish forces abandon strong position in neighbourhood of Sheikh Nuran, west of Shalal, near Sinai border, owing to advanced force of British troops.

MAR. 6th, 1917

  • British raid enemy trenches east of Bouchavesncs.
  • British cavalry fourteen miles from Bagdad.
  • Great aerial activity on western front. Our airmen perform successful reconnaissance, photography, and. artillery work, and obtain valuable information. Many bombs dropped on enemy's billets and dumps. In aerial fighting three hostile machines brought down, four British machines brought down, and seven missing.

MAR. 7th, 1917

  • French raiding activity between the Oise and the Aisne, and in the Argonne.
  • British and Indian forces cross the Diyala in Mesopotamia.
  • Russians occupy Bijar and Sihna, near the Persian frontier.

MAR. 8th, 1917

  • British line advanced on either side of the Ancre valley.
  • French Victory in Champagne. – Attacking after intense artillery preparation, our ally recaptures almost whole of salient between Butte du Mesnil and Maisons de Champagne captured by enemy on February 15th.
  • Count Zeppelin dies from inflammation of lungs.
  • Interim report of Dardanelles Commission published.
  • Rumanians lose positions between the Trotus and the Uzul valleys.
  • Russians occupy Bisitun (Persia).
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant George Edward CATES, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant George Edward Cates, late Rifle Brigade. For most conspicuous bravery and self-sacrifice. On 8th March 1917 east of Bouchavesnes, France when engaged with some other men in deepening a captured trench this officer struck with his spade a buried bomb, which immediately started to burn. Second Lieutenant Cates, in order to save the lives of his comrades, placed his foot on the bomb, which immediately exploded. He showed the most conspicuous gallantry and devotion to duty in performing the act which cost him his life, but saved the lives of others.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 18105 Jack WHITE, (Royal Lancaster Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 18105 Private Jack White, Royal Lancaster Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and resource. On 7th/8th March 1917 on the Dialah River, Mespotamia, Private White, during an attempt to cross a river saw the two Pontoons ahead of him come under heavy machine-gun fire, with disastrous results. When his own Pontoon had reached mid-stream, with every man except himself either dead or wounded, finding that he was unable to control the Pontoon, Private White promptly tied a telephone wire to the Pontoon, jumped overboard, and towed it to the shore, thereby saving an officer's life and bringing to land the rifles and equipment of the other men in the boat, who were either dead or dying

MAR. 9th, 1917

  • South of Biaches, British raid enemy's front line.
  • March on Bagdad. During the night the passage of the Diala is forced, and the British advance four miles towards Bagdad, driving enemy from his second position on the right bank.

MAR. 10th 1917

  • British troops, in spite of blinding dust-storms and a violent gale, press on to Bagdad and force the Turkish back to within three miles of the city.
  • British capture Irles.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Oswald Austin REID, King's (Liverpool Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Oswald Austin Reid, 2nd Battalion, Liverpool Regiment, attached 6th Battalion, The Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery in the face of desperate circumstances between 8th – 10th March 1917 at the Dialah River, Mesopotamia. By his dauntless courage and gallant leadership he was able to consolidate a small post with the advanced troops, on the opposite side of a river to the main body, after his line of communications had been cut by the sinking of the pontoons. He maintained this position for thirty hours against constant attacks by bombs, machine-gun and shell fire, with the full knowledge that repeated attempts at relief had failed, and that his ammunition was all but exhausted. It was greatly due to his tenacity that the passage of the river was effected on the following night. During the operations he was wounded.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant Archibald Bisset SMITH, R.N.R awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Lieutenant Archibald Bisset Smith, Royal Naval Reserve. On 10th March 1917 in the Atlantic, the SS Otaki, whose armament consisted of one 4.7-inch gun, commanded by Lieutenant Smith, sighted a German raider who was armed with four 5.9-inch, one 4.1-inch and two 22-pounder guns. The raider called on Otaki to stop, but on Lieutenant Smith refusing to do so, a duel ensued, during which Otaki secured a number of hits and caused considerable damage, but she herself sustained much damage and was on fire. Lieutenant Smith therefore ordered his crew to abandon ship, but he himself stayed on board and went down with his ship.

MAR. 11th, 1917

  • Fall of Bagdad to Sir Stanley Maude - British and Indian forces capture and occupy Baghdad.

MAR. 12th, 1917

  • French progress in Eastern Champagne on right of the ground they recaptured between the Butte du Mesnil and Maisons de Champagne; 100 prisoner3 taken.
  • General Smuts arrives in London for the Imperial War Conference.
  • United States announces it will arm all of its merchant vessels in the war zone.
  • Revolution in Russia. - The Army refuses to deal with food rioters in Petrograd, and the Duma is prorogued. Later, headed by M. Rodzianko, calls upon the Tsar for a representative Government; several regiments join the Parliamentary cause; the Cabinet resigns, and the Duma, failing a reply from the Tsar, elects a Provisional Government; arrest of ex-Ministers ordered.

MAR. 13th, 1917

  • Advance on Bapaume. - Enemy abandons his main defensive system along Bapaume ridge on front of three and a half miles. British drive back his real-guards in this area to a depth of a mile, and occupy Grevillers and Loupart Wood. Further progress is made east and north-east of Gommecourt.
  • French successfully hold Hill 185; in Champagne, against enemy counter-attacks.
  • Sir Stanley Maude reports British advanced detachments reach it point thirty miles upstream from Bagdad.
  • British advance in the Balkans. Line south-west of Doiran advanced 1,000 yards on a front of 3,500 yards.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 13909 Christopher Augustus COX, Bedfordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No 13909 Private Christopher Cox, Bedfordshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and continuous devotion to duty when acting as a stretcher-bearer. On 13th March 1917 at Achiet-le-Grand, France during the attack of his battalion the front wave was checked by the severity of the enemy artillery and machine-gun fire, and the whole line had to take cover in shell holes to avoid annihilation. Private Cox, utterly regardless of personal safety, went out over fire-swept ground, and single-handed rescued four men. Having collected the wounded of his own battalion, he then assisted to bring in the wounded of an adjoining battalion. On the two subsequent days he carried out similar rescue work with the same disregard of his own safety. He has on all occasions displayed the same high example of unselfishness and valour.

MAR. 14th, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports British line advanced on a front of over one and a half miles south-west and west of Bapaume.
  • Germans begin planned withdrawal from Somme front, going eastward to the prepared Hindenburg Line.
  • China breaks with Germany by severing diplomatic relations and taking possession of the German Merchantmen at Shanghai.
  • Russian occupation of Kermanshah announced.
  • General Lyautey, French Minister of War, resigns.

MAR. 15th, 1917

  • On right of the Somme front, from the south of St. Pierre Vaast Wood to north of Saillisel, British occupy enemy’s trenches over a distance of two and a half miles.
  • Provisional Government in Russia. - The Tsar abdicates the throne and renounces all rights of succession on behalf of his son. Grand Duke Michael Alexandrovitch appointed Regent, pending confirmation of nation with regard to his appointment as Tsar. National Government set up, with M. Rodziankow, President of Duma, as leader and Prince Lvoff, Prime Minister; M. Miliukoff, Foreign Minister; M. Gutchkoff, War Minister.
  • British forces reported thirty-five miles to north-east of Bagdad; part of Bakuba, on Bagdad-Teheran road, occupied.
  • Torpedo-boat destroyer of an old type mined in Channel; one man killed, twenty-eight missing.

MAR. 16th, 1917

  • Zeppelin Raid on South-Eastern Counties.
  • Advance on the Somme. - British hold nearly whole of St. Pierre Vaast Wood and enemy's trenches 1,000 yards to south, and 2,000 yards to the north of it.
  • Action between German raider Leopard and H.M.S. Achilles and Armed Boarding Steamer S.S. Dundee: Leopard sunk.
  • Aeroplane raid on Kent; no casualties

MAR. 17th, 1917

  • Fall of Bapaume to the British. North of the Somme, in addition to the town of Bapaume, British are in possession of Le Transloy, Biefvillers, Bihucourt, Achict-Ie-Grand, and other villages.
  • French advance two and a half miles on twelve-and-a-half-mile front between the Avre and the Oise. Roye and Lassigny occupied.
  • Russians occupy Kerind.
  • Zeppelin L39 brought clown at Compiegne.
  • Resignation of M. Briand, the French Premier.
  • General Maude's troops occupy Bahriz.

MAR. 18th, 1917

  • Great German Retreat. - From Monchy, south-west of Arras, to north of Soissons, a point of seventy miles, German armies are sweeping back towards the Belgian frontier. British occupy Nesle, Chaulnes, and Péronne, and during the past twenty-four hours advance several miles to a depth up to ten miles in places. During this period in addition to the three towns mentioned, over sixty villages gained. To the south the French occupy the whole of the ground comprised between their old lines and the Roye-Noyon road from Damery to the Lagny Height; Noyon taken.
  • Russians report occupation of Van.
  • Destroyer Raid on Kent. - Enemy torpedo-boat destroyers fire a number of shells at Ramsgate; no casualties, and material damage slight. At the same time a British destroyer is torpedoed and sunk east of Dover; a second destroyer torpedoed but not seriously damaged.
  • French capture Hill 1,248, north of Monastir.

MAR. 19th, 1917

  • Rapid German Retreat. - British continue pursuit of the enemy, the cavalry and advanced guards driving back his rear guards. The ground gained extends to a depth of from two to eight miles, and forty more villages taken.
  • The French advance north-east of the Roye-Noyon line towards St. Quentin, and capture Guiscard, Chauny, and Ham.
  • Russians report their occupation of Harunabad.
  • M. Ribot new French Premier.
  • French Dreadnought Danton torpedoed in Mediterranean; 296 drowned.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 24866 Albert WHITE, South Wales Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 24866 Serjeant Albert White, late South Wales Borderers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 19th May 1917 at Monchy-le-Preux, France, realizing during an attack that one of the enemy's machine-guns, which had previously been located, would probably hold up the whole advance of his Company, Serjeant White, without the slightest hesitation and regardless of all personal danger, dashed ahead of his Company to capture the gun. When within a few yards of the gun he fell riddled with bullets, having thus willingly sacrificed his life in order that he might secure the success of the operations and the welfare of his comrades.

MAR. 20th, 1917

  • British occupy fourteen more villages. Sir Douglas Haig defines the British line as having passed Canizy, Estrées-en-Chaussée, Nurlu, Velu, and St. Leger.
  • British hospital ship Asturias torpedoed; 92 casualties.
  • First Meeting of the Imperial War Cabinet held in London.
  • French carry the important railway junction of Jussy, east of Ham.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Frank Hurbert McNAMARA, Australian Flying Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Frank Hubert McNamara, No. 67 Australian Squadron, Royal Flying Corps. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during an aerial bomb attack upon a hostile construction train, when one of our pilots was forced to land behind the enemy's lines. Lieutenant McNamara, observing this pilot's predicament and the fact that hostile cavalry were approaching, descended to his rescue. He did this under heavy rifle fire and in spite of the fact that he himself had been severely wounded in the thigh. He landed about 200 yards from the damaged machine, the pilot of which climbed on to Lieutenant McNamara's machine, and an attempt was made to rise. Owing, however, to his disabled leg, Lieutenant McNamara was unable to keep his machine straight, and it turned over. The two officers, having extricated themselves, immediately set fire to the machine and made their way across to the damaged machine, which they succeeded in starting. Finally Lieutenant McNamara, although weak from loss of blood, flew this machine back to the aerodrome, a distance of seventy miles, and thus completed his comrade's rescue.

MAR. 21st, 1917

  • British continue to advance rapidly, reaching points ten miles to the east of the Somme.
  • French force the passage of the Somme Canal to the east of Ham, and advance to the north of Tergnier.
  • Ex-Tsar Nicholas placed under arrest.
  • Preliminary meeting of the Imperial War Conference held in London.

MAR. 22nd, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports enemy's resistance is increasing along the front from west of St. Quentin to south of Arras.
  • Russian provisional government is recognised by Britain, France, Italy, USA, Rumania and Switzerland.
  • French extend their positions east of St. Quentin Canal, where enemy attempts violent counter-attacks.

MAR. 23rd, 1917

  • Big French Advance. - French attack between the Somme and the Oise throws enemy back to a distance of between one and a quarter mile to two and a half miles to north and east of St. Quentin Canal, and push forward north-east of Tergnier.

MAR. 24th, 1917

  • British forces begin offensive in Palestine.
  • Admiralty announces 111,000 tons of British shipping sunk by raider Moewe.
  • British occupy Roisel and progress south-west and west of Ecoust St. Mein.
  • French capture western bank of the Oise between the suburbs of La Fere and north of Vandeuil.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 20765 John Thomas DAVIES, South Lancashire Regiment (The Prince of Wales's Volunteers) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No 20765 Corporal John Thomas Davies, South Lancashire Regiment (St Helens). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire. On 24 March 1918 near Eppeville, France, when his company – outflanked on both sides – received orders to withdraw, Corporal Davies knew that the only line of withdrawal lay through a deep stream lined with a belt of barbed wire, and that it was imperative to hold up the enemy as long as possible. He mounted the parapet, fully exposing himself, in order to get a more effective field of fire, and kept his Lewis gun in action to the last, causing the enemy many casualties and checking their advance. By his very great devotion to duty he enabled part of his company to get across the river, which they would otherwise have been unable to do, thus undoubtedly saving the lives of many of his comrades. When last seen this gallant Non-commissioned Officer was still firing his gun, with the enemy close on the top of him, and was in all probability killed at his gun.

MAR. 25th, 1917

  • French Threat to St. Quentin. - Between the Somme and the Oise French troops drive enemy beyond important position of Castres-Essigny-le-Grand-Hill 121 (latter one mile south of St. Quentin).

MAR. 26th, 1917

  • British capture village of Lagnicourt, north of the Bapaume-Cambrai road.
  • French occupy Folembray and La Feuillee, south of the Oise, and by a brilliant night attack capture Coucy-le-Château.
  • Victory near Gaza. - General Murray's forces defeat 20,000 Turkish five miles south of Gaza, taking 900 prisoners, including Turkish commander and his Staff.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Percy Herbert CHERRY, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant (temporary Captain) Percy Herbert Cherry, M.C., late Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery, determination and leadership when in command of a company detailed to storm and clear a village. On 26th March 1917 at Lagnicourt, France, after all the officers of his company had become casualties he carried on with care and determination, in the face of fierce opposition, and cleared the village of the enemy. He sent frequent reports of progress made, and when held up for some time by an enemy strong point he organised machine-gun and bomb parties and captured the position. His leadership, coolness and bravery set a wonderful example to his men. Having cleared the village, he took charge of the situation and beat off the most resolute and heavy counter-attacks made by the enemy. Wounded about 6.30 a.m., he refused to leave his post, and there remained, encouraging all to hold out at all costs, until, about 4.30 p.m., this very gallant officer was killed by an enemy shell.

MAR. 27th, 1917

  • French occupy all the lower Forest of Coucy, and villages of Petit Barisis, Verneuil, and Coucy-Ia-Ville.
  • British cavalry drive enemy from Longavesnes, Lieramont, and Equancourt, and our troops occupy these villages.
  • Admiralty reports destroyer mined in Channel; four officers and seventeen men saved. Another sunk after being in collision with a steamer.

MAR. 28th, 1917

  • British capture Villers-Faucon and Saulcourt.

MAR. 29th, 1917

  • British capture Neuville-Bourjonval.

MAR. 30th, 1917

  • British occupy Ruyaulcourt, Sorel-Ie-Grand, and Fins. Later in day Heudicourt is captured, and possession gained of Marteville, Vermand, Soyecourt, and Ste. Emilie.
  • British hospital ship H.M.H.S. Gloucester Castle torpedoed between Le Havre and Southampton but is towed ashore.
  • Russian provisional government acknowledges independence of Poland.

MAR. 31st, 1917

  • British capture Jeancourt, Hervilly, and Herbecourt.
  • Announced British forces in neighbourhood of Kizil Robat, thirty miles from Khanikin, and seventy miles from Russians.
  • British occupy Deli Abbas, sixty miles north-cast of Bagdad.

APRIL 1917

APRIL 1st, 1917

  • British take Savy, four miles west of St. Quentin; also, Savy Wood.

APRIL 2nd, 1917

  • Closing in on St. Quentin. - Francilly-Selency, Selency, and Holnon carried by British, who are within two miles of St. Quentin. Attacking on front between Bapaume-Cambrai road and Arras, our troops capture Croisilles and other German advanced positions.
  • President Wilson asks Congress to declare that a state of war exists with Germany.
  • Russian and British advance detachments establish touch in Mesopotamia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 2389 Jorgen Christian JENSEN, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2389 Private Jørgen Christian Jensen, 50th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery and initiative, on 2nd April 1917 at Noreuil, France, when, with five comrades, he attacked a barricade behind which were about 45 of the enemy and a machine-gun. One of his party shot the gunner, and Private Jensen, single-handed, rushed the post and threw in a bomb. He had still a bomb in one hand, but taking another from his pocket with the other hand he drew the pin with his teeth, and by threatening the enemy with two bombs and by telling them that they were surrounded, he induced them to surrender. Private Jensen then sent one of his prisoners to order a neighbouring enemy party to surrender, which they did. This latter party were then fired on in ignorance of their surrender by another party of our troops; whereupon Private Jensen, utterly regardless of personal danger, stood on the barricade, waved his helmet, caused firing to cease, and sent his prisoners back to our lines. Private Jensen's conduct throughout was marked by extraordinary bravery and determination.

APRIL 3rd, 1917

  • French carry villages of Dallon, Giffecourt, and Cerizy.
  • Torpedo boat H.M.S Jason sunk by mine off coast of Scotland
  • Russian Reverse on Stokhod. - The Germans win the bridge-head at Tobol, on the Stokhod, inflict severe losses on Russians, and take many prisoners.

APRIL 4th, 1917

  • British capture Metz-en-Couture.
  • French patrols enter suburbs of St. Quentin.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Major Frederick William LUMSDEN, Royal Marine Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Major Frederick William Lumsden, D.S.O., Royal Marine Artillery. For most conspicuous bravery, determination and devotion to duty on 3rd/4th April 1917 at Francilly, France. Six enemy field guns having been captured, it was necessary to leave them in dug-in positions, 300 yards in advance of the position held by our troops. The enemy kept the captured guns under heavy fire. Major Lumsden undertook the duty of bringing the guns into our lines. In order to effect this, he personally led four artillery teams and a party of infantry through the hostile barrage. As one of these teams sustained casualties, he left the remaining teams in a covered position, and, through very heavy rifle fire, machine-gun and shrapnel fire, led the infantry to the guns. By force of example and inspiring energy he succeeded in sending back two teams with guns, going through the barrage with the teams of the third gun. He then returned to the guns to await further teams, and these he succeeded in attaching to two of the three remaining guns, despite rifle fire, which had become intense at short range, and removed the guns to safety. By this time the enemy, in considerable strength, had driven through the infantry covering points, and blown up the breach of the remaining gun. Major Lumsden then returned, drove off the enemy, attached the gun to a team and got it away.

APRIL 5th, 1917

  • British capture Ronssoy and Basse-Boulogne and Lempire, and progress beyond Metz-en-Couture.
  • German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line completed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 645112 William GOSLING, Royal Field Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 645112 Serjeant William Gosling, Royal Field Artillery. For most conspicuous bravery when in charge of a heavy trench mortar. On 5 April 1917 near Arras, France, owing to a faulty cartridge the bomb, after discharge, fell 10 yards from the mortar. Serjeant Gosling sprang out, lifted the nose of the bomb, which had sunk into the ground, unscrewed the fuze and threw it on the ground, where it immediately exploded. This very gallant and prompt action undoubtedly saved the lives of the whole detachment.

