The Second Great War No. 64

THE SECOND GREAT W A K Editors :Sir John Hammerton # Maj.-Gen. Sir Charles Gwynn, K .C.B., D.S.O Associate Editor :J.R. Fawcett Thompson Both Germany and Japan counted on delivering knock-out blows by their air power. At the outset o f their respective campaigns, both Germany and Japan looked as though they would succeed in their object. Poland— Scandinavia— the Low Countries— France— were overwhelmed by the Luftwaffe: an»!l the Japanese bombs that fell on Pearl H arbour and on British naval units off Malaya had a temporarily paralyzing effect on American and British defence in the Pacific. But in Europe the slow turning o f