APRIL 6th, 1917

  • United States at War with Germany - Cuba and Panama follow suit on 7th April.
  • Great Air Battles. - During the days and nights of April 5th, 6th, British airmen carry out important work, which included the taking of 1,700 photographs, co-operation with artillery, and made 17 successful raids on aerodromes, munition depots, and railways. In the aerial contests 28 British machines reported missing. The enemy's losses are 15 machines destroyed, and 31 driven down damaged.

APRIL 7th, 1917

  • Seaplanes raid Zeebrugge Mole during the night, while off Zeebrugge two German destroyers are torpedoed.

APRIL 8th, 1917

  • British progress in neighbourhood of Bapaume-Cambrai road on a front of 3,000 yards north of Louverval.
  • Cuba at war with Germany.

APRIL 9th, 1917

  • Great British Advance. – (Battles of Arras 1917) British launch a battle on a vast scale from Lens to St. Quentin. In the direction of Cambrai British troops storm Hermies and Boursies; in the direction of St. Quentin they capture Fresnoy-Ie-Petit.
  • Vimy Ridge Captured. – (Battle of Vimy Ridge) From Henin-sur-Cojeul to southern outskirts of Givenchy-en-Gohelle, to a depth of from two to three miles, enemy's defences are stormed. The forward defences on this front, including the Vimy Ridge, which is carried by Canadian troops, are captured. More than 9,000 prisoners taken and over 40 guns.
  • Austria severs diplomatic relations with the United States.
  • Brazil breaks with Germany.
  • British hospital ship H.M.H.S Salta mined in Channel; 52 persons missing.
  • British defeat Turkish in Deltawa district, and drive them back to Deli Abbas.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Thain Wendell MacDOWELL, Eastern Ontario Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Thain Wendell MacDowell, D.S.O., Canadian Infantry Battalion. For most conspicuous bravery and indomitable resolution, during the period 9th – 13th April 1917 at Vimy Ridge, France, in face of heavy machine-gun and shell fire. By his initiative and courage this officer, with the assistance of two runners, was enabled, in the face of great difficulties, to capture two machine-guns, besides two officers and seventy-five men. Although wounded in the hand, he continued for five days to hold the position gained, in spite of heavy shell fire, until eventually relieved by his battalion. By his bravery and prompt action he undoubtedly succeeded in rounding up a very strong enemy machine post.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 2902 John Woods WHITTLE, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2902 Serjeant John Woods Whittle, 12th Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on two occasions. On 9th April 1917, near Boursies, France, when in command of a platoon the enemy, under cover of an intense artillery barrage, attacked the small trench he was holding. Owing to weight of numbers the enemy succeeded in entering the trench, and it was owing to Serjeant Whittle personally collecting all available men and charging the enemy that the position was regained. On a second occasion when the enemy broke through the left of our line Serjeant Whittle's own splendid example was the means of keeping the men well in hand. His platoon were suffering heavy casualties and the enemy endeavoured to bring up a machine-gun to enfilade the position. Grasping the situation he rushed alone across the fire-swept ground and attacked the hostile gun crew with bombs before the gun could be got into action. He succeeded in killing the whole crew and in bringing back the machine-gun to our position.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 22040 Thomas BRYAN, Northumberland Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 22040 Lance-Corporal Thomas Bryan, 25th (Service) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery during an attack. On 9th April 1917 near Arras, France, although wounded, this Non-commissioned Officer went forward alone, with a view to silencing a machine-gun which was inflicting much damage. He worked up most skilfully along a communication trench, approached the gun from behind, disabled it and killed two of the team as they were abandoning the gun. As this machine-gun had been a serious obstacle in the advance to the second objective, the results obtained by Lance-Corporal Bryan's gallant action were very far-reaching.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 5190 Harry CATOR, East Surrey Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 5190 Serjeant Harry Cator, 7th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 9th April 1917 near Arras, France, whilst consolidating the first line captured system his platoon suffered severe casualties from hostile machine-gun and rifle fire. In full view of the enemy and under heavy fire Serjeant Cator with one man advanced across the open to attack the hostile machine-gun. The man accompanying him was killed after going a short distance, but Serjeant Cator continued on, and picking up a Lewis gun and some drums on his way, succeeded in reaching the northern end of the hostile trench. Meanwhile, one of our bombing parties was seen to be held up by a machine-gun. Serjeant Cator took up a position from which he sighted his gun and killed the entire team and the officer, whose papers he brought in. He continued to hold that end of the trench with the Lewis gun with such effect that the bombing squad was enabled to work along, the result being that 100 prisoners and five machine-guns were captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 4195 Thomas James Bede KENNY, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 4195 Private Thomas James Bede Kenny, 2nd Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, on 9th April 1917 at Hermies, France, when his platoon was held up by an enemy strong point, and severe casualties prevented progress. Private Kenny, under very heavy fire at close range, dashed alone towards the enemy's position, killed one man in advance of the strong point who endeavoured to bar his way. He then bombed the position, captured the gun crew, all of whom he had wounded, killed an officer who showed fight, and seized the gun. Private Kenny's gallant action enabled his platoon to occupy the position, which was of great local importance.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 427586 William Johnstone MILNE, Canadian Expeditionary Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 427586 Private William Johnstone Milne, late 16th Battalion, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in attack. On 9th April 1917 near Thelus, France, on approaching the first objective Private Milne observed an enemy machine-gun firing on our advancing troops. Crawling on hands and knees, he succeeded in reaching the gun, killing the crew with bombs, and capturing the gun. On the line re-forming, he again located a machine-gun in the support line, and stalking this second gun as he had done the first, he succeeded in putting the crew out of action and capturing the gun. His wonderful bravery and resource on these two occasions undoubtedly saved the lives of many of his comrades. Private Milne was killed shortly after capturing the second gun.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Serjeant 53730 Ellis Welwood SIFTON, Canadian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 53730 Lance-Serjeant Ellis Welwood Sifton, late 18th Battalion, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 9th April 1917 at Neuville-St-Vaast, France, during the attack in enemy trenches Serjeant Sifton's company was held up by machine-gun fire which inflicted many casualties. Having located the gun he charged it single-handed, killing all the crew. A small enemy party advanced down the trench, but he succeeded in keeping these off till our men had gained the position. In carrying out this gallant act he was killed, but his conspicuous valour undoubtedly saved many lives and contributed largely to the success of the operation.

APRIL 10th, 1917

  • Battle of Arras. - British operations energetically pursued, outskirts of Monchy-le-Preux (five miles east of Arras) reached. In direction of Cambrai British line advanced north of Lonverval.
  • British hospital ship H.M.H.S. Salta mined off Le Havre.
  • Bulgaria severs diplomatic relations with U.S.A.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 808887 John George PATTISON, Canadian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - No. 808887 Private John George Pattison, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery in attack. On 10 April 1917 at Vimy Ridge, France, when the advance of our troops was held up by an enemy machine-gun, which was inflicting severe casualties, Private Pattison, with utter disregard of his own safety, sprang forward and, jumping from shell-hole to shell-hole, reached cover within 30 yards of the enemy gun. From this point, in face of heavy fire he hurled bombs, killing and wounding some of the crew, then rushed forward, overcoming and bayonetting the surviving five gunners. His valour and initiative undoubtedly saved the situation and made possible the further advance to the objective.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 30144 Horace WALLER, King’s Own Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 30144 Private Horace Waller, late 10th (Service) Battalion, King's Own Yorkshire Light infantry. For most conspicuous bravery on 10th April 1917 south of Heninel, France, when with a bombing section forming a block in the enemy line. A very violent counter-attack was made by the enemy on this post, and although five of the garrison were killed, Private Waller continued for more than an hour to throw bombs, and finally repulsed the attack. In the evening the enemy again counter-attacked the post, and all the garrison became casualties except Private Waller, who, although wounded later, continued to throw bombs for another half an hour until he was killed. Throughout these attacks he showed the utmost valour, and it was due to his determination that the attacks on this important post were repulsed.

APRIL 11th, 1917

  • Capture of Monchy-le-Preux and La Bergere.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 51507 Harold Sandford MUGFORD, Machine Gun Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 51507 Lance-Corporal Harold Mugford, Machine Gun Corps (East Ham). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on 11th April 1917 at Monchy-le-Preux, France, when under intense shell and machine-gun fire, Lance-Corporal Mugford succeeded in getting his machine-gun into a forward and very exposed position. From this point he was able to deal most effectively with the enemy, who were massing for counter-attack. His No. 2 was killed almost immediately, and at the same moment he himself was severely wounded. He was then ordered to a new position, and told to go to a dressing-station as soon as the position was occupied. He refused to go to the dressing-station, but continued on duty with his gun, inflicting severe loss on the enemy. Soon after he was again wounded, a shell breaking both of his legs. He still remained with his gun, begging his comrades to leave him and take cover. Shortly afterwards this non-commissioned officer was removed to the dressing-station, where he was again wounded in the arm. The valour and initiative displayed by Lance-Corporal Mugford was instrumental in breaking up the impending counter-attack of the enemy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Donald MacKINTOSH, Seaforth Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Donald Mackintosh, late 3rd Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery and resolution in the face of intense machine-gun fire. On 11th April 1917 north of Fampoux, France, he was shot through the right leg, but though crippled he continued to lead his men and captured the trench. In the captured trench Lieutenant Mackintosh collected men of another company who had lost their leader, and drove back a counter-attack. He was again wounded, and although unable to stand, he continued, nevertheless, to control the situation. With only fifteen men left, he ordered his party to be ready to advance to the final objective, and with great difficulty got out of the trench and encouraged his men to advance. He was again wounded and fell. The gallantry and devotion to duty of this officer were beyond all praise.

APRIL, 12th, 1917

  • Capture of Wancourt, Heninel, Gauche Wooel, Gouzeducourt Village and Wood.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 8916 John CUNNINGHAM, Leinster Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8916 Corporal John Cunningham, late 2nd Battalion, Leinster Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, on 12th April 1917 at Bois-en-Hache, near Barlin, France, when in command of a Lewis Gun Section on the most exposed flank of the attack. His section came under heavy enfilade fire and suffered severely. Although wounded, he succeeded almost alone in reaching his objective with his gun, which he got into action in spite of much opposition. When counter-attacked by a party of twenty of the enemy, he exhausted his ammunition against them, then, standing in full view, he commenced throwing bombs. He was wounded again, and fell, but picked himself up and continued to fight single-handed with the enemy until his bombs were exhausted. He then made his way back to our lines with a fractured arm and other wounds. There is little doubt that the superb courage of this Non-commissioned Officer cleared up a most critical situation on the left flank of the attack. Corporal Cunningham died in hospital from the effects of his wounds.

APRIL 13th, 1917

  • Continued British advance. Bailleul, Vimy, Petit Vimy, Givenchy-en-Gohelle, Angres and Wancourt Tower captured. North-west of St. Quentin the village of Fayet is captured; 13,000 prisoners and 160 guns taken since April 9th.
  • Bolivia breaks with Germany.

APRIL 14th, 1917

  • Closing in on Lens. - The town of Lievin, south-west of and adjoining Lens, captured by the British, and Cite St. Piene, north-west of Lens, seized. Farther south, Gricourt (three miles north-west of St. Quentin) is carried.
  • Allied air raid on Freiburg as reprisal for sinking of hospital ships.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 1836 John William ORMSBY, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1836 Serjeant John William Ormsby, 2nd Battalion, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, on 14th April 1917 at Fayet, France, during operations which culminated in the capture of an important position. Acting as Company Serjeant-Major he showed throughout the attack absolute indifference to the heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, and set a fine example. After clearing the village he pushed on and drove out many snipers from localities further forward. When the only surviving officer was wounded he took command of the company and led them forward under heavy fire for 400 yards to a new position. He organised his new position with great skill and held his line with determination until relieved of his command. His conduct throughout was admirable and inspired confidence in every man under his command.

APRIL 15th, 1917

  • Germans gain temporary success at Lagnicourt.
  • British transport S.S Arcadian, with troops on board, torpedoed in Eastern Mediterranean; 19 officers and 260 men missing.
  • British transport S.S Cameronia, with troops on board, torpedoed in Eastern Mediterranean; 140 persons missing.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain James Ernest NEWLAND, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain James Ernest Newland, Infantry Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, in the face of heavy odds, on three separate occasions between 7th/9th April 1917 at Bapaume, Cambrai Road, West of Boursies and on 15th April 1917 north-east of Lagnicourt, France. On the first occasion he organised the attack by his company on a most important objective, and led personally, under heavy fire, a bombing attack. He then rallied his company, which had suffered heavy casualties, and he was one of the first to reach the objective. On the following night his company, holding the captured position, was heavily counter-attacked. By his personal exertion, utter disregard of fire, and judicious use of reserves, he succeeded in dispersing the enemy and regaining the position. On a subsequent occasion, when the company on his left was overpowered and his own company attacked from the rear, he drove off a combined attack which had developed from these directions. These attacks were renewed three of four times, and it was Captain Newland's tenacity and disregard for his own safety that encouraged the men to hold out. The stand made by this officer was of the greatest importance, and produced far-reaching results.

APRIL 16th, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports capture of large booty at Lievin and on the Sonehez River.
  • Great French Offensive. - Attacking on a twenty-five-mile front between Soissons and Rheims, the French capture defensive line between Soissons and Craonne, enemy's second line between Craonne and Juvincourt, and reach the Aisne Canal, taking 10,000 prisoners.

APRIL 17th, 1917

  • Hospital ships H.M.H.S Donegal and H.M.H.S Lanfranc torpedoed while transporting wounded from France. From Donegal, 29 men and 12 of crew missing. Of Lanfranc's complement, 34 drowned, including 15 Germans; 152 wounded German prisoners rescued.
  • Battle of the Aisne. - French offensive continues, the fighting front extended to a point beyond Auberive, which village is captured; over 2,500 prisoners taken on this new front.
  • Japanese flotillas join Allied forces in the Mediterranean.
  • American destroyer attacked and mined by German submarine 100 miles south of New York.
  • British advance north of the Wadi Gaza, and capture Turkish advanced positions on a front of six miles and a half.

APRIL 18th, 1917

  • British progress south-east and east of Epehy, and capture Villers-Guislan.
  • Great French Gains. - Our allies drive deeply into enemy lines on three sides of the Vregny plateau, take Chavonne and Chivy, and advance as far as Braye-en-Laonnais. In three days’, battle on Aisne and in Champagne they take over 17,000 prisoners and 75 guns.
  • British drive Turkish from positions covering Istabulat Station, and take 1,240 prisoners.

APRIL 19th, 1917

  • Continued French offensive along the Aisne and in Champagne.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 40989 Ernest SYKES, Northumberland Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 40989 Private Ernest Sykes, 27th (Service) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, on 19th April 1917 near Arras, France, when his battalion in attack was held up about 350 yards in advance of our lines by intense fire from front and flank, and suffered heavy casualties. Private Sykes, despite this heavy fire, went forward and brought back four wounded – he made a fifth journey and remained out under conditions which appeared to be certain death, until he had bandaged all those who were too badly wounded to be moved. These gallant actions, performed under incessant machine-gun and rifle fire, showed an utter contempt of danger.

APRIL 20th, 1917

  • French occupy Sancy, on the Vregny plateau, and in Champagne seize important points near Moron-Villiers.
  • British capture Gonnelieu.
  • Mr. Balfour, who is on special mission to United States, arrives at Halifax.
  • King and Queen attend solemn service at St. Paul's Cathedral on occasion of entry of United States into the war.
  • Destroyer Fight in Channel. - Five German destroyers attempt a raid on Dover by night. At least two of them, possibly three, are sunk by two vessels of Dover patrol Swift and Broke. On the same night German destroyers fire some shells on Calais.
  • Turkey severs diplomatic relations with U.S.A.

APRIL 21st, 1917

  • British gain ground along north bank of the Scarpe, east of Fampoux.
  • British carry Istabulat, the last station before Samarra, on Bagdad Railway.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 871 Charles MELVIN, Black Watch (Royal Highlanders) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 871 Private Charles Melvin, Royal Highlanders (Kirriemuir). For most conspicuous bravery, coolness and resource in action on 21st April 1917 at Istabulat, Mesopotamia. Private Melvin's company had advanced to within fifty yards of the front-line trench of a redoubt, where owing to the intensity of the enemy's fire, the men were oblige to lie down and wait for reinforcements. Private Melvin, however, rushed on by himself, over ground swept from end to end by rifle and machine-gun fire. On reaching the enemy trench, he halted and fired two or three shots into it, killing one or two of the enemy, but as others in the trench continued to fire at him, he jumped into it, and attacked them with his bayonet in his hand, as, owing to his rifle being damaged, it was not “fixed.” On being attacked in this resolute manner most of the enemy fled to their second line, but not before Private Melvin had killed two more and succeeded in disarming eight unwounded and one wounded. Private Melvin bound up the wounds of the wounded man, and then driving his eight unwounded prisoners before him, and supporting the wounded one, he hustled them out of the trench, marched them in and delivered them over to an officer. He then provided himself with a load of ammunition and returned to the firing line where he reported himself to his platoon serjeant. All this was done, not only under intense rifle and machine-gun fire, but the whole way back Private Melvin and his party were exposed to a very heavy artillery barrage fire. Throughout the day Private Melvin greatly inspired those near him with confidence and courage.

APRIL 22nd, 1917

  • British progress east of Havrincourt Wood, and carry southern portion of Trescault village (east of the wood).
  • Sharp fighting takes place south-east of Loos.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant John Reginald Noble GRAHAM, Argyll And Sutherland Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant John Reginald Noble Graham, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, attached Machine Gun Corps. For most conspicuous bravery, coolness and resource when in command of a Machine Gun Section. Lieutenant Graham accompanied his guns across open ground, under very heavy rifle and machine-gun fire, and when his men became casualties, he assisted in carrying the ammunition. Although twice wounded he continued during the advance to control his guns and was able, with one gun, to open an accurate fire on the enemy, who were massing for a counter-attack. This gun was put out of action by the enemy's rifle fire, and he was again wounded. The advancing enemy forced him to retire, but before doing so he further disabled his gun, rendering it useless. He then brought a Lewis gun into action with excellent effect till all the ammunition was expended. He was again severely wounded, and forced through loss of blood to retire. His valour and skilful handling of his guns held up a strong counter-attack which threatened to roll up the left flank of the Brigade, and thus averted what might have been a very critical situation.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Serjeant Z.1030 Joseph Edward WOODALL, Rifle Brigade awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. Z.1030 Corporal (Lance-Serjeant) Joseph Edward Woodall, Rifle Brigade (Salford). For most conspicuous bravery and fine leadership during an attack. On 22nd April 1918 at La Pannerie, France, Serjeant Woodall was in command of a platoon which, during the advance, was held up by a machine-gun. On his own initiative he rushed forward and single-handed, captured the gun and eight men. After the objective had been gained, heavy fire was encountered from a farmhouse some 200 yards in front. Serjeant Woodall collected ten men and, with great dash and gallantry, rushed the farm and took thirty prisoners. Shortly afterwards, when the officer in charge was killed, he took entire command, reorganised the two platoons, and disposed them most skilfully. Throughout the day, in spite of intense shelling and machine-gun fire, this gallant Non-commissioned Officer was constantly on the move, encouraging the men and finding out and sending back invaluable information. The example set by Serjeant Woodall was simply magnificent, and had a marked effect on the troops. The success of the operation on this portion of the front is attributed almost entirely to his coolness, courage and utter disregard for his own personal safety.

APRIL 23rd, 1917

  • Battle of Arras Renewed. (Second Battle of the Scarpe 1917) - Sir Douglas Haig attacks on either side of the River Scarpe, east of Arras. To the north of the Scarpe our troops take Gavrelle, and, to south of the river, Guemappe. Prisoners exceed 1,500. South of the Bapaume-Cambrai road the remainder of village of Trescault is captured, and greater part of Havrincourt Wood, our troops reaching the banks of the St. Quentin Canal, near Vendhuille.
  • Three British seaplanes attack five German destroyers steaming north from Belgian coast. One destroyer believed sunk.
  • General Maude occupies Samarra Station.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Captain Arthur HENDERSON, Argyll And Sutherland Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant (acting Captain) Arthur Henderson, M.C., late Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders. For most conspicuous bravery. On 23rd April 1917 near Fontaine-les-Croisilles, France during an attack on the enemy trenches this officer, although almost immediately wounded in the left arm, led his Company through the front enemy line until he gained his final objective. He then proceeded to consolidate his position, which, owing to heavy gun and machine-gun fire and bombing attacks, was in danger of being isolated. By his cheerful courage and coolness he was enabled to maintain the spirit of his men under most trying conditions. Captain Henderson was killed after he had successfully accomplished his task.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant David Philip HIRSCH, Yorkshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant (Acting Captain) David Philip Hirsch, late Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty in attack. On 23rd April 1917 near Wancourt, France, having arrived at the first objective, Captain Hirsch, although already twice wounded, returned over fire-swept slopes to satisfy himself that the defensive flank was being established. Machine-gun fire was so intense that it was necessary for him to be continuously up and down the line encouraging his men to dig and hold the position. He continued to encourage his men by standing on the parapet and steadying them in the face of machine-gun fire and counter-attacked until he was killed. His conduct throughout was a magnificent example of the greatest devotion to duty.

APRIL 24th, 1917

  • British capture hamlet of Bilhem.
  • British and Indian forces capture Samarra in Mesopotamia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 13290 Edward FOSTER, East Surrey Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 13290 Corporal Edward Foster, East Surrey Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and initiative. On 24th April 1917 at Villers Plouich, France, during an attack the advance was held up in a portion of a village by two enemy machine-guns, which were entrenched and strongly covered by wire entanglements. Corporal Foster, who was in charge of two Lewis guns, succeeded in entering the trench and engaged the enemy guns. One of the Lewis guns was lost, but Corporal Foster, with reckless courage, rushed forward and bombed the enemy, thereby recovering the gun. Then getting his two guns into action, he killed the enemy gun team and captured their guns, thereby enabling the advance to continue successfully.

APRIL 25th, 1917

  • British line advanced slightly south or Scarpe River.
  • Announced 3,029 prisoners captured since morning of April 23rd.
  • Advance in Balkans. - British attack on front of two miles and a half between Lake Doiran and a point northwest of Doljeli, and advance 500 yards.
  • German destroyers bombard Dunkirk.

APRIL 26th, 1917

  • German effort to retake Gavrelle completely repulsed. British capture quarries on eastern outskirts of Hargicourt.

APRIL 27th, 1917

  • Naval Raid on Kent Coast. - German destroyers heavily bombard Ramsgate, about 100 shells being fired; 2 killed, 3 injured.
  • Guatemala severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

APRIL 28th, 1917

  • Severe Fighting at Arras. (Battle of Arleux) - British attack on a front of several miles north of River Scarpe, and the fighting is severe. Arleux-en-Gohelle (three miles cast of Vimy Ridge) captured by Canadians, and progress made north-east of Gavrelle and on western slopes of Greenland Hill. South of the river ground is gained north of Monchy-Ie-Preux.
  • United States Congress pass a bill for raising 500,000 men.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Company Serjeant Major 201154 Edward BROOKS, Oxfordshire And Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, 2/4th Battalion Territorial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 201154 Company Serjeant-Major Edward Brooks, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 28th April 1917 at Fayet, near St Quentin, France, this Warrant Officer, while taking part in a raid on the enemy's trenches, saw that the front wave was checked by an enemy machine-gun at close quarters. On his own initiative, and regardless of personal danger, he rushed forward from the second wave with the object of capturing the gun, killing one of the gunners with his revolver and bayoneting another. The remainder of the gun's crew then made off, leaving the gun in his possession. Company Serjeant-Major Brooks then turned the machine-gun on to the retreating enemy, after which he carried it back into our lines. By his courage and initiative, he undoubtedly prevented many casualties, and greatly added to the success of the operations.

APRIL 29th, 1917

  • Continued heavy fighting. British capture trench system south of Oppy on a front of about a mile after heavy fighting. Prisoners taken since morning of April 28th number 976.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 8763 James WELCH, Princess Charlotte Of Wales's (Royal Berkshire Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8763 Lance-Corporal James Welch, Royal Berkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 29th April 1917 near Oppy, France, on entering the enemy trench, he killed one man after a severe hand-to-hand struggle. Armed only with an empty revolver, Lance-Corporal Welch then chased four of the enemy across the open and captured them single-handed. He handled his machine-gun with the utmost fearlessness, and more than once went into the open fully exposed to heavy fire at short range, to search for and collect ammunition and spare parts in order to keep his guns in action, which he succeeded in doing for over five hours till wounded by a shell. He showed throughout the utmost valour and initiative.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Reginald Leonard HAINE, Honourable Artillery Company awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Reginald Leonard Haine, 1st Battalion, Honourable Artillery Company. For most conspicuous bravery and determination, on 28th/29th April 1917, near Gavrelle, France, when our troops, occupying a pronounced salient, were repeatedly counter-attacked. There was an ever-present danger that if the enemy attack succeeded, the garrison of the salient would be surrounded. Second Lieutenant Haine organised and led with the utmost gallantry six bombing attacks against a strong point which dangerously threatened our communication, capturing the position together with fifty prisoners and two machine-guns. The enemy then counter-attacked with a battalion of the Guard, succeeded in regaining his position, and the situation appeared critical. Second Lieutenant Haine at once formed a block in his trench, and for the whole of the following night maintained his position against repeated determined attacks. Reorganising his men on the following morning, he again attacked and captured the strong point, pressing the enemy back for several hundred yards, and thus relieving the situation. Throughout these operations, this Officer's superb courage, quick decision and sound judgement were beyond praise, and it was his splendid personal example which inspired his men to continue their efforts during more than thirty hours of continuous fighting.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Alfred Oliver POLLARD, Honourable Artillery Company awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Alfred Oliver Pollard, M.C., 1st Battalion, Honourable Artillery Company. For most conspicuous bravery and determination. On 29th April 1917 at Gavrelle, France, the troops of various units on the left of this Officer's battalion had become disorganised owing to the heavy casualties from shell fire; and a subsequent determined enemy attack with very strong forces caused further confusion and retirement, closely pressed by hostile forces. Second Lieutenant Pollard at once realised the seriousness of the situation, and dashed up to stop the retirement. With only four men he started a counter-attack with bombs, and pressed it home till he had broken the enemy attack, regained all that had been lost and much ground in addition. The enemy retired in disorder, sustaining many casualties. By his force of will, dash and splendid example, coupled with an utter contempt of danger, this Officer, who has already won the D.C.M. and M.C., infused courage into every man who saw him.

APRIL 30th, 1917

  • Announced General Petain appointed Chief of Staff to General Nivelle.
  • French attack in Champagne, and carry several lines of trenches, from Mont Carnillet as far as south of Beine.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Lieutenant William Edward Sanders, Royal Navy Reserve awarded the Victoria Cross
 

MAY 1917

MAY 1st, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports following captures during April: 19,343 prisoners, 257 guns and howitzers, 227 trench-mortars, and 470 machine-guns.
  • General Maude's further success. Reported that on April 30 the British surprised the Thirteenth Turkish Army Corps in strong position on both banks of the Shat-el-Adhaim, twenty-five miles south-west of Kifri, and dispersed the enemy with heavy loss. On May 1st, continuing their retreat, the Turkish are driven back into the Jebel Hamrin, eighty miles north of Bagdad.
  • Turkish report evacuation of Mush by the Russians.
  • British steam ship S.S Gena sunk off Aldeburgh by torpedo from German seaplane.

MAY 2nd, 1917

  • Third Battle of the Scarpe 1917 (Arras), begins.
  • Battle of Bullecourt begins.
  • French gain ground in the woods to the west of Mont Carnillet.
  • Professor Lambros, Greek Premier, resigns and is succeeded by M. Zaimis,
  • First United States destroyer flotilla arrives at Queenstown (now Cobh) in Cork, Ireland.

MAY 3rd, 1917

  • Admiralty announces homeward-bound troop transport S.S Ballarat torpedoed on April 25; no casualties.
  • Hindenburg Line Breached. - Sir Douglas Haig launches new attack on the German lines on a front of over twelve miles, east of Arras. Our troops win ground, especially on the wings, the Canadians carrying Fresnoy, east of Vimy, and near Queant the Hindenburg switch line is penetrated. Progress is also made in neighbourhood of Cherisy, astride the Arras-Cambrai road, and a footing is gained in enemy's trench system north of Oppy.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 55295 George JARRATT, Royal Fusiliers (London Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 55295 Corporal George Jarratt, late 8th Battalion, Royal Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion in deliberately sacrificing his life to save others. On 3rd May 1917 near Pelves, France, he had, together with some wounded men, been taken prisoner and placed under guard in a dug-out. The same evening the enemy were driven back by our troops, the leading infantrymen of which commenced to bomb the dug-outs. A grenade fell in the dug-out, and without hesitation Corporal Jarratt placed both feet on the grenade, the subsequent explosion blowing off both his legs. The wounded were later safely removed to our lines, but Corporal Jarratt died before he could be removed. By his supreme act of self-sacrifice the lives of these wounded were saved.

MAY 4th, 1917

  • French Capture Craonne. - North-west of Rheims the German first-line trenches are taken on a front of two miles and a half. The two operations give the French over 1,000 prisoners.
  • British transport S.S Transylvania torpedoed in the Mediterranean; 413 casualties.

MAY 5th, 1917

  • Splendid French Gains. - Our ally's operations continue to develop in conjunction with those of the British armies. In the region north-east of Soissons and on the Chemin des Dames brilliant successes are gained. South-east of Vauxaillon the salient of the Hindenberg line is attacked, and the German positions on a front of three miles and three quarters carried. The whole of the plateau from a point to the east of Cerny-en-Laonnais to east of Craonne is carried. Prisoners counted exceed 4,300.
  • Venizelist Troops in Action. - Together with French troops a Venizelist contingent attack in region of Lyumnitza, Macedonia, and occupy advanced enemy positions on a front of 5,000 yards.

MAY 6th, 1917

  • French gains maintained in face of fierce counterattacks. Officially announced that operations of May 4th and 5th render French masters of the crest on which the Chemin des Dames runs over a front of eighteen miles and three quarters. Prisoners number 6,100.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Captain Albert Ball, 7th Battalion, The Sherwood Foresters (The Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment) and Royal Flying Corps, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned:- Lieutenant (temporary Captain) Albert Ball, D.S.O., M.C., late 7th Battalion Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment and Royal Flying Corps. For most conspicuous bravery and consistent bravery from 25th April to 6th May 1917 in France, during which period Captain Ball took part in twenty-six combats in the air and destroyed eleven hostile aeroplanes, drove down two out of control, and forced several others to land. In these combats Captain Ball, flying alone on one occasion fought six hostile machines, twice he fought five and once four. When leading two other British aeroplanes he attacked an enemy formation of eight. On each of these occasions he brought down at least one enemy. Several times his aeroplane was badly damaged, once so seriously that but for the most delicate handling his machine would have collapsed, as nearly all the control wires had been shot away. On returning with a damaged machine, he had always to be restrained from immediately going out on another. In all, Captain Ball has destroyed forty-three German aeroplanes and one balloon, and has always displayed most exceptional determination and skill.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 2445 George Julian HOWELL, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2445 Corporal George Julian Howell, Infantry Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery. On 6th May 1917, near Bullecourt, France, seeing a party of the enemy were likely to outflank his Battalion, Corporal Howell, on his own initiative, single-handed and exposed to heavy bomb and rifle fire, climbed on to the top of the parapet and proceeded to bomb the enemy, pressing them back along the trench. Having exhausted his stock of bombs, he continued to attack the enemy with his bayonet. He was then severely wounded. The prompt action and gallant conduct of this Non-Commissioned Officer in the face of superior numbers was witnessed by the whole Battalion and greatly inspire them in the subsequent successful counter-attack
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 4/9720 Michael HEAVISIDE, Durham Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 4/9720 Private Michael Heaviside, 15th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 6th May 1917 near Fontaine-les-Croiselles, France, when the Battalion was holding a block in the line a wounded man was observed about 2pm in a shell hole some sixty yards in advance of our block and about forty yards from the enemy line. He was making signals of distress and holding up an empty water bottle. Owing to snipers and machine-gun fire it was impossible, during daylight, to send out a stretcher party. But Private Heaviside at once volunteered to carry water and food to the wounded man, despite the enemy fire. This he succeeded in doing, and found the man to be badly wounded and nearly demented with thirst. He had lain out for four days and three nights, and the arrival of the water undoubtedly saved his life. Private Heaviside, who is a stretcher bearer, succeeded the same evening, with the assistance of two comrades, in rescuing the wounded man.

MAY 7th, 1917

  • British line improved at Bullecourt.
  • All French gains held despite very violent enemy counterattacks. Prisoners increased to 8,200, which makes the total of prisoners since April 16th, 29,000.
  • Air Raid on London. - Hostile aeroplane drops four bombs on outskirts of North-East London; one man killed.

MAY 8th, 1917

  • British withdraw from Fresnoy.
  • British attack enemy's trenches south-west of Lake Doiran, and on the left, capture same on two-mile front; on the right trenches between the lake and Petit Couronne captured, but yielded before superior numbers.
  • French gain north-east of Chevreux.

MAY 9th, 1917

  • British regain portion of lost ground west of Fresnoy, and progress in neighbourhood of Bullecourt.

MAY 10th, 1917

  • North Sea Fight. - British scouting force of light cruisers and destroyers under Commodore Tyrwhitt engaged eleven German destroyers between Dutch and English coasts. Enemy flees, pursued by four destroyers, latter abandoning pursuit within range of Zeebrugge guns.
  • Major General John J. Pershing appointed to command United States Expeditionary Force.

MAY 11th, 1917

  • Announced two new groups for voluntary attestation to be opened, to include men, married or single, between 41 and 45, and between 45 and 50.

MAY 12th, 1917

  • Haig's New Stroke. - Hindenburg line attacked in neighbourhood of Bullecourt, also astride the Arras-Cambrai road and north of the Scarpe. Our troops establish themselves in village of Bullecourt, and capture Cavalry Farm on Arras-Cambrai road. North of the Scarpe, Roeux Cemetery and chemical works to the north stormed, and enemy’s positions carried on a front of one mile and a half.
  • Strong combined naval and air attack on Zeebrugge.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 242697 Tom DRESSER, Green Howards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 242697 Private Tom Dresser, Yorkshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 12th May 1917 near Roeux, France, Private Dresser, in spite of being twice wounded on the way, and suffering great pain, succeeded in conveying an important message from Battalion Headquarters to the front line of trenches, which he eventually reached in an exhausted condition. His fearlessness and determination to deliver this message at any cost, proved of the greatest value to his Battalion at a critical period.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Rupert Vance MOON, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Rupert Vance Moon, Infantry Battalion, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery during an attack on an enemy strong point. On 12th May 1917 at Bullecourt, France, his own immediate objective was a position in advance of the hostile trench, and then against the hostile trench itself, after the capture of which it was intended that his men should co-operate in a further assault on a strong point further in the rear. Although wounded in the initial advance, he reached his first objective. Leading his men against the trench itself, he was again badly wounded and incapacitated for the moment. He nevertheless inspired and encouraged his men and captured the trench. Lieutenant Moon continued to lead his much diminished command in the general attack with the utmost valour, being again wounded, and the attack was successfully pressed home. During the consolidation of the position, this officer was again badly wounded, and it was only after this fourth and severe wound through the face that he consented to retire from the fight. His bravery was magnificent, and was largely instrumental in the successful issue against superior numbers, the safe-guarding of the flank of the attack and the capture of many prisoners and machine-guns.

MAY 13th, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports greater part of Bullecourt in British hands.
  • M. Gutchkoff, Russian Minister of War, resigns.

MAY 14th, 1917

  • British capture Roeux, and advance their line north of Gavrelle.
  • Zeppelin L22 destroyed in North Sea by British naval forces.
  • Italian offensive on Julian front, on the lsonzo, and Carso.

MAY 15th, 1917

  • Admiralty Staff Reorganised. - Announced that important changes made in Admiralty organisation; the First Sea Lord (Admiral Sir John Jellicoe) takes additional title of Chief of the Naval Staff, and has as his deputy Vice Admiral Sir Henry Oliver. Sir Eric Geddes, with honorary and temporary rank of vice-admiral, becomes a member of the Board, with the title of Controller.
  • Naval Fight in the Adriatic. - Austrian light cruisers and destroyers raid allied drifter line in the Adriatic, and sink 14 British drifters. H.M.S. Dartmouth and Bristol, assisted by French and Italian destroyers, chase enemy off. One Austrian cruiser sunk and another destroyed.
  • Heavy German attacks at Bullecourt, one of which drives back British posts in the west of the village about 100 yards.
  • General Petain, French Commander-in-Chief in succession to General Nivelle.
  • Italian Successes. - Our ally wins positions between Loga and Bodrez, in the Plava area, on the slopes of Monte Santo and on the heights east of Gorizia; 3,375 prisoners taken.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Skipper W.S.A 1206 Joseph WATT, Royal Navy Reserve awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Skipper Joseph Watt, Royal Naval Reserve, 1206 W.S.A. Honour for Service in the action in the Straits of the Otranto on 15th May 1917. For most conspicuous gallantry when the Allied Drifter line in the Straits of Otranto was attacked by Austrian light cruisers on the morning of the 15th May 1917. When hailed by an Austrian cruiser at about 100 yards range and ordered to stop and abandon his drifter the “Gowan Lea,” Skipper Watt ordered full speed ahead and called upon his crew to give three cheers and fight to the finish. The cruiser was then engaged, but after one round had been fired, a shot from the enemy disabled the breech of the drifter's gun. The gun's crew, however, stuck to the gun, endeavouring to make it work, being under heavy fire all the time. After the cruiser had passed on Skipper Watt took the “Gowan Lea” alongside the badly damaged drifter “Floandi” and assisted to remove the dead and wounded.

MAY 16th, 1917

  • Coalition Government in Russia. - M. Miliukoff resigns as Foreign Minister, and is succeeded by M. Tereshtchenko. M. Kerensky succeeds M. Gutchkoff as Minister or War.

MAY 17th, 1917

  • Naval Aid from America. - Announced that a flotilla of United States destroyers has arrived in England to cooperate with British naval forces. Rear-Admiral Sims in command of all United States naval forces sent to European waters.
  • British capture Bullecourt - Battle of Bullecourt ends.
  • Italians hold positions won on the Julian front, the Bodrez region, on the Carso, and in the zone to east of Gorizia against violent counter-attacks. Italian infantry occupy important height of Monte Kuk and Vodice.
  • Honduras severs diplomatic relations with Germany.

MAY 18th, 1917

  • Italy's offensive. The great battle, whose first notable feature was the capture of Monte Kuk, continues to develop in favour of our allies, who capture Hill 652, the topmost peak of Monte Vodice. The number of prisoners now in Italian hands is 6,432.
  • Compulsory Service Act becomes law in United States of America.
  • Nicaragua severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • British Guns on Julian Front. - Officially announced that British heavy artillery is co-operating with Italian Army on Julian front.

MAY 19th, 1917

  • French torpedo-boats, after short engagement off Dunkirk, drive flotilla of German destroyers off.
  • United States Government announce decision to send a Division of the United States Army to France at once.

MAY 20th, 1917

  • British attack Hindenburg line north-west of Bullecourt, between remains of that village and Fontaine.
  • French capture 1,000 prisoners in actions on the Moronvilliers front, and carry trenches of Mont Carnillet.

MAY 21st, 1917

  • Hindenburg Line Conquests. - Sir Douglas Haig reports British hold whole of Hindenburg line from a point one mile east of Bullecourt to Arras, except for a stretch of 2,000 yards immediately to the west of Bullecourt.

MAY 22nd, 1917

  • Threefold French attack. On the Aisne front the French deliver at three points a lively attack which produces good results on the Vauclerc and California Plateaux, to the north-west of Craonne, taking positions on the northern slopes of the hills overlooking the valley of the Ailette. East of Chevreux three lines of German trenches are carried.

MAY 23rd, 1917

  • Zeppelin raid on Eastern Counties; one man killed in a Norfolk village.
  • Great. Italian Victory on the Carso. - After ten hours' bombardment, troops of the Third Army break through enemy lines from Kostanjevica to the sea. Positions of great strength, such as Hudi Log, Jamiano, and Hill 92, east of Pietra Rossa, are won. Over 9,000 prisoners taken.

MAY 24th, 1917

  • French report 8,600 German prisoners taken on the Aisne and Champagne fronts since May 1st.
  • Italians fight their way towards Trieste, the heaviest battle raging from hills on Jamiano-Brestovica road across the Lisert Marshes to the sea. British monitors in Gulf of Trieste co-operate by shelling the rear of the enemy's lines.

MAY 25th, 1917

  • Air Raid on Folkestone. - Seventeen enemy aeroplanes attack the South-East of England between 5.15 and 6.30p.m. Bombs dropped at a number of places, but nearly all the damage occurs in Folkestone. Total casualties: 76 killed, 174 injured. Three enemy aeroplanes shot down on their return by fighting squadrons of the R.N.A.S. from Dunkirk.
  • Battle for Trieste. - Italians carry network of trenches extending from mouth of Timavo River to Feast, east of Jamiano, and capture heights between Flondar and Medeazza. In the Vodice area they retain Hill 652.

MAY 26th, 1917

  • Fourth day of Battle of the Carso. Italians reach a point beyond the railway from Monfalcone to Duino, and carry the strongly-fortified Hill 145, south-west of Medeazza.
  • Hospital ship H.M.H.S. Dover Castle torpedoed in Mediterranean; six men missing.

MAY 27th, 1917

  • Battle of the Carso. Italians carry fortified trenches east and south-east of Jamiano, and occupy San Giovanni, north-west of Duino. Our allies establish themselves on foot-hills of Hermada.

MAY 28th, 1917

  • Great aerial activity on western front, in the course of which 12 German machines destroyed by British, and 10 others driven down out of control.
  • Anglo-French Conference assembles in London to discuss the deposition of King Constantine of Greece and the occupation of Athens and Thessaly.

MAY 29th, 1917

  • Italy reports capture of 23,681 Austrian prisoners since May 14th.
  • War Office reports remnants of main German forces in East Africa have broken south from the morasses of the Rufiji Valley, and raiding-parties have made their way into Portuguese territory.
  • Announced Mr. Arthur Henderson has undertaken an important mission to Russia on behalf of the Government.

MAY 30th, 1917

  • French report strong artillery fire on both sides near St. Quentin.
  • General van Deventer succeeds General Hoskins in command of British forces in East Africa.

MAY 31st, 1917

  • French regain ground temporarily lost to the northeast of the Mont Haut.

JUNE 1917

JUNE 1st, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports 3,412 German prisoners captured during May.
  • Lord Devonport resigns as Food Controller.
  • British airmen attack enemy aerodrome at St. Denis Westrem, and enemy bases at Zeebrugge, Ostend, and Bruges.
  • Mr. Arthur Henderson arrives in Russia.

JUNE 2nd, 1917

  • British attack near Lens. Canadians attack German positions south of the Souchez River, good progress is made, and a number of prisoners taken.
  • Heavy attack against French in the Craonne region fails.
  • The King holds an Investiture in Hyde Park, and decorates 300 soldiers and 50 relatives of men who died after winning decorations. 
  • British transport S.S. Cameronian torpedoed and sunk in Mediterranean; 63 missing.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain William Avery Bishop, Canadian Cavalry and 60 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain William Avery Bishop, D.S.O., M.C., Canadian Cavalry and Royal Flying Corps. For most conspicuous bravery, determination and skill. On 2nd June 1917 near Cambrai, France, Captain Bishop, who had been sent out to work independently, flew first of all to an enemy aerodrome; finding no machine about, he flew on to another aerodrome about three miles south-east, which was at least twelve miles the other side of the line. Seven machines, some with their engines running, were on the ground. He attacked these from about fifty feet, and a mechanic, who was starting one of the engines, was seen to fall. One of the machines got off the ground, but at a height of sixty feet Captain Bishop fired fifteen rounds into it at very close range, and it crashed to the ground. A second machine got off the ground, into which he fired thirty rounds at 150 yards range, and it fell into a tree. Two more machines then rose from the aerodrome. One of these he engaged at the height of 1,000 feet, emptying the rest of his drum of ammunition. This machine crashed 300 yards from the aerodrome, after which Captain Bishop emptied a whole drum into the fourth hostile machine, and then flew back to his station. Four hostile scouts were about 1,000 feet above him for about a mile of his return journey, but they would not attack. His machine was very badly shot about by machine-gun fire from the ground.

JUNE 3rd, 1917

  • Fighting south of Sonchez River. Fierce fighting takes place throughout the day, with varying fortunes. The Germans counter-attack with considerable forces, in the face of which British unable to maintain the progress already made.
  • Italy proclaims Protectorate over independent Albania.

JUNE 4th, 1917

  • British carry out successful raids north of Armentières and south of Wytschaete.
  • General Brusilov succeeds Alexeyev as Russian Commander-in-Chief.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Thomas Harold Broadbent MAUFE, Royal Garrison Artillery awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Thomas Harold Broadbent Maufe, Royal Garrison Artillery. For most conspicuous bravery and initiative. On 4th June 1917 at Feuchy, France, under intense artillery fire this officer on his own initiative repaired, unaided, the telephone line between the forward and rear positions, thereby enabling his battery to immediately open fire on the enemy. Second Lieutenant Maufe further saved what might have proved a fire in an advanced ammunition dump, caused by a heavy explosion, regardless of the risk he ran from the effects of gas shells which he knew were in the dump. By his great promptitude, resource and entire disregard of his own personal safety, he set an exceptionally fine example to all ranks.

JUNE 5th, 1917

  • Air Attack in the Medway. - A squadron of sixteen German aeroplanes drop bombs in Essex, and attack the naval establishments in the Medway. British guns and aeroplanes engage the enemy, and ten German machines are brought down; 38 persons killed and wounded.
  • Naval Fight in Channel. – A force of light cruisers and destroyers under Commander Tyrwhitt engage six German destroyers; S.20 is sunk by our gunfire and another severely damaged. Enemy naval base and workshops at Ostend heavily bombarded by British warships.
  • British attack north of Scarpe River, and make progress on western slopes of Greenland Hill.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant John Manson CRAIG Royal Scots Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant John Manson Craig, Royal Scots Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery, on 5th June 1917 in Egypt, on the occasion of an advanced post being rushed by a large party of the enemy. This officer immediately organised a rescue party, and the enemy was tracked over broken country back to his trenches. Second Lieutenant Craig then set his party to work removing the dead and wounded. During the course of this operation his men came under heavy rifle and machine-gun fire. A non-commissioned officer was wounded, and the Medical Officer who went out to his aid was also severely wounded. Second Lieutenant Craig at once went to their assistance and succeeded in taking the non-commissioned officer under cover. He then returned for the Medical Officer, and whilst taking him to shelter was himself wounded. Nevertheless, by great perseverance, he succeeded in rescuing him also. As the enemy continued a heavy fire and in addition turned on shrapnel and high explosives, Second Lieutenant Craig scooped cover for the wounded and thus was the means of saving their lives. These latter acts of bravery occurred in broad daylight, under full observation of the enemy and within close range. On three previous occasions this officer has behaved in a conspicuously brave manner, and has shown an exceptional example of courage and resource.

JUNE 6th, 1917

  • Operations north of the Scarpe successfully completed; enemy's positions on western slopes of Greenland Hill on a front of about a mile captured.
  • Lord Northcliffe announced as at head of British Mission to United States.
  • M. Jonnart arrives in Greece as High Commissioner of the Protecting Powers.

JUNE 7th, 1917

  • Messines Ridge captured. (Battle of Messines) - British Second Army, under General Plumer, attacks and captures the Messines Wytschaete Ridge, taking the villages of Messines and Wytschaete, and the enemy’s defence systems on a front of over nine miles from south of La Douve Brook to north of Mont Sarrel. The village of Oosttaverne (cast of Wytschaete) is carried; prisoners total over 5,000.
  • Gigantic Explosion. - Sir Douglas Haig's despatch on the above battle reveals that nineteen deep mines were exploded simultaneously beneath the enemy's defences, completely wrecking enemy's front and support trenches. The largest of which is now known as Spanbroekmolen Mine Crater.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Robert Cuthbert GRIEVE Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain Robert Cuthbert Grieve, Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 7th June 1917 at Messines, Belgium, during an attack on the enemy's position, in the face of heavy artillery and machine-gun fire, and after all his officers had been wounded and his company had suffered very heavy casualties, Captain Grieve located two hostile machine-guns which were holding up his advance. He then, single-handed, under continuous fire from these two machine-guns, succeeded in bombing and killing the two crews, reorganised the remnants of his company and gained his original objective. Captain Grieve, by his utter disregard of danger, and his coolness in mastering a very difficult position, set a splendid example, and when he finally fell wounded, the position had been secured and the few remaining enemy were in full flight.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 6/2133 Samuel FRICKLETON, New Zealand Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6/2133 Lance-Corporal Samuel Frickleton, New Zealand Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and determination when, on 7th June 1917 at Messines, Belgium, with attacking troops, which came under heavy fire and were checked. Although slightly wounded Corporal Frickleton dashed forward at the head of his section, pushed into our barrage and personally destroyed with bombs an enemy machine-gun and crew which was causing heavy casualties. He then attacked a second gun, killing the whole of the crew of twelve. By the destruction of these two guns, he undoubtedly saved his own and other units from very severe casualties, and his magnificent courage and gallantry ensured the capture of the objective. During the consolidation of the position he received a second severe wound. He set, throughout, a great example of heroism.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Ronald Neil STUART, Royal Naval Reserve [H.M.S Pargust] awarded the Victoria Cross
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Seaman 6224A William Williams, Royal Navy Reserve [H.M.S. Pargust] awarded the Victoria Cross.

JUNE 8th, 1917

  • Battle of Messines. - German counter-attacks repulsed with loss. Prisoners to date total over 6,400.
  • General Pershing, Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Expeditionary Force, arrives in London.
  • British gains on wide front from south of Lens to La Bassée, also south of the Souchez River.
  • Yanina, in Greek Epirus, occupied by Italians.

JUNE 9th, 1917

  • Sir Doughs Haig reports prisoners to date total over 7,000.
  • Russian provision government refuses German proposal for unlimited armistice.

JUNE 10th, 1917

  • French guns active in sector of Nieuport-les-Bains.
  • Italian Attack in the Trentino. - Just south of the Brenta Valley the Italians win their way through the border pass of Agnello, and capture nearly the whole of Monte Ortigara.
  • British naval and military forces carry out an operation against a German detachment in the estuary of the Lukeledi, German East Africa.

JUNE 11th, 1917

  • Gain beyond Messines. British capture enemy's trench system in neighbourhood of La Potterie Farm (west of Warenton) on a front of about a mile. Seven fi eld guns captured.
  • One of H.M. drifters, “I. F. S.,” engages five enemy seaplanes in the Channel; two brought down.

JUNE 12th, 1917

  • British gain further ground east and north-east of Messines on two-mile front, and occupy Gapaard.
  • French troops land at Corinth, and a Franco-British column enters Thessaly.
  • King Constantine of Greece Abdicates, and is succeeded by his second son, Prince Alexander.
  • Turkish port of Saliff, in the Yemen, captured by men from British warships.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 1804 John CARROLL, 33rd Battalion (New South Wales), Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 1804 Private John Carroll, Australian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery. On 7th/12th June 1917 at St Yves, France, during an attack, immediately the barrage lifted, Private John Carroll rushed the enemy's trench and bayoneted four of the enemy. He then noticed a comrade in difficulties, and at once proceeded to his comrade's assistance and killed one of the enemy. He continued working ahead with great determination until he came across a machine-gun and team of four men in a shell-hole. Single-handed he attacked the entire team, killing three of the men and capturing the gun. Later on two of his comrades were buried by a shell, and, in spite of very heavy shelling and machine-gun fire, he managed to extricate them. During the 96 hours the battalion was in the line Private Carroll displayed most wonderful courage and fearlessness. His magnificent example of gallantry and devotion to duty inspired all ranks in his battalion.

JUNE 13th, 1917

  • Allied Troops land at the Piraeus.
  • U.S. Major General J. J. Pershing arrives in France.
  • Announced total British captures since June 7th are: 7,342 German prisoners, 47 guns, 242 machine-guns, and 60 trench mortars.
  • Air Raid on London. - Fifteen enemy aeroplanes attack and bomb East End and City of London about midday; 160 killed and 432 injured.

JUNE 14th, 1917

  • German retreat below Messines, ground abandoned towards Armentières, on the south, and between St. Yves and the Lys. British follow up closely and progress east of Ploegsteert Wood and near Gapaard.
  • British Attack near Messines. - Our troops attack south and east of Messines and astride the Ypres-Comines Canal, the whole of our objectives being gained. As the result of these operations and our pressure since June 7th, we occupy German front trenches from River Lys to River Warnave, and advance our lines a distance of about seven miles.
  • Battle of Messines, 1917, ends.
  • H.M.S. Avenger torpedoed by the German submarine U-69, west of the Shetlands. Only one man lost his life, the rest were taken to safety.
  • British storm Infantry Hill, east of Monchy-le-Preux.
  • Zeppelin L43 destroyed in North Sea by British naval forces.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – 2251 Private William RATCLIFFE, South Lancashire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2251 Private William Ratcliffe, South Lancashire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery. On 14 June 1917 at Messines, Belgium, after an enemy's trench had been captured, Private Ratcliffe located an enemy machine-gun which was firing on his comrades from the rear, whereupon, single-handed and on his own initiative, he immediately rushed the machine-gun position and bayonetted the crew. He then brought the gun back into action in the front line. This very gallant soldier has displayed great resource on previous occasions, and has set an exceptionally fine example of devotion to duty.

JUNE 15th, 1917

  • Elder Dempster steamship Addah torpedoed by German submarine.
  • Lord Rhondda new Food Controller.

JUNE 16th, 1917

  • British progress in sector of Hindenburg line northwest of Bullecourt.
  • Haiti severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • Italians capture strongly-fortified position on Corno Cavento.
  • British troops evacuate several villages on left bank of the Struma, owing to the advent of the malarial season.

JUNE 17th, 1917

  • Zeppelin destroyed in East Anglia. - Two Zeppelins raid East Anglia and Kentish coast respectively. One airship damaged by gunfire and brought down in flames by pilot of Royal Flying Corps. The other drops bombs on coast town; two persons killed and sixteen injured.
  • Portuguese troops in action in France, on the Western Front for the first time.

JUNE 18th, 1917

  • British fall back from certain advanced posts in front of Infantry Hill after severe fighting.
  • French capture a German salient between Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond, in Champagne.

JUNE 19th, 1917

  • Arras Line Advance. - British gain ground- slightly south of the Cojeul River and also north of the Souchez River.
  • General Arthur Currie is appointed to command Canadian troops in France.
  • German counter-attack on salient taken by French in Champagne between Mont Cornillet and Mont Blond completely broken.
  • Herr Hoffman, Swiss Foreign Minister, resigns.
  • Italian Success in Trentino. - Our Allies gain ground at many points from the Agnello Pass to Monte Mosciagh. In Monte Ortigara area they carry formidable positions, and capture 936 prisoners.

JUNE 20th, 1917

  • British win back all their advanced posts on Infantry Hill, east of Monchy.
  • West of Soissons-Laon road Germans gain foothold in a French trench near Vauxaillon.

JUNE 21st, 1917

  • French counter-offensive wins back position taken by Germans near Vauxaillon.
  • Mutiny breaks out in Russian Black Sea fleet at Sevastopol.
  • Germans enter one of British front-line posts near Lombaertzyde (near Belgian coast), but driven out.
  • On the Carnia front Italians blow up a mountain spur, and rush the summit of Hill 2668 on the Piccolo Lagazuoi.

JUNE 22nd, 1917

  • Germans continue attacks on French north of the Aisne. They launch very large forces against French positions north of Braye-en-Laonnais, which are broken on greater part of the front, but Germans gain a, French salient in the centre.

JUNE 23rd, 1917

  • Heavy artillery fighting north of the Aisne.
  • P. and O. liner S.S Mongolia strikes a mine and sinks off Bombay.

JUNE 24th, 1917

  • In the region east of Vauxaillon a sharp counterattack by the French results in the recapture of the greater part of the salient held by the enemy north-east of Moisy Farm.
  • Intense artillery activity on both sides reported from several points held by Belgian troops near the Flanders Coast.
  • British Advance near Lens. - British carry out successful enterprises in neighbourhood of Epehy, Bullecourt, Roeux, Loos, and Hooge, South-west of Lens and north-west of Warneton British gain ground and take prisoners.

JUNE 25th, 1917

  • First units of American troops arrive in France.
  • British follow up their success south-west of Lens on both banks of Souchez River, progressing on a front of one and a half miles. Ground is gained north-west of Fontaine-les-Croisilles (north of Bullecourt).
  • M. Zaimis, the Greek Premier, resigns; M. Venizelos returns to Athens.
  • Three R.N.A.S. machines fight ten German aeroplanes near Roulers, one German machine being destroyed and two more driven out of control.
  • French win a crest of the Craonne ridge, north-west of Hurtebise Farm, and take over 300 prisoners; also the stronghold known as “The Dragon's Cave.”
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant John Spencer DUNVILLE, Dragoon Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant John Spencer Dunville, late Dragoons. For most conspicuous bravery. On 24th/25th June 1917 near Epehy, France when in charge of a party consisting of scouts and Royal Engineers engaged in the demolition of the enemy's wire, this officer displayed great gallantry and disregard of all personal danger. In order to ensure the absolute success of the work entrusted to him, Second Lieutenant Dunville placed himself between a non-commissioned officer of the Royal Engineers and the enemy's fire, and, thus protected, this non-commissioned officer was enabled to complete a work of great importance. Second Lieutenant Dunville although severely wounded, continued to direct his men in the wire-cutting and general operations until the raid was successfully completed, thereby setting a magnificent example of courage, determination and devotion to duty, to all ranks under his command. This gallant officer has since succumbed to his wounds.

JUNE 26th, 1917

  • British nearer to Lens. Progress south-west of the town continues; enemy's positions astride the Souchez River, on a front of two miles, and to a depth of a thousand yards, pass into British possession. La Coulotte, south of Lens, occupied.
  • Venizelos appointed Greek premier.
  • British airmen raid Turkish camp at Tekrit, on the Tigris, and cause much havoc.

JUNE 27th, 1917

  • Report of Mesopotamia Commission published.
  • M. Venizelos forms a Cabinet, and takes the office of Minister of War, with Admiral Condouriotis as Minister of Marine.
  • Germans report bombardment of Ostend by the Allies.
  • Greece severs diplomatic relations with Germany, Austria-Hungary and Turkey: state of war now exists.
  • S.S. Armadale torpedoed and sunk by U-60, on route from Manchester for Salonica with troops & stores. Eleven people lost.
  • French cruiser Kléber mined and sunk near Brest; most of crew saved.

JUNE 28th, 1917

  • British make considerable progress towards Lens on a two-mile front, across the Souchez River, and reach Avion.
  • General Allenby succeeds General Sir A. Murray as General Officer Commanding in Egypt.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Frank Bernard WEARNE, Essex Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Frank Bernard Wearne, Essex Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery when, on 28th June 1917 east of Loos, France, in command of a small party on the left of a raid on the enemy's trenches. He gained his objective in the face of much opposition and by his magnificent example and daring was able to maintain this position for a considerable time, according to instructions. During this period Second Lieutenant Wearne and his small party were repeatedly counter-attacked. Grasping the fact that if the left flank was lost his men would have to give way, Second Lieutenant Wearne, at a moment when the enemy's attack was being heavily pressed and when matters were most critical, leapt on the parapet and, followed by his left section, ran along the top of the trench, firing and throwing bombs. This unexpected and daring manoeuvre threw the enemy off his guard and back in disorder. Whilst on the top of the trench Second Lieutenant Wearne was severely wounded, but refused to leave his men. Afterwards he remained in the trench directing operations, consolidating his position and encouraging all ranks. Just before the order to withdraw was given, this gallant officer was again severely hit for the second time, and while being carried away was mortally wounded. By his tenacity in remaining at his post, though severely wounded, and his magnificent fighting spirit, he was enabled to hold on to the flank.

JUNE  29th, 1917

  • Russian summer offensive ("Brusilov offensive") begins.

JUNE 30th, 1917

  • British gain West and south-west of Lens.

JULY 1917

JULY 1st, 1917

  • Germans attack French to the east of Cerny, and on both sides of the Ailles-Paissy road occupy a line of trenches; later they are driven out.
  • Sir Douglas Haig reports 8,686 German prisoners captured during June, also 67 guns, 102 trench-mortars, and 345 machine-guns.
  • Russian Offensive Renewed. - Our ally attacks on a wide front, on each side of Brzezany (Eastern Galicia), a mixed army of Germans, Austrians, and Turkish. North of Brzezany the Russians carry Koniuchy and take 8,400 prisoners. To the south they gain some objectives, but suffer severe losses. Over 10,000 prisoners, with 14 guns, taken in all.
  • Manchu Emperor restored in China.

JULY 2nd, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports artillery activity on both sides.
  • Splendid Russian Gains. - Attacking along the Tarnopol-Lemberg railway line, the Russians take two fortified villages; 6,300 prisoners taken, bringing total to over 18,000.
  • French master the German attacks north of the Aisne and in Champagne. German assaults between Avocourt and Hill 304 smashed.
  • British and German representatives sign an agreement at the Hague (Netherlands) for exchange of civilian and combatant prisoners of war.
  • British naval airmen raid Bruges Docks.

JULY 3rd, 1917

  • Artillery activity in the region of Ypres.
  • Great German attack on 12-mile front, from Jouy to Craonne, fails completely.

JULY 4th, 1917

  • Air Raid on Harwich. - About 7 am. 12 to 14 German aeroplanes attack Harwich; casualties, 11 killed and 36 injured. Returning, the raiders are intercepted by naval aircraft from Dunkirk; two hostile machines brought down in flames and a third damaged.
  • Concerted attack by German submarines on United States transports defeated.
  • Slight British advance near Hollebeke.

JULY 5th, 1917

  • Germans fire 400 shells on Rheims.

JULY 6th, 1917

  • Russians attack between Zborow and Koniuchy, and at Brzezany, taking over 1,000 prisoners.
  • Canadian government passes Conscription Bill in Canadian House of Commons.
  • French carry out successful operations on the Moron-villers Ridge, capturing two German salients.

JULY 7th, 1917

  • Great Air Raid on London. - About twenty enemy aeroplanes raid London, after dropping bombs in the Thanet district. Casualties: 59 killed and 193 injured. One enemy machine brought down at mouth of Thames, two more forty miles from the East Coast, and a fourth fell in flames off mouth, of the Scheldt.
  • Emperor of China again abdicates.
  • French airmen bomb Treves, and Essen.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Second Lieutenant Frederick YOUENS, Durham Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Second Lieutenant Frederick Youens, late Durham Light Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 7th July 1917 near Hill 60, Belgium, while out on patrol this officer was wounded and had to return to his trenches to have his wound dressed. Shortly afterwards a report came in that the enemy were preparing to raid our trenches. Second Lieutenant Youens, regardless of his wound, immediately set out to rally the team of a Lewis Gun, which had become disorganised owing to heavy shell fire. During this process an enemy's bomb fell on the Lewis Gun position without exploding. Second Lieutenant Youens immediately picked it up and hurled it over the parapet. Shortly afterwards another bomb fell near the same place; again Second Lieutenant Youens picked it up with the intention of throwing it away, when it exploded in his hand, severely wounding him and also some of his men. There is little doubt that the prompt and gallant action of Second Lieutenant Youens saved several of his men's lives and that by his energy and resource the enemy's raid was completely repulsed. This gallant officer has since succumbed to his wounds.

JULY 8th, 1917

  • German attacks on Aisne Front Repulsed. – The French extend their positions to the east of Cerny, and on left bank of Meuse capture salients.
  • Russian Victory near Stanislau. - General Korniloff breaks through Austro-Hungarian defences west of Stanislau on a wide front. Russian cavalry chase enemy eight miles as far as the River Lukwa; 7,000 prisoners taken.

JULY 9th, 1917

  • Successful raid on Constantinople by R.N.A.S.
  • General Korniloff wins his way into Wiktorow, five miles south-west of Halicz. More than 1,000 prisoners taken.
  • The Commodore, Lowestoft, reports H.M. armed trawler Ireland destroys two enemy seaplanes and takes four prisoners.
  • H.M.S. Vanguard blown up as result of internal explosion and sunk; 801 casualties.

JULY 10th, 1917

  • Russians Capture Haliez. - In a three days' offensive General Korniloff advances 15 miles and takes over 10,000 prisoners and 80 guns.
  • German Success on Belgian Coast. - After intense bombardment, enemy penetrates British positions east of the Yser mouth, on a front of 1-400 yards and to a depth of 600 yards, reaching right bank of River Yser near the sea.

JULY 11th, 1917

  • British engage a Turkish force in the direction of Hamadieh, on the Euphrates, and inflict considerable loss.
  • Enemy's artillery fire on the Nieuport front diminishes. Slight enemy gain east of Monchy-le-Preux.
  • British naval airmen bomb Ostend, Varssenaere, St. Denis Westrem.
  • Fourth day of Korniloff’s offensive. General Korniloff's troops fight severe and obstinate battle at Kalusz and occupy the town.

JULY 12th, 1917

  • Announced that forces of King of the Hedjaz have gained victory over Turkish in North of Arabia, and whole country east of Sinai Peninsula between Maaw and Akaba is now in their possession.
  • Great air battles on the west front; 14 German machines destroyed and 16 others driven down out of control.
  • Naval airmen bomb aerodromes in Belgium, Bruges Docks, and railway junction south of Ostend Harbour.

JULY 13th, 1917

  • General Korniloff's left wing sweeps forward in an encircling movement on Dolina.

JULY 14th, 1917

  • Russians win further successes on the Lower Lomnica, and south-west of Kalusz, taking 600 prisoners.
  • Germans penetrate two lines of French trenches west of Cerny, but are later evicted from all except 500 yards of advanced trenches. French conquer a network of Trenches on Moronvillers Ridge, taking 360 prisoners.
  • Herr Bethmann-Hollweg, German Imperial Chancellor, resigns, and is succeeded by Herr Michaelis, Prussian Under Secretary of Finance.

JULY 15th, 1917

  • Italians raid third-line Austrian defences near Versic, and destroy positions.
  • Artillery activity in region of Armentières, Wytschaete, and Nieuport.
  • Battle in Champagne. - In the region of the Mont Haut and the Teton Germans assault the position captured by the French on July 14th. At the Teton the enemy fails. At the Mont Haut, after an obstinate fight, the enemy retakes the greater part of the captured ground, but is driven back by counter-attacks.

JULY 16th, 1917

  • The battle in Champagne ends in the complete defeat of the Germans.
  • British line advanced slightly north-east of Messines.
  • Russians evacuate Kalusz and withdraw from west bank of the Lomnica.
  • Light British naval forces sight a number of German steamers off the Dutch coast and capture four.

JULY 17th, 1917

  • French Gains at Verdun. - On the slopes of Hill 304 the French win back all their positions held by the Germans since June 29th and carry German line from Esnes to Malancourt.
  • The King Issues Proclamation declaring that the name of Windsor is to be borne by his Royal House, and relinquishing the use of German titles and dignities.
  • Sir Eric Geddes becomes First Lord of the Admiralty in place of Sir Edward Carson, who joins the War Cabinet.
  • Mr. Winston Churchill appointed Minister of Munitions.
  • Submarine H.M.S. C34 sunk by the Imperial German Navy submarine U-52 off Fair Isle in Shetland while on the surface. The only survivor was picked up by U-52.

JULY 18th, 1917

  • French defeat violent German counter-attacks against the captured positions in Verdun region.

JULY 19th, 1917

  • Sir Douglas Haig reports British re-establish advance posts east of Monchy-Ie-Preux, from which they were compelled to fall back on July 11th.
  • Sir Edward Carson, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, tenders his resignation.
  • Germans attack south of Lombaertzyde, and reach British line only on a small portion of the front attacked. Those who entered our trenches driven out by counter attacks.
  • Russian Troops' Defection. - Several detachments of Russian troops in Galicia refuse to obey the military command, and as a result Germans break through Russian line. The lost positions are east of Zloczow, east of Brzezany, and near Halicz.
  • Two Turkish cavalry regiments driven back at Beersheba.
  • Germans suffer sanguinary losses in attacks on the Chemin des Dames.
  • Herr Michaelis, the new German Chancellor, delivers important speech.
  • British attack enemy's main position at Narongombe, German East Africa, and inflict considerable losses.

JULY 20th, 1917

  • On a wide front between Lemberg and Tarnopol Russian troops retreat.
  • British carry out raid south-west of Gaza, one Turkish officer and 101 men killed, and 17 men taken prisoners.

JULY 21st, 1917

  • South-east of Cerny German desperate attacks on the French fail.

JULY 22nd, 1917

  • Air Raid on Felixstowe and Harwich. - A squadron of enemy aeroplanes, reported at from 15 to 21, drop bombs on Felixstowe and Harwich and proceed south down the Essex coast; 13 persons killed, 26 injured. One of the raiding aeroplanes is brought down into the sea not tar from the coast.
  • Further violent German attacks on the French at the Chemin des Dames Ridge are repulsed. On the California Plateau, close to Craonne, the enemy gains a footing.
  • British line advanced slightly south-cast of Monchy-le· Preux.
  • Siam declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • H.M. armed mercantile cruiser H.M.A.V. Otway torpedoed and sunk; 10 men killed by the explosion.
  • M. Kerensky becomes Prime Minister in Russia.

JULY 23rd, 1917

  • Russian Breakdown - East of Vilna part of the Northern Russian Army opens an offensive, penetrates German positions to depth of two miles, and takes 1,000 prisoners, but development of further success is jeopardised by instability and moral weakness of certain detachments. In Eastern Galicia the enemy drives a great wedge into Russian positions, and claims to have taken Tarnopol.

 JULY 24th, 1917

  • Great Russian retreat in Galicia; Halicz and Stanislau given up.
  • Brilliant French Attacks. - Practically all ground taken on plateaux near Craonne by Germans regained by French. California Plateau cleared and enemy driven off the Casemates.
  • Rumanian Offensive. - General Shtcherbatcheff’s army of Russian and Rumanian troops win a striking victory in Moldavia, breaking enemy line on a wide front.

JULY 25th, 1917

  • Continued Russo-Rumanian success - over 2,000 prisoners taken and 57 guns. Russians swing back in a line from Trembowla and evacuate Buczacz, Tlumacz, Ottynia, and Delatyn.
  • Inter-Allied conference in Paris discusses situation in Balkans, with regard to possible Russian collapse.
  • Germans gain a little ground near Ailles and Hurtebise.

JULY 26th, 1917

  • Germans lose most of ground near Allies which they took on July 25.
  • Announced Rumanian troops have advanced towards the upper reaches of the River Susitza.
  • Fall of Kolomea to the Germans.

JULY 27th, 1917

  • Germans recapture La Basse Ville, which British had taken during the night.
  • British submarine captures German steamer Batavier II in the North Sea.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 17114, Thomas BARRATT, South Staffordshire Regiment, 7th (Service) Battalion awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 17114 Private Thomas Barratt, late South Staffordshire Regiment (Tipton). For most conspicuous bravery. On 27th July 1917 north of Ypres, Belgium, when as Scout to a patrol he worked his way towards the enemy line with the greatest gallantry and determination, in spite of continuous fire from hostile snipers at close range. These snipers he stalked and killed. Later his patrol was similarly held up, and again he disposed of the snipers. When during the subsequent withdrawal of the patrol it was observed that a party of the enemy were endeavouring to outflank them, Private Barratt at once volunteered to cover the retirement, and this he succeeded in accomplishing. His accurate shooting caused many casualties to the enemy, and prevented their advance. Throughout the enterprise he was under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, and his splendid example of coolness and daring was beyond all praise. After safely regaining our lines, this very gallant soldier was killed by a shell.

JULY 28th, 1917

  • German troops reach Russian frontier of Eastern Galicia on both sides of the town of Husiatyn.
  • British Tank Corps is established, replacing predecessor Heavy Branch of the Machine Gun Corps.
  • Great aerial fighting reported on western front; 31 enemy machines brought down and 30 driven down.

JULY 29th, 1917

  • French win success between Hurtebise and the district south of La Bovelle (west of Allies)

JULY 30th, 1917

JULY 31st, 1917

  • Battles of Ypres 1917 begin with Battle of Pilckem Ridge.
  • Great allied attack on broad front, extending north and south of Ypres, launched; over 5,000 prisoners.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Temp. Captain Harold Ackroyd awarded Victoria Cross for action between dates of 31st July to 1st August 1917 - His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned:- Temporary Captain Harold Ackroyd, M.C., M.D., late Royal Army Medical Corps (attached Royal Berkshire Regiment). For most conspicuous bravery. Between 31st July and 1st August 1917 at Ypres, Belgium. During recent operations Captain Ackroyd displayed the greatest gallantry and devotion to duty. Utterly regardless of danger, he worked continuously for many hours up and down and in front of the line tending the wounded and saving the lives of officers and men. In so doing he had to move across the open under heavy machine-gun, rifle and shell fire. He carried a wounded officer to a place of safety under very heavy fire. On another occasion he went some way in front of our advanced line and brought in a wounded man under continuous sniping and machine-gun fire. His heroism was the means of saving many lives, and provided a magnificent example of courage, cheerfulness, and determination to the fighting men in whose midst he was carrying out his splendid work. This gallant officer has since been killed in action.
  • Victoria Cross recipient - Corporal 11795 Leslie Wilton Andrew, New Zealand Infantry, 2nd Battalion, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned:- No. 11795 Corporal Leslie Wilton Andrew, Infantry Battalion, New Zealand Force. For most conspicuous bravery when in charge of a small party in an attack on the enemy's position. On 31 July 1917 at La Bassée Ville, France, his objective was a machine-gun post which had been located in an isolated building. On leading his men forward he encountered unexpectedly a machine-gun post which was holding up the advance of another company; he immediately attacked, capturing the machine-gun and killing several of the crew. He then continued the attack on the machine-gun post which had been his original objective. He displayed great skill and determination in his disposition, finally capturing the post, killing several of the enemy, and putting the remainder to flight. Corporal Andrew's conduct throughout was unexampled for cool daring, initiative, and fine leadership, and his magnificent example was a great stimulant to his comrades.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temp. Lieutenant Colonel Bertram Best-Dunkley, Lancashire Fusiliers, 2/5th Battalion Territorial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain (Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Bertram Best-Dunkley, late Lancashire Fusiliers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 31st July 1917 at Wieltje, Belgium, when in command of his battalion, the leading waves of which, during an attack, became disorganised by reason of rifle and machine-gun fire at close range from positions which were believed to be in our hands. Lieutenant-Colonel Best-Dunkley dashed forward, rallied his leading waves, and personally led them to the assault of these positions, which, despite heavy losses were carried. He continued to lead his battalion until all their objectives had been gained. Had it not been for this officer's gallant and determined action it is doubtful if the left of the brigade would have reached its objectives. Later in the day, when our position was threatened, he collected his battalion headquarters, led them to the attack, and beat off the advancing enemy. This gallant officer has since died of wounds.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Serjeant 200717 Tom Fletcher MAYSON, 1/4th Battalion, The King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 200717 Corporal (Lance-Serjeant) Tom Fletcher Mayson, Royal Lancaster Regiment. (Silecourt, Cumberland). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 31st July 1917 at Wieltje, Belgium, when with the leading wave of the attack his platoon was held up by machine-gun fire from a flank. Without waiting for orders, Lance-Serjeant Mayson at once made for the gun, which he put out of action with bombs, wounding four of the team. The remaining three of the team fled, pursued by Lance-Serjeant Mayson to a dugout into which he followed them, and disposed of them with his bayonet. Later, when clearing up a strong point, this non-commissioned officer again tackled a machine-gun single-handed, killing six of the team. Finally, during an enemy counter-attack, he took charge of an isolated post, and successfully held it till ordered to withdraw as his ammunition was exhausted. He displayed throughout the most remarkable valour and initiative.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 20002 Ivor REES South Wales Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 20002 Serjeant Ivor Rees, South Wales Borderers. (Llanelly). For most conspicuous bravery in attack. On 31 July 1917 at Pilkem, Belgium, a hostile machine-gun opened fire at close range, inflicting many casualties. Leading his platoon froward by short rushes, Serjeant Rees gradually worked his way round the right flank to the rear of the gun position. When he was about twenty yards from the machine-gun he rushed forward towards the team, shot one, and bayonetted another. He then bombed the large concrete emplacement, killing five and capturing thirty prisoners of whom two were officers, in addition to an undamaged machine-gun.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Denis George Wyldbore HEWITT, Royal Hampshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Denis George Wyldbore Hewitt, late Hampshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery, and devotion to duty when in command of a Company in attack. On 31st July 1917 north-east of Ypres, Belgium, when his first objective had been captured he reorganised the Company and moved forward towards his objective. While waiting for the barrage to lift he was hit by a piece of shell, which exploded the signal lights in his haversack, and set fire to his equipment and clothes. Having extinguished the flames, in spite of his wound and the severe pain he was suffering, he led forward the remains of the Company under very heavy machine-gun fire, and captured and consolidated his objective. He was subsequently killed by a sniper while inspecting the consolidation and encouraging his men. This gallant Officer set a magnificent example of coolness and contempt of danger to the whole Battalion, and it was due to his splendid leading that the final objective of his Battalion was gained.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Sergeant 265473 Alexander EDWARDS, Seaforth Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 265473 Serjeant Alexander Edwards, Seaforth Highlanders. (Lossiemouth). For most conspicuous bravery in attack, when, on 31st July 1917 north of Ypres, Belgium, having located a hostile machine-gun in a wood, he, with great dash and courage, led some men against it, killed all the team and captured the gun. Later, when a sniper was causing casualties, he crawled out to stalk him, and although badly wounded in the arm, went on and killed him. One officer only was now left with the company, and, realising that the success of the operation depended on the capture of the furthest objective, Serjeant Edwards, regardless of his wound, led his men on till this objective was captured. He subsequently showed great skill in consolidating his position, and very great daring in personal reconnaissance. Although again twice wounded on the following day, this very gallant Non-commissioned Officer maintained throughout a complete disregard for personal safety, and his high example of coolness and determination engendered a fine fighting spirit in his men.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 265579 George McINTOSH, Gordon Highlanders awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 265579 Private George McIntosh, Gordon Highlanders (Buckie, Banffshire). For most conspicuous bravery when, during the consolidation of a position, his Company came under machine-gun fire at close range. Private McIntosh immediately rushed forward under heavy fire, and, reaching the emplacement, he threw a Mill's Grenade into it, killing two of the enemy and wounding a third. Subsequently, entering the dug-out, he found two light machine-guns, which he carried back with him. His quick grasp of the situation and the utter fearlessness and rapidity with which he acted, undoubtedly saved many of his comrades and enabled the consolidation to proceed unhindered by machine-gun fire. Throughout the day the cheerfulness and courage of Private McIntosh was indomitable, and to his fine example, in a great measure, was due success which attended his Company.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 939 Robert James BYE, Welsh Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 939 Serjeant Robert Bye, Welsh Guards (Penrhiwceiber, Glamorgan). For most conspicuous bravery. On 31st July 1917 at the Yser Canal, Belgium, Serjeant Bye displayed the utmost courage and devotion to duty during an attack on the enemy's position. Seeing that the leading waves were being troubled by two enemy blockhouses, he, on his own initiative, rushed at one of them and put the garrison out of action. He then rejoined his company and went forward to the assault of the second objective. When the troops had gone forward to the attack on the third objective, a party was detailed to clear up a line of blockhouses which had been passed. Serjeant Bye volunteered to take charge of this party, accomplished his object, and took many prisoners. He subsequently advanced to the third objective, capturing a number of prisoners, thus rendering invaluable assistance to the assaulting companies. He displayed throughout the most remarkable initiative.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Colonel Clifford COFFIN, Royal Engineers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant-Colonel (Temporary Brigadier-General) Clifford Coffin, D.S.O., Royal Engineers. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty. On 31st July 1917 at Westhoek, Belgium, when his command was held up in attack owing to heavy machine-gun and rifle fire from front and right flank, and was establishing itself in a forward shell hole line, he went forward and made an inspection of his front posts. Though under the heaviest fire from both machine-gun and rifles, and in full view of the enemy, he showed an utter disregard of personal danger, walking quietly from shell hole to shell hole, giving advice generally, and cheering the men by his presence. His very gallant conduct had the greatest effect on all ranks, and it was largely owing to his personal courage and example that the shell hole line was held in spite of the very heaviest fire. Throughout the day his calm courage and cheerfulness exercised the greatest influence over all with whom he came in contact, and it is generally agreed that Brigadier-General Coffin's splendid example saved the situation, and had it not been for his action the line would certainly have been driven back.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Thomas Riversdale COLYER-FERGUSSON, Northamptonshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant (acting Captain) Thomas Riversdale Colyer-Fergusson, late Northamptonshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery, skilful leading, and determination in attack. On 31st July 1917 at Bellewaarde, Belgium, the tactical situation having developed contrary to expectation, it was not possible for his company to adhere to the original plan of deployment, and, owing to the difficulties of the ground and to enemy wire, Captain Colyer-Fergusson found himself with a Serjeant and five men only. He carried out the attack nevertheless, and succeeded in capturing the enemy trench and disposing of the garrison. His party was then threatened by a heavy counter-attack. From the left front, but this attack he successfully resisted. During this operation, assisted by his Orderly only, he attacked and captured an enemy machine-gun and turned it on the assailants, many of whom were killed and a large number were driven into the hands of an adjoining British unit. Later, assisted only by his Serjeant, he again attacked and captured a second enemy machine-gun, by which time he had been joined by other portions of his company, and was enabled to consolidate his position. The conduct of this officer throughout forms an amazing record of dash, gallantry and skill, for which no reward can be too great having regard to the importance of the position won. This gallant officer was shortly afterwards killed by a sniper.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 31161 James Llewellyn DAVIES awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 31161 Corporal James Llewellyn Davies, late Royal Welsh Fusiliers (Nantymoel, Glamorgan). For most conspicuous bravery. On 31st July 1917 at Polygon Wood, Pilkem, Belgium, during an attack on the enemy's line, this non-commissioned officer pushed through our own barrage and, single-handed, attacked a machine-gun emplacement after several men had been killed in attempting to take it. He bayonetted one of the machine-gun crew and brought in another man, together with the captured gun. Corporal Davies, although wounded, then led a bombing party to the assault of a defended house, and killed a sniper who was harassing his platoon. This gallant non-commissioned officer has since died of wounds received during the attack.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 15067 Thomas WHITHAM, Coldstream Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 15067 Private Thomas Whitham, Coldstream Guards (Burnley). For most conspicuous bravery, on 31st July 1917 at Pilkem, Belgium, when, during an attack, an enemy machine-gun was seen to be enfilading the battalion on the right. Private Whitham on his own initiative, immediately worked his way from shell-hole to shell-hole through our own barrage, rushed the machine-gun, and, although under a very heavy fire, captured it, together with an officer and two other ranks. The bold action on the part of Private Whitham was of great assistance to the battalion on the right, and undoubtedly saved many lives and enabled the whole line to advance.

AUGUST 1917

AUG. 1st, 1917

  • Germans counter-attack east and north-east of Ypres, and compel British to withdraw from St. Julien. All ground between latter and Westhoek is firmly held by British.

AUG. 2nd, 1917

  • More violent German attempts to recover lost ground north-east of Ypres repulsed.
  • General Brussiloff resigns as Russian Commander-in -Chief, and is succeeded by General Korniloff.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Noel Godfrey CHAVASE, Royal Army Medical Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of a Bar to the Victoria Cross to Captain Noel Godfrey Chavasse, V.C., M.C., late Royal Army Medical Corps, attached Liverpool Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty when in action. During the period 31st July to 2nd August 1917 at Wieltje, Belgium, though severely wounded early in the action whilst carrying a wounded soldier to the Dressing Station, Captain Chavasse refused to leave his post, and for two days not only continued to perform his duties, but in addition went out repeatedly under heavy fire to search for and attend to the wounded who were lying out. During these searches, although practically without food during this period, worn with fatigue and faint with his wound, he assisted to carry in a number of badly wounded men, over heavy and difficult ground. By his extraordinary energy and inspiring example, he was instrumental I rescuing many wounded who would have otherwise undoubtedly succumbed under the bad weather conditions. This devoted and gallant officer subsequently died of his wounds.

AUG. 3rd, 1917

  • British recapture St, Julien.
  • Mutiny breaks out in German fleet at Wilhelmshafen.
  • Fall of Czernovitch to the Austrians.
  • Heavy fighting between British and German forces near Lindi, German East Africa.

AUG. 4th, 1917

  • Beginning of Fourth Year of the War.
  • Liberia declares war on Germany.

AUG. 5th, 1917

  • Germans gain a footing at Hollebeke, but are immediately driven out by counter-attacks.
  • Russians capture heights near Czernovitz, but retreat owing to superior forces of enemy.

AUG. 6th, 1917

  • British line advanced south-west and west of Lens.
  • M. Kerenski definitely appointed Prime Minister of Russia.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 17/1280 William Boynton BUTLER, 17th Battalion, The West Yorkshire Regiment, (The Prince of Wales's Own) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 17/1280 Private William Boynton Butler, West Yorkshire Regiment (Hunslet, Leeds). For most conspicuous bravery, on 6th August 1917 east of Lempire, France, when in charge of a Stokes gun in trenches which were being heavily shelled. Suddenly one of the fly-off levers of a Stokes shell came off and fired the shell in the emplacement. Private Butler picked up the shell and jumped to the entrance of the emplacement, which at that moment a party of infantry were passing. He shouted to them to hurry past as the shell was going off, and turning round, placed himself between the party of men and the live shell and so held it till they were out of danger. He then threw the shell on to the parados, and took cover in the bottom of the trench. The shell exploded almost on leaving his hand, greatly damaging the trench. By extreme good luck Private Butler was contused only. Undoubtedly his great presence of mind and disregard of his own life saved the lives of the officer and men in the emplacement and the party which was passing at the time.

AUG. 7th, 1917

  • Germans attack in Verdun Sector repulsed by French.

AUG. 8th, 1917

  • Germans, continuing their attacks between the Focsani-Marasesti and River Sereth, press back Russo-Rumanian troops to north of Bizighesti.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lieutenant Z/205 Charles George BONNER, Royal Naval Reserve, H.M.S. Dunraven, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Lieutenant Charles George Bonner, D.S.C., Royal Naval Reserve, With reference to announcements of the award of the Victoria Cross to naval officers and men for services in action with enemy submarines, the following are the accounts of the actions for which these awards were made:- Action of HMS “Dunraven” on the 8th August 1917. On the 8th August 1917, HMS “Dunraven,” under the command of Captain Gordon Campbell, V.C., D.S.O., Royal Navy, sighted an enemy submarine on the horizon. In her role of armed British merchant ship, the “Dunraven” continued her zig-zag course, whereupon the submarine closed, remaining submerged to within 5,000 yards, and then, rising to the surface, opened fire. The “Dunraven” returned the fire with her merchant ship gun, at the same time reducing speed to enable the enemy to overtake her. Wireless signals were also sent out for the benefit of the submarine: “Help! Come quickly – submarine chasing and shelling me.” Finally, when the shells began falling close, the “Dunraven” stopped and abandoned ship by the “panic party.” The ship was then being heavily shelled, and on fire aft. In the meantime, the submarine closed to 400 yards distant, partly obscured from view by the dense clouds of smoke issuing from the “Dunraven's” stern. Despite the knowledge that the after magazine must inevitably explode if he waited, and further, that a gun and gun's crew lay concealed over the magazine, Captain Campbell decided to reserve his fire until the submarine had passed clear of the smoke. A moment later, however, a heavy explosion occurred aft, blowing the gun and the gun's crew into the air, and accidentally starting the fire-gongs at the remaining gun positions; screens were immediately dropped, and the only gun that would bear opened fire, but the submarine, apparently frightened by the explosion, had already commenced to submerge. Realising that a torpedo must inevitably follow, Captain Campbell ordered the surgeon to remove all wounded and conceal them in cabins; hoses were also turned on the poop, which was a mass of flames. A signal was sent out warning men-of-war to divert all traffic below the horizon in order that nothing should interrupt the final phase of the action. Twenty minutes later a torpedo again struck the ship abaft the engine-room. An additional party of men were again sent away as a “panic party,” and left the ship to outward appearances completely abandoned, with the White Ensign flying and guns unmasked. For the succeeding fifty minutes the submarine examined the ship through her periscope. During this period boxes of cordite and shells exploded every few minutes, and the fire on the poop still blazed furiously. Captain Campbell and the handful of officers and men who remained on board lay hidden during this ordeal. The submarine then rose to the surface astern, where no guns could bear and shelled the ship closely for twenty minutes. The enemy then submerged and steamed past the ship 150 yards off, examining her through the periscope. Captain Campbell decided then to fire one of his torpedoes, but missed by a few inches. The submarine crossed the bows and came slowly down the other side, whereupon a second torpedo was fired and missed again. The enemy observed it and immediately submerged. Urgent signals for assistance were immediately sent out, but pending arrival of assistance Captain Campbell arranged for a third “panic party” to jump overboard if necessary and leave one gun's crew on board for a final attempt to destroy the enemy, should he again attack. Almost immediately afterwards, however, British and American destroyers arrived on the scene, the wounded were transferred, boats were recalled and the fire extinguished. The “Dunraven” although her stern was awash, was taken in tow, but the weather grew worse, and early the following morning she sank with colours flying.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Petty Officer O.N. 227029 (Po.) Ernest PITCHER, Royal Navy HMS Duraven awarded the Victoria Cross

AUG. 9th, 1917

  • French troops progress north-west of Bixschoote.
  • Russo-Rumanians launch mass attacks against Germans north of Focsani, but are heavily repulsed
  • Enemy troops cross the Susitza, strike north at Rumanian railway’s, and threaten the rear of Russo-Rumanian armies

AUG. 10th, 1917

  • British attack east of Ypres, complete capture of the village of Westhoek, and secure whole of Westhoek Ridge. Our troops also establish themselves in Glencorse wood.
  • British Labour Party decide to send delegates to a “consultative” Conference at Stockholm: government refuses passport.

AUG. 11th, 1917

  • Heavy German counter-attacks against positions captured on August 10th. British line pressed back in Glencorse wood.
  • Germans press forward in Trotus Valley and beyond Focsani.
  • Mr. Arthur Henderson resigns from the Cabinet.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 15805 Arnold LOOSEMORE, Duke Of Wellington's (West Riding Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 15805 Private Arnold Loosemore, West Riding Regiment (Sheffield). For most conspicuous bravery and initiative during the attack on a strongly-held enemy position. On 11th August 1917 south of Langemarck, Belgium, his platoon having been checked by heavy machine-gun fire, he crawled through partially cut wire, dragging his Lewis gun with him, and single-handed dealt with a strong party of the enemy, killing about twenty of them, and thus covering the consolidation of the position taken up by his platoon. Immediately afterwards his Lewis gun was blown up by a bomb, and three enemy rushed for him, but he shot them all with his revolver. Later, he shot several enemy snipers, exposing himself to heavy fire each time. On returning to the original post he also brought back a wounded comrade under heavy fire at the risk of his life. He displayed throughout an utter disregard of danger.

AUG. 12th, 1917

  • Air Raid on Southend. - About twenty enemy aeroplanes appear off Felixstowe. Driven off, they turn south and drop bombs at Southend and Margate. Casualties at Southend, 32 killed, 43 injured. Two German aeroplanes destroyed.
  • In the Ocna-Grozesti region (Upper Trotus Valley), Russo-Rumanian troops dislodge enemy from heights and repulse counter-attacks in valley of River Slanic, taking over 600 prisoners. Gains made to west of Focsani-Ajudul railway.

AUG. 13th, 1917

  • Intense air fighting on west front; seventeen enemy machines down.
  • Mr. Barnes appointed to War Cabinet.
  • British Government refuse passports for Stockholm Conference (see Aug. 10th)
  • Vigorous Rumanian offensive in Trotus Valley continued.

AUG. 14th, 1917

  • Heavy German attack at Westhoek repulsed by British, who improve their positions on the right bank of the Steenbeek.
  • China formally declares war on Germany and Austria-Hungary.
  • Announced that Pope's peace proposals delivered to all belligerent Governments.
  • In the region of Ocna enemy occupy a height, and in region of Kredcheni penetrate portion of Rumanian trenches.

AUG. 15th, 1917

  • Canadians Capture Hill 70. British deliver a new attack against enemy's positions round Lens, in which Canadians take Hill 70. On the north-west side of Lens the enemy's positions are penetrated to a depth varying from 500 to 1,500 yards. The villages of Cite Ste. Elizabeth, Cite St. Emile, Cite St. Laurent, the Bois Rase, and western half of Bois Hugo are captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – 10055 D.A Skipper Thomas CRISP, Royal Navy Reserve, HM Armed Smack Nelson awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - On the 15th August 1917, the Smack “Nelson” was engaged in fishing when she was attacked by gunfire from an enemy submarine. The gear was let go and the submarine's fire was returned. The submarine's fourth shot went through the port bow just below the water-line, and the seventh shell struck the skipper, Thomas Crisp, partially disembowelling him, and passed through the deck and out through the side of the ship. In spite of the terrible nature of his wound Skipper Crisp retained consciousness, and his first thought was to send off a message that he was being attacked and giving his position. He continued to command his ship until the ammunition was almost exhausted and the smack was sinking. He refused to be moved into the small boat when the rest of the crew were obliged to abandon the vessel as she sank, his last request being that he might be thrown overboard.

AUG. 16th, 1917

  • Ypres Battle Resumed. - British attack on a front of over nine miles north of Ypres-Menin road, capture their first objectives, and carry the village of Langemarck. Our troops fight their way forward for a distance of half a mile beyond the village. Over 1,800 prisoners taken. French troops advance on the left and capture bridgehead of Drie Graschten.
  • Battle of Langemarck 1917 (Ypres), begins
  • Destroyer action in German Bight, in which German destroyer and two mine-sweepers are badly damaged.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 226353 John Harry Brown, also known as Harry Brown 10th Battalion, Quebec Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 226353 Private Harry Brown, late Canadian Infantry Battalion. For most conspicuous bravery, courage and devotion to duty. On 16th August 1917 at Hill 70 near Loos, France after the capture of a position, the enemy massed in force and counter-attacked. The situation became very critical, all wires being cut. It was of the utmost importance to get word back to Headquarters. This soldier and one other were given the message with orders to deliver the same at all costs. The other messenger was killed. Private Brown had his arm shattered, but continued on through an intense barrage until he arrived at the close support lines and found an officer. He was so spent that he fell down the dug-out steps, but retained consciousness long enough to hand over his message, saying, “Important message.” He then became unconscious, and died in the dressing station a few hours later. His devotion to duty was of the highest possible degree imaginable, and his successful delivery of the message undoubtedly saved the loss of the position for the time and prevented many casualties.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant R.2794 Edward COOPER, King's Royal Rifle Corps awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. R.2794 Serjeant Edward Cooper, King's Royal Rifle Corps. For most conspicuous bravery and initiative in attack. On 16th August 1917 at Langemarck, Belgium, enemy machine-guns from a concrete blockhouse 250 yards away, were holding up the advance of the battalion on his left, and were also causing heavy casualties to his own battalion. Serjeant Cooper with four men, immediately rushed towards the blockhouse, though heavily fired on. About 100 yards distant he ordered his men to lie down and fire at the blockhouse. Finding this did not silence the machine-guns, he immediately rushed forward straight at them and fired his revolver into an opening in the blockhouse. The machine-guns ceased firing and the garrison surrendered. Seven machine-guns and forty-five prisoners were captured in this blockhouse. By this magnificent act of courage he undoubtedly saved what might have been a serious check to the whole advance, at the same time saving a great number of lives.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Company Quartermaster-Serjeant 13531 William Henry GRIMBALDESTON, King's Own Scottish Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 13531 Serjeant (acting Company Quartermaster-Serjeant) William Henry Grimbaldeston, King's Own Scottish Borderers. (Blackburn). For most conspicuous bravery in attack. On 16 August 1917 at Wijdendrift, Belgium, noticing that the unit on his left was held up by enemy machine-gun fire from a blockhouse, though wounded, he collected a small party to fire rifle grenades on this blockhouse. He then got a volunteer to assist him with rifle fire. In spite of very heavy fire from the blockhouse. He pushed on towards it, and made for the entrance, from which he threatened with a hand grenade the machine gun teams inside the blockhouse. These he forced to surrender one after another. The extraordinary courage and boldness of Company Quartermaster-Serjeant Grimbaldeston resulted in his capturing thirty-six prisoners, six machine-guns and one trench mortar, and enabled the whole line to continue its advance.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 13303 Wilfred EDWARDS, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 13303 private Wilfred Edwards, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry (Leeds). For most conspicuous bravery when under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire from a strong concrete fort. On 16th August 1917 at Langemarck, Belgium, having lost all his company officers, without hesitation he dashed forward at great personal risk, bombed through the loopholes, surmounted the fort, and waved to his company to advance. By his splendid example he saved a most critical situation at a time when the whole battalion was held up and a leader urgently needed. Three officers and thirty other ranks were taken prisoner by him in the fort. Later, Private Edwards did most valuable work as a runner, and he eventually guided most of the battalion out through very difficult ground. Throughout he set a splendid personal example to all, and was utterly regardless of danger.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Lance Corporal 8614 Frederick George ROOM, Royal Irish Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8614 Private (acting Lance-Corporal) Frederick George Room, Royal Irish Regiment (Bristol). For most conspicuous bravery, on 16th August 1917 at Frezenberg, Belgium, when in charge of his company stretcher-bearers. During the day the company had many casualties, principally from enemy machine-guns and snipers. The company was holding a line of shell-holes and short trenches. Lance-Corporal Room worked continuously under intense fire, dressing the wounded and helping to evacuate them. Throughout this period, with complete disregard for his own life, he showed unremitting devotion to his duties. By his courage and fearlessness he was the means of saving many of his comrades lives.

AUG. 17th, 1917

  • Attack on Langemarck begins during Third Ypres offensive.
  • Sir Douglas Haig reports further gain of ground west of Lens. The total prisoners taken in this area are 1,120.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 428545 Michael James O’ROURKE, Canadian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 428545 Private Michael James O'Rourke, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during prolonged operations. For three days and nights, during the period 15th/17th August 1917 at Hill 60 near Lens, France, Private O'Rourke, who is a stretcher-bearer, worked unceasingly in bringing the wounded into safety, dressing them, and getting them food and water. During the whole of this period the area in which he worked was subjected to very severe shelling and swept by heavy machine-gun and rifle fire. On several occasions he was knocked down and partially buried by enemy shells. Seeing a comrade who had been blinded stumbling around ahead of our trench, in full view of the enemy who were sniping him, Private O'Rourke jumped out of his trench and brought the man back, being himself heavily sniped at while doing so. Again he went forward about 50 yards in front of our barrage under very heavy and accurate fire from enemy machine-guns and snipers, and brought in a comrade. On a subsequent occasion, when the line of advanced posts was retired to the line to be consolidated, he went forward under very heavy enemy fire of every description and brought back a wounded man who had been left behind. He showed throughout an absolute disregard for his own safety, going wherever there were wounded to succour, and his magnificent courage and devotion in continuing his rescue work, in spite of exhaustion and the incessant heavy enemy fire of every description, inspired all ranks and undoubtedly saved many lives.

AUG. 18th, 1917

  • New Italian Offensive. - Our ally reports artillery activity from Monte Nero (Upper Isonzo) to the sea.
  • Battle of Langemarck 1917 (Ypres), ends.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Major Okill Massey LEARMONTH 2nd Battalion, Eastern Ontario Regiment, Canadian Expeditionary Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Captain (acting Major) Okill Massey Learmonth, M.C., late Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and exceptional devotion to duty. On 18th August 1917 east of Loos, France, during a determined counter-attack on our new positions, this officer, when his company was momentarily surprised, instantly charged and personally disposed of the attackers. Later, he carried on a tremendous fight with the advancing enemy. Although under intense barrage fire and mortally wounded, he stood on the parapet of the trench, bombed the enemy continuously and directed the defence in such a manner as to infuse a spirit of utmost resistance into his men. On several occasions this very brave officer actually caught bombs thrown at him by the enemy and threw them back. When he was unable by reason of his wounds to carry on the fight he still refused to be carried out of the line, and continued to give instructions and invaluable advice to his junior officers, finally handing over all his duties before he was evacuated from the front line to the hospital where he died.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Company Serjeant-Major 6895 John SKINNER, King's Own Scottish Borderers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 6895 Serjeant (Acting Company Serjeant-Major) John Skinner, King's Own Scottish Borderers (Pollokshields, Glasgow). For most conspicuous bravery and good leading. On 18th August 1917 at Wijdendrift, Belgium, whilst his company was attacking, machine gun fire opened on the left bank, delaying the advance. Although Company Serjeant-Major Skinner was wounded in the head, he collected six men, and with great courage and determination worked round the left flank of three blockhouses from which the machine-gun fire was coming, and succeeded in bombing and taking the first blockhouse single-handed; then, leading his six men towards the other two blockhouses, he skilfully cleared them, taking sixty prisoners, three machine-guns, and two trench mortars. The dash and gallantry displayed by this warrant officer enabled the objective to be reached and consolidated.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 57113 Frederick HOBSON, Central Ontario Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 57113 Serjeant Frederick Hobson, late Canadian Infantry Battalion. On 18th August 1917 north-west of Lens, France, during a strong enemy counter-attack the Lewis gun in a forward post in a communication trench leading to the enemy lines, was buried by a shell, and the crew, with the exception of one man was killed. Serjeant Hobson, though not a gunner, grasping the great importance of the post, rushed from his trench, dug out the gun, and got it into action against the enemy who were now advancing down the trench and across the open. A jam caused the gun to stop firing. Though wounded, he left the gunner to correct the stoppage, rushed forward at the advancing enemy and, with bayonet and clubbed rifle, single-handed, held them back until he himself was killed by a rifle shot. By this time however, the Lewis gun was again in action and reinforcements shortly afterwards arriving, the enemy were beaten off. The valour and devotion to duty displayed by this non-commissioned Officer gave the gunner the time required to again get the gun into action, and saved a most serious situation.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Captain Okill Massey LEARMONTH, Canadian Army awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Captain (acting Major) Okill Massey Learmonth, M.C., late Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and exceptional devotion to duty. On 18th August 1917 east of Loos, France, during a determined counter-attack on our new positions, this officer, when his company was momentarily surprised, instantly charged and personally disposed of the attackers. Later, he carried on a tremendous fight with the advancing enemy. Although under intense barrage fire and mortally wounded, he stood on the parapet of the trench, bombed the enemy continuously and directed the defence in such a manner as to infuse a spirit of utmost resistance into his men. On several occasions this very brave officer actually caught bombs thrown at him by the enemy and threw them back. When he was unable by reason of his wounds to carry on the fight he still refused to be carried out of the line, and continued to give instructions and invaluable advice to his junior officers, finally handing over all his duties before he was evacuated from the front line to the hospital where he died.

AUG. 19th, 1917

  • British capture German trenches near Gillemont Farm, south-east of Epehy, and advance line to depth of five hundred yards on a mile front in neighbourhood of Ypres-Poelcapelle road. Reported that prisoners taken in Ypres fighting of August 16th total 2,114.
  • Italian Advance on the Carso. - Italian infantry carry whole of first Austrian line east of the Isonzo from Plava to the sea, a front of twenty-five miles, largely across the Carso; 7,600 prisoners taken. Farther north the Italians cross to left bank of Isonzo, near Anhovo.

AUG. 20th, 1917

  • Great French Victory at Verdun. - Attacking on both banks of the Meuse, the French carry enemy's defences on a front of eleven miles to a depth which exceeds at certain points one and a quarter miles. On left bank, Avocourt Wood, two summits of the Mort Homme, Corbeaux Wood, and Cumieres Wood are taken; on the right bank the Hill of Talou, Champneuville, Hills 344 and 240, Mormont Farm are occupied. More than 4,000 unwounded prisoners taken.
  • Italian offensive all the Isonzo continued; over 10,000 prisoners to date.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Montague Shadworth Seymour MOORE Royal Hampshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Montague Shadworth Seymour Moore, Hampshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery in operations, on 20th August 1917 near Tower Hamlets, east of Ypres, Belgium, necessitating a fresh attack on a final objective which had not been captured. Second Lieutenant Moore at once volunteered for this duty and dashed forward at the head of some 70 men. They were met with heavy machine-gun fire from a flank which caused severe casualties, with the result that he arrived at his objective – some 500 yards on – with only a Serjeant and four men. Nothing daunted, he at once bombed a large dug-out and took twenty-eight prisoners, two machine-guns and a light field gun. Gradually more officers and men arrived, to the number of about 60. His position was entirely isolated as the troops on the right had not advanced, but he dug a trench and repelled bombing attacks throughout the night. The next morning he was forced to retire a short distance. When opportunity offered he at once reoccupied his position, re-armed his men with enemy rifles and bombs, most of theirs being smashed, and beat off more than one counter-attack. Second Lieutenant Moore held this post under continual shell fire for thirty-six hours until his force was reduced to ten men, out of six officers and 130 men who had started the operation. He eventually got away his wounded, and withdrew under cover of a thick mist. As an example of dashing gallantry and cool determination this young officer's exploit would be difficult to surpass.

AUG. 21st, 1917

  • Canadians attack west and north-west of Lens and capture enemy's positions on a front of 2,000 yards.
  • The French continue their advance at Verdun; taking the Hill of Oie and Regneville; they also storm the village of Samogneux. Prisoners exceed 6,000.
  • Zeppelin raid on coast of Yorkshire.
  • Italians continue offensive along their whole front.
  • Ministry of Reconstruction formed in Great Britain.
  • Germans commence offensive against Russian front twenty miles west of Riga, and Russian advanced posts retire between River Aa and the Tirul Marsh.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary second Lieutenant Hardy Falconer PARSONS, Gloucestershire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to confer the Victoria Cross on the undermentioned: - Temporary Second Lieutenant Hardy Falconer Parsons, late Gloucestershire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery on 20th/21st August 1917 near Epehy, France. During a night attack by a strong party of the enemy on a bombing post held by his command. The bombers holding the block were forced back, but Second Lieutenant Parsons remained at his post, and single-handed, and although severely scorched and burnt by liquid fire, he continued to hold up the enemy with bombs until severely wounded. This very gallant act of self-sacrifice. And devotion to duty undoubtedly delayed the enemy long enough to allow of the organisation of a bombing party, which succeeded in driving back the enemy before they could enter any portion of the trenches. This gallant officer succumbed to his wounds.

AUG. 22nd, 1917

  • Heavy fighting at Ypres. - Sir Douglas Haig reports that near the Ypres Menin road the British line is carried forward about five hundred yards on a front of about a mile, and our troops establish themselves in western part of Inverness Copse.
  • Air Raid on Kent Coast. - A squadron of aeroplanes of the Gotha type raid Kent coast, dropping bombs on Ramsgate, Margate, and Dover; casualties, eleven killed and twenty-six injured. Three enemy machines destroyed, while in fighting at sea five enemy scouts are driven down. Last German daylight air raid on England (until WWII)
  • Italians progress on the left wing. Prisoners exceed 16,000.

AUG. 23th, 1917

  • All-day fight for stronghold south of Lens, known as the “Green Crassier.” Canadians gain a footing in it and hold it against counter-attacks.
  • The French report their total prisoners at Verdun since August 20th are 7,640.
  • Russians retire on the Riga front.

AUG. 24th, 1917

  • Italians take Monte Santo. - The Italian Second Army breaks through enemy's positions on the Bainsizza Plateau, just to north of Monte Santo, and, as the result, the important height falls into our ally's hands. Prisoners to date, 600 officers and 23,000 men.
  • French take Hill 302 and Camard Wood, and advance north of Verdun to a depth of one and a quarter miles.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Acting Corporal 144039 Filip KONOWAL, British Columbia Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 144039 Acting Corporal Filip Konowal, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery and leadership, during the period 22nd/24th August 1917 at Lens, France, when in charge of a section in attack. His section had the difficult task of mopping up cellars, craters and machine-gun emplacements. Under his able direction all resistance was overcome successfully, and heavy casualties inflicted on the enemy. In one cellar he himself bayonetted three enemy and attacked single-handed seven others in a crater, killing them all. On reaching the objective, a machine-gun was holding up the right flank, causing many casualties. Corporal Konowal rushed forward and entered the emplacement, killed the crew, and brought the gun back to our lines. The next day he again attacked single-handed another machine-gun emplacement, killed three of the crew, and destroyed the gun and emplacement with explosives. This non-commissioned officer alone killed at least sixteen if the enemy, and during the two days ' actual fighting carried on continuously his good work until severely wounded.

AUG. 25th, 1917

  • First lists published of two new Orders - the Order of the British Empire and the Order of the Companions of Honour.
  • Battle of Hill 70 (Lens) ends.
  • French report 8,100 prisoners captured in Verdun fighting.

AUG. 26th, 1917

  • British attack and capture enemy's positions east of Hargicourt (north-west of St. Quentin) on a front of over a mile.
  • French attack on right bank of Meuse between Mormont Farm and the Chaume Wood, and carry German defence line on a front of two and a half miles and to a depth of 1,100 yards, capturing Fosses Wood and Beaumont Wood.
  • The Italian advance continues in spite of enemy's stubborn resistance. Our ally crosses the Chiapovano Valley.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 15092 Sidney James DAWSON, Suffolk Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 15092 Corporal Sidney James Day, Suffolk Regiment (Norwich). For most conspicuous bravery. On 26th August 1917 east of Hargicourt, France, Corporal Day was in command of a bombing section detailed to clear a maze of trenches still held by the enemy; this he did, killing two machine-gunners and taking four prisoners. On reaching a point where the trench had been levelled, he went alone and bombed his way through to the left, in order to gain touch with the neighbouring troops. Immediately on his return to his section a stick bomb fell into a trench occupied by two officers (one badly wounded) and three other ranks. Corporal Day seized the bomb and threw it over the trench, where it immediately exploded. This prompt action undoubtedly saved the lives of those in the trench. He afterwards completed the clearing of the trench, and, establishing himself in an advanced position, remained for thirty-six hours at his post, which came under intense hostile shell and rifle grenade fire. Throughout the whole operations his conduct was an inspiration to all.

AUG. 27th, 1917

  • British attack enemy's position east and south-east of Langemarck, and advance their line on a front of over 2,000 yards astride the St. Julien-Poelcapelle road.

AUG. 28th, 1917

  • South-east of Langemarck British troops clear up a strong point in front of our new line.
  • Italians continue the fight on the Bainsizza Plateau, and attack a powerful line of resistance. On the heights to the east of Gorizia they make some gains.
  • Russian Troops Defection in Rumania. - In the Focsani area the enemy attack in region of Muncelul, and a Russian division abandon their positions, fleeing in disorder.

AUG. 29th, 1917

  • French report artillery activity on both sides in Verdun area.

AUG. 30th, 1917

  • On the Ypres front British advance line south-east of St. Janshoek.

AUG. 31st, 1917

  • French win ground north-west of Hurtebise.

SEPTEMBER 1917

SEPT. 1st, 1917

  • Germans force passage of the Dwina at Uxkull.
  • German forces commence offensive operations in Battle of Riga.
  • Sir Douglas Haig reports capture of 7,279 German prisoners in August fighting; also thirty-eight guns.
  • Skirmish off Jutland. - British light forces Sink four German mine-sweeping vessels off Jutland.

SEPT. 2nd, 1917

  • Air Raid on Kent. - Hostile aeroplanes cross the East Kent coast at about 11.15 p.m. and fly seawards a few minutes later. A few bombs are dropped.

SEPT. 3rd, 1917

  • Germans take Riga.
  • Thirty Italian aeroplanes bomb Pola.
  • Aeroplane raid in bright moonlight on Sheerness-Chatham district. Naval casualties, 107 killed, 86 wounded.
  • H.M.S. Begonia was reported as missing after sailing on September 3, 1917.

SEPT. 4th, 1917

  • Moonlight Aeroplane Raid on London. - Eleven killed and 62 injured.
  • Germans occupy Dünamünde, the citadel of Riga, and advance north-east up line of valley of the Livonian Aa.
  • Submarine shells Scarborough. Three killed, five injured.
  • Italians resume offensive on Bainsizza Plateau, and take over 1,600 prisoners. In the south of line Kostanjevica to the sea Italians retreat, but later re-establish their line.

SEPT. 5th, 1917

  • German air attack on French hospital near Verdun; 19 inmates killed, 26 wounded.

SEPT. 6th, 1917

  • British advance line of posts south-west of Lens.
  • Sir Eric Geddes appointed as First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain.

SEPT. 7th, 1917

  • On Lens front British line of advanced posts in Avion and east of Eleu-dit-Leauvette pushed forward.

SEPT. 8th, 1917

  • New Verdun Battle. - French attack on a front on the heights to the east of the Meuse, between the Fosses, Caurieres, and Chaume Wood. The whole of the Chaume Wood is captured. The number of prisoners taken by the French is 800.
  • Crisis in Russia. - General Korniloff demands a military dictatorship; M. Kerensky dismisses him and proclaims him a traitor.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 34795 John CARMICHAEL, North Staffordshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 34795 Serjeant John Carmichael, North Staffordshire Regiment (Glasgow). For most conspicuous bravery. On 8th September 1917 near Hill 60, Zwarteleen, Belgium, when excavating a trench, Serjeant Carmichael saw that a grenade had been unearthed and had started to burn. He immediately rushed to the spot and, shouting to his men to get clear, placed his steel helmet over the grenade and stood on the helmet. The grenade exploded and blew him out of the trench. Serjeant Carmichael could have thrown the bomb out of his trench, but he realised that by so doing he would have endangered the lives of the men working on the top. By this splendid act of resource and self-sacrifice Serjeant Carmichael undoubtedly saved many men from injury, but it resulted in serious injury to himself.

SEPT. 9th, 1917

  • Germans launch violent counter-attack in sector Fosses Wood-Caurieres Wood, and are heavily defeated. Enemy repulsed on both sides of Hill 344.
  • Mr. M. Ribot, French Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns.
  • Northumberland troops’ capture 600 yards of German trench south-east of Hargicourt.
  • Sweden Compromised. - Announced from United States that the German diplomatic agent in Argentina has been allowed the medium of the Swedish Legation at Buenos Aires for transmitting messages to Berlin dealing with sailing of Argentine ships and attacks by German submarines.

SEPT. 10th, 1917

  • French report they have consolidated their gains of September 8 in Fosses-Caurieres sector.

SEPT. 11th, 1917

  • Near Villeret, south of the Bapaume-Cambrai road, Northumberland troops take 400 yards of German trench.
  • First party of British Prisoners of War repatriated through Switzerland reaches England.
  • Austrians, after violent bombardment, launch infantry attacks on slopes of Monte San Gabriele, but are defeated.

SEPT. 12th, 1917

  • M. Kerensky Assumes the Chief Command of Russian Armies.
  • Argentina hands passports to Count Luxburg, the German Charge d' Affaires in Buenos Aires.
  • Central Powers proclaim grant of temporary Constitution to Poland.
  • French Balkan Advance. - French carry by surprise the village of Pogradec, on south-west bank of Lake Ochrida.

SEPT. 13th, 1917

  • Germans attack British positions at Langemarck after heavy bombardment, but are repulsed with severe loss.
  • Russian successes reported from Riga front (south of Riga- Venden road) and on Rumanian front south of Radutz.
  • General Alexeieff appointed Chief of Staff to M. Kerensky.
  • Announced from Balkan area that in the region of the lakes French troops reach Mumulista and Hill 1,704.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance-Sergeant 7708 John MOYNEY, Irish Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 7708 Lance-Serjeant John Moyney, Irish Guards (Rathdowney, Queen's County). For most conspicuous bravery, on 12th/13th September 1917 north of Broembeek, Belgium, when in command of fifteen men forming two advanced posts. In spite of being surrounded by the enemy he held his post for ninety-six hours, having no water and little food. On the morning of the fifth day a large force of the enemy advanced to dislodge him. He ordered his men out of their shell holes and, taking the initiative, attacked the advancing enemy with bombs, while he used his Lewis gun with great effect from a flank. Finding himself surrounded by superior numbers, he led back his men in a charge through the enemy and reached a stream which lay between the posts and the line. Here he instructed his party to cross at once while he and Private Woodcock remained to cover their retirement. When the whole of the force had gained the south-west bank unscathed he himself crossed under a shower of bombs. It was due to endurance, skill and devotion to duty shown by this non-commissioned officer that he was able to bring his entire force safely out of action.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 8387 Thomas WOODCOCK, Irish Guards awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8387 Private Thomas Woodcock, Irish Guards (Wigan, Lancashire). For most conspicuous bravery and determination on 12th/13th September 1917 north of Broenbeek, Belgium. He was one of a post commanded by Lance-Serjeant Moyney which was surrounded. The post held out for ninety-six hours, but after that time was attacked from all sides in overwhelming numbers and was forced to retire. Private Woodcock covered the retirement with a Lewis gun, and only retired when the enemy had moved round and up to his post and were only a few yards away. He then crossed the river, but hearing cries for help behind him, returned and waded into the stream amid a shower of bombs from the enemy and rescued another member of the party. The latter he then carried across the open ground in broad daylight towards our front line regardless of machine-gun fire that was opened on him.

SEPT. 14th, 1917

  • British progress north-east of St. Julien.
  • General Korniloff surrenders to General Alexeieff.

SEPT. 15th, 1917

  • Russia Proclaimed a Republic. - M. Kerensky establishes new War Cabinet of five Ministers.
  • A London regiment captures a German strong point north of Inverness Copse, and Durham troops raid enemy’s trenches west of Cherisy (south-east of Arras).
  • Italians gain ground on south-east of Bainsizza Plateau.

SEPT. 16th, 1917

  • Enemy counter-attacks north of Inverness Copse repulsed, also attempt to advance north of Langemarck after heavy bombardment. Successful British raids on Arras front and between Cambrai and St. Quentin.
  • French bomb Stuttgart and Colmar.

SEPT. 17th, 1917

  • Germans fail in attempting raid on British trenches south of Lombartzyde.
  • Rumanians attack in valley of the Susitza, and occupy a sector of enemy's fortified positions in region of Varnitza.

SEPT. 18th, 1917

SEPT. 19th, 1917

  • Germans gain footing in salient near Froidement Farm, on the Aisne front, but are soon thrown out.
  • H.M.A.V. Orama sunk by the German submarine U-62, in the Western Approaches of the Channel. 5 persons were lost.

SEPT. 20th, 1917

  • Menin Road Battle. - Great British offensive launched east of Ypres on an eight-mile front athwart the Ypres Menin Road. Among the objectives carried were: Inverness Copse, Glencorse Wood, Potsdam, Vampire, Iberian, and Borry Farms, and the strong point known as Gallipoli. North-country and Australian battalions penetrate German positions to depth of over a mile and capture Veldhoek and western portion of Polygon Wood. Farther north Zevenkok is captured.
  • Germans capture Jacobstadt and pierce the Dwina front.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant P.649 William Francis BURMAN, 16th Battalion, The Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own), awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. P.649 Serjeant William Francis Burman, Rifle Brigade (Stepney, East). For most conspicuous bravery. On 20th September 1917 south-east of Ypres, Belgium, when the advance of his Company in attack was held up by an enemy machine-gun firing at point blank range. He shouted to the men next to him to wait a few minutes, and going forward alone to what seemed certain death, killed the enemy gunner and carried the gun to the Company's objective, where he subsequently used it with great effect. By this exceptionally gallant deed the progress of the attack was assured. About 15 minutes later it was observed that the battalion on the right was being Impeded by a party of about 40 of the enemy, who were enfilading them. Serjeant Burman with two others ran forward and got behind the enemy, killing 6 and capturing 2 officers and 29 other ranks.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Hugh COLVIN, Cheshire Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant Hugh Colvin, Cheshire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery in attack. On 20th September 1917 east of Ypres, Belgium, when all the officers of his company except himself – and all but one in the leading company – had become casualties and losses were heavy, he assumed command of both companies and led them forward under heavy machine-gun fire with great dash and success. He saw the battalion on his right held up by machine-gun fire, and led a platoon to their assistance. Second Lieutenant Colvin then went on with only two men to a dug-out. Leaving the men on top, he entered it alone and brought up fourteen prisoners. He then proceeded with his two men to another dug-out which had been holding up the attack by rifle and machine-gun fire and bombs. This he reached and , killing or making prisoners of the crew, captured the machine-gun. Being then attacked from another dug-out by fifteen of the enemy under an officer, one of his men was killed and the other wounded. Seizing a rifle he shot five of the enemy, and, using another as a shield, he forced most of the survivors to surrender. This officer cleared several other dug-outs alone or with one man, taking about fifty prisoners in all. Later he consolidated his position with great skill, and personally wired his front under heavy close range sniping in broad daylight, when all others had failed to do so. The complete success of the attack in this part of the line was mainly due to Second Lieutenant Colvin's leadership and courage.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Captain Henry REYNOLDS, Royal Scots awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Temporary Captain Henry Reynolds, M.C., Royal Scots. For most conspicuous bravery when, on 20th September 1917 near Frezenberg, Belgium, his company in attack and approaching their final objective, suffered heavy casualties from enemy machine-guns and from an enemy “Pill-box” which had been passed by the first wave. Captain Reynolds reorganised his men who were scattered, and then proceeded alone by rushes from shell-hole to shell-hole, all the time being under heavy machine-gun fire. When near the “Pill-box” he threw a grenade intending that it should go inside, but the enemy had blocked the entrance. He then crawled to the entrance and forced a phosphorous grenade inside. This set the place on fire and caused the death of three of the enemy while the remainder, seven or eight, surrendered with two machine-guns. Afterwards, though wounded he continued to lead his company against another objective, and captured it taking seventy prisoners and two more machine-guns. During the whole attack the company was under heavy machine-gun fire from the flanks, but despite this Captain Reynolds kept complete control of his men.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 370995 Alfred Joseph KNIGHT, The London Regiment (Post Office Rifles) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 370995 Serjeant Alfred Joseph Knight, London Regiment (Nottingham). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the operations against the enemy positions. On 20th September 1917 at Alberta Section, Ypres, Belgium, Serjeant Knight did extraordinary good work, and showed exceptional bravery and initiative when his platoon was attacking an enemy strong point, and came under very heavy fire from an enemy machine-gun. He rushed through our own barrage, bayonetted the enemy gunner, and captured the position single-handed. Later, twelve of the enemy with a machine-gun, were encountered in a shell hole. He again rushed forward by himself, bayonetted two and shot a third and caused the remainder to scatter. Subsequently, during the attack on a fortified farm, when entangled up to his waist in mud, and seeing a number of the enemy firing on our troops, he immediately opened fire on them without waiting to extricate himself from the mud, killing six of the enemy. Again, noticing the company on his right flank being held up in their attack on another farm, Serjeant Knight collected some men and took up a position on the flank of this farm, from where he brought a heavy fire to bear on the farm as a result of which the farm was captured. All the platoon officers of the company had become casualties before the first objective was reached, and this gallant Non-commissioned Officer took command of all the men of his own platoon and of the platoons without officers. His energy in consolidating and reorganising was untiring. His several single-handed actions showed exceptional bravery, and saved a great number of casualties in the company. They were performed under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, and without regard to personal risk, and were the direct cause of the objectives being captured.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 8162 William Henry HEWITT, South African Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 8162 Lance-Corporal William Henry Hewitt, South African Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery during operations. On 20 September 1917 east of Ypres, Belgium, Lance-Corporal Hewitt attacked a “pill-box” with his section, and tried to rush the doorway. The garrison, however proved very stubborn, and in the attempt this non-commissioned officer received a severe wound. Nevertheless, he proceeded to the loophole of the “pill-box,” where, in his attempts to put a bomb into it, he was again wounded in the arm. Undeterred however, he eventually managed to get a bomb inside, which caused the occupants to dislodge, and they were successfully and speedily dealt with by the remainder of the section.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Second Lieutenant Frederick Birks, Australian Infantry, 6th Battalion (Victoria), awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - For most conspicuous bravery in attack when, on 20th September 1917 at Glencorse Wood, East of Ypres, Belgium, accompanied by only a corporal, he rushed a strong point which was holding up the advance. The corporal was wounded by a bomb, but Second Lieutenant Birks went on by himself killed the remainder of the enemy occupying the position, and captured a machine-gun. Shortly afterwards he organised a small party and attacked another strong point which was occupied by about twenty-five of the enemy, of whom many were killed and an officer and fifteen men captured. During the consolidation this officer did magnificent work in reorganising parties of other units which had been disorganised during the operations. By his wonderful coolness and personal bravery Second Lieutenant Birks kept his men in splendid spirits throughout. He was killed at his post by a shell whilst endeavouring to extricate some of his men who had been buried by a shell.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Corporal 71130 Ernest Albert EGERTON, Sherwood Foresters (Nottinghamshire And Derbyshire Regiment) awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the grant of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 71130 Corporal Ernest Albert Egerton, Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Regiment (Longton). For most conspicuous bravery, initiative and devotion to duty when, on 20th September 1917 south-east of Ypres, Belgium, during attack, owing to fog and smoke, visibility was obscured, and, in consequence thereof, the two leading waves of the attack passed over certain hostile dug-outs without clearing them. Enemy rifles, assisted by a machine-gun, were, from these dug-outs, inflicting severe casualties on the advancing waves. When volunteers were called for to assist in clearing up the situation, Corporal Egerton at once jumped up and dashed for the dug-outs under heavy fire at short range. He shot in succession a rifleman, a bomber and a gunner, by which time he was supported and 29 of the enemy surrendered. The reckless bravery of this Non-commissioned Officer relieved in less than thirty seconds an extremely difficult situation. His gallantry is beyond all praise.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Lance Corporal 114 Walter PEELER, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 114 Lance-Corporal Walter Peeler, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery, on 20th September 1917 east of Ypres, Belgium, when with a Lewis gun accompanying the first wave of the assault he encountered an enemy party sniping the advancing troops from a shell-hole. Lance-Corporal Peeler immediately rushed the position and accounted for nine of the enemy, and cleared the way for the advance. On two subsequent occasions he performed similar acts of valour, and each time accounted for a number of the enemy. During operations he was directed to a position from which an enemy machine-gun was being fired on our troops. He located and killed the gunner, and the remainder of the enemy party ran into a dug-out close-by. From this shelter they were dislodged by a bomb, and ten of the enemy ran out. These he disposed of. This non-commissioned officer actually accounted for over thirty of the enemy. He displayed an absolute fearlessness in making his way ahead of the first wave of the assault, and the fine example which he set ensured the success of the attack against most determined opposition.

SEPT. 21st, 1917

  • Continuous obstinate enemy attacks on the Ypres Menin Road area break down with heavy losses.
  • Costa Rica severs diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • Germany and Austria return vague replies to the Pope's peace Note.
  • Announcement of resignation of General Alexeieff as Chief of Staff owing to differences with M. Kerensky.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Company Sergeant Major 75361 Robert Hill HANNA, British Columbia Regiment awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 75361 Company Serjeant-Major Robert Hanna, Canadian Infantry. For most conspicuous bravery in attack, when, on 21 September 1917 at Lens, France, his company met with most severe enemy resistance and all the company officers became casualties. A strong point, heavily protected by wire and held by a machine-gun, had beaten off three assaults of the company with heavy casualties. This Warrant Officer under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire, coolly collected a party of men, and leading them against this strong point, rushed through the wire and personally bayonetted three of the enemy and brained the fourth, capturing the position and silencing the machine-gun. This most courageous action, displayed courage and personal bravery of the highest order at this most critical moment of the attack, was responsible for the capture of a most important tactical point, and but for his daring action and determined handling of a desperate situation the attack would not have succeeded. Company Serjeant-Major Hanna's outstanding gallantry, personal courage and determined leading of his company is deserving of the highest possible reward.

SEPT. 22nd, 1917

  • Menin Road Battle. - Three strong enemy counter attacks north of Tower Hamlets completely repulsed.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 506 Reginald Roy INWOOD, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 506 Private Reginald Roy Inwood, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty during the period 19th/22th September 1917 at Polygon Wood, near Ypres, Belgium. During the advance to the second objective he moved forward through our barrage alone to an enemy strong post and captured it, together with nine prisoners, killing several of the enemy. During the evening he volunteered for a special all-night patrol, which went out six hundred yards in front of our line, and there – by his coolness and sound judgement – obtained and sent back very valuable information as to the enemy's movements. In the early morning of the 21st September, Private Inwood located a machine-gun which was causing several casualties. He went out alone and bombed the gun and team, killing all but one, whom he brought in as a prisoner with the gun.

SEPT. 23rd, 1917

  • British destroyer reported sunk by German submarine in Channel; 50 survivors.
  • Lieutenant Werner Voss among enemy's aerial casualties in Menin Road Battle, in which, 20th-23rd, the British took 3,243 prisoners, including 80 officers.

SEPT. 24th, 1917

  • Gotha moonlight raids on English coast and London; 15 killed, 70 injured.

SEPT. 25th, 1917

  • Airship raid in the early morning over Lincolnshire and Yorkshire coasts; three persons slightly injured.
  • Another moonlight Gotha raid on Kent and Essex coast and south-east outskirts of London; 7 killed, 25 injured.
  • Powerful enemy counter-attack east of Ypres; British line penetrated at two points, but the line re-established on the whole area attacked.
  • Announced that both Argentine Houses of Parliament have declared for severing relations with Germany.

SEPT. 26th, 1917

  • Renewed Offensive East of Ypres. - Delivered on a six-mile front from south of the Menin Road to east of St. Julien. The capture of the Tower Hamlets spur completed by English troops; Australians clear the remainder of Polygon Wood and take a trench system to the east of it. English, Scottish, and Welsh battalions penetrate the German defences to the depth of nearly a mile and storm Zonnebeke, while North Midland and London Territorials capture their objectives on the left of the attack. Counter-attacks beaten back, and prisoners taken, including 48 officers.
  • Battle of Polygon Wood (Ypres) begins.
  • Announced that Peru has sent ultimatum to Germany.
  • Russian destroyer Okhotnik mined.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 2060 John James DWYER, Machine Gun Corps, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 2060 Serjeant John James Dwyer, Australian Machine Gun Corps, Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery when in attack. On 26th September 1917 at Zonnebeke, Belgium, Serjeant Dwyer, in charge of a Vickers machine-gun, went forward with the first wave of the brigade. On reaching the final objective this Non-commissioned Officer rushed his gun forward in advance of the captured position in order to obtain a commanding spot, whilst advancing he noticed an enemy machine-gun firing on the troops on our right flank and causing casualties. Unhesitatingly he rushed his gun forward to within thirty yards of the enemy gun and fired point blank at it, putting it out of action and killing the gun crew. He then seized the gun and totally ignoring the snipers from the rear of the enemy position, carried it back across the shell-swept ground to our front line and established both it and his Vickers gun on the right flank of our brigade. Serjeant Dwyer commanded these guns with great coolness and when the enemy counter-attacked our positions he rendered great assistance in repulsing them. On the following day when the position was heavily shelled, this Non-commissioned Officer took up successive positions. On one occasion his Vickers gun was blown up by shell fire, but he conducted his gun team back to Headquarters through the enemy barrage, secured one of the reserve guns, and rushed it back to our position in the shortest possible time. During the whole of the attack his contempt of danger, cheerfulness and courage raised the spirits of all who were in his sector of the line.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 331958 John Brown HAMILTON, Highland Light Infantry awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 331958 Private (Acting Lance-Corporal) John Brown Hamilton, Highland Light Infantry (Lanarkshire). For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty on 25th/26th September 1917 north of the Ypres-Menin Road, Belgium, during the enemy's attack on the line held by our brigades. The greatest difficulty was experienced in keeping the front and support lines supplied with small arm ammunition owing to the intense and continuous belt of artillery fire placed systematically by the enemy between our various lines and battalion headquarters. It was of vital importance for the successful maintenance of the defence of the position that ammunition should be got forward. At a time when this ammunition supply had reached a seriously low ebb, Lance-Corporal Hamilton on several occasions, on his own initiative, carried bandoliers of ammunition through the enemy's belts of fire to the front and support line, and then, passing along these lines in full view of the enemy's snipers and machine-guns – who were lying out in front of our line at close range – distributed the ammunition to the men. In so doing he not only ensured the steady continuance of the defence by rifle fire, but by his splendid example of fearlessness and devotion to duty inspired all who saw him with fresh confidence and renewed their determination to hold on at all costs.

SEPT. 27th, 1917

  • British naval aircraft carry out a bombing raid on St. Denis Westrem Aerodrome, direct hits being observed on fifteen Gotha machines lined up there.
  • The Republic of Costa Rica has broken off diplomatic relations with Germany.
  • British improve their positions south of Polygon Wood.

SEPT. 28th, 1917

  • German aeroplanes attack South-East Coast of England, but are driven off.
  • Great Victory on the Euphrates. - General Maude, in a brilliant manoeuvre, surprises Turkish at Ramadie, and an all-day battle ensues, as the result of which British troops carry enemy's main positions, and completely encircle him.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Private 3774 Patrick BUGDEN, Australian Imperial Force awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 3774 Private Patrick Bugden, late Australian Imperial Force. For most conspicuous bravery and devotion to duty, during the period 26th/28th September 1917 at Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke, Belgium, when our advance was temporarily held up by strongly-defended “pill-boxes.” Private Bugden, in the face of devastating fire from machine-guns, gallantly led small parties to attack these strong points and, successfully silencing the machine-guns with bombs, captured the garrison at the point of the bayonet. On another occasion, when a corporal, who had become detached from his company, had been captured and was being taken to the rear by the enemy, Private Bugden, single-handed, rushed to the rescue of his comrade, shot one enemy and bayonetted the remaining two, thus releasing the Corporal. On five occasions he rescued wounded men under intense shell and machine-gun fire, showing an utter contempt and disregard for danger. Always foremost in volunteering for any dangerous mission, it was during the execution of one of these missions that this gallant soldier was killed.

SEPT. 29th, 1917

  • Surrender of Turkish Commander. - At daybreak General Maude's troops resume attack at Ramadie, and by nine a.m. the enemy surrenders everywhere. Comprised in the capture are guns, arms, ammunition, and several thousand prisoners, including Ahmed Bey, the Turkish Commander, and his Staff.
  • Italian storming company carry some of the high ground south of Podlaka and south-east of Madoni, on the south-eastern edge of the Bainsizza Plateau.
  • Moonlight air raid on London and coasts of Kent and Essex; 11 killed, 82 injured.

SEPT. 30th, 1917

  • Another moonlight air raid on London. About ten penetrate the outer defences, and four or five get to London. Bombs are dropped in London, Kent, and Essex; 9 killed. 42 injured.
  • Enemy repulsed near Ypres. Germans heavily bombard British positions between Tower Hamlets and Polygon Wood, and launch three attacks, all repulsed with loss; the first attack 'south of the Reutelbeek, the second and third astride the Ypres-Menin Road. In the second attack the Germans succeed in driving in one of our advanced posts.

OCTOBER 1917

OCT. 1st, 1917

  • Powerful German counter-attacks against the new British positions from the Ypres-Menin road to Polygon Wood repulsed, except opposite the south-east corner of Polygon Wood, where the enemy occupies two of our advanced posts.
  • Sir Douglas Haig reports 5,296 German prisoners taken during September.
  • British airmen bomb Gontrode Aerodrome.
  • Moonlight aeroplane raid on London and South-East Coast; 10 killed, 38 injured.
  • Severe fighting on Lindi-Masasi road and in the Mbemkuru Valley, German East Africa, French airmen bomb Stuttgart, Treves, Coblenz and Frankfort, as reprisals for German air attacks on Dunkirk and Bar-Ie-Duc.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel Philip Eric BENT, Leicestershire Regiment, awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to approve of the award of the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - Second Lieutenant (Temporary Lieutenant-Colonel) Philip Eric Bent, D.S.O., late Leicestershire Regiment. For most conspicuous bravery, when, on 1st October 1917 east of Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke, Belgium, during a heavy hostile attack, the right of his own command and the battalion on his right were forced back. The situation was critical owing to the confusion caused by the attack and the intense artillery fire. Lieutenant-Colonel Bent personally collected a platoon that was in reserve, and together with men from other companies and various regimental details, he organised and led them forward to the counter-attack, after issuing orders to other officers as to the further defence of the line. The counter-attack was successful and the enemy were checked. The coolness and magnificent example shown to all ranks by Lieutenant-Colonel Bent resulted in the securing of a portion of the line which was of essential importance for subsequent operations. This very gallant officer was killed whilst leading a charge which he inspired with the call of “Come on the Tigers.”

OCT. 2nd, 1917

  • German attacks on British front east of Ypres repulsed.
  • H.M.S. Drake torpedoed and sunk by submarine in the North Channel.
  • French airmen bomb Baden as reprisal for bombardment of Bar-Ie-Duc.

OCT. 3rd, 1917

  • Battle of Polygon Wood (Ypres) ends.
  • Further German attacks east of Ypres repulsed.
  • Sir Auckland Geddes, Minister of National Service, in a speech at Edinburgh, makes important statement on National Service.

OCT. 4th, 1917

  • Battle of Broodseinde Ridge. - British attack on eight-mile front from railway north of Langemarck to Tower Hamlets Ridge, on Ypres-Menin road. All objectives gained, including main ridge up to a point 1,000 yards north of Broodseinde. Over 3,000 prisoners captured.
  • General Smuts indicates coming air reprisals on Germany.
  • Victoria Cross recipient – Serjeant 10605 James OCKENDON, Royal Dublin Fusiliers awarded the Victoria Cross: His Majesty the KING has been graciously pleased to award the Victoria Cross to the undermentioned: - No. 10605 Serjeant James Ockenden, Royal Dublin Fusiliers (Southsea). For most conspicuous bravery in attack. On 4th October 1917 east of Langemarck, Belgium, when acting as Company Serjeant-Major and seeing the platoon on the right held up by an enemy machine-gun he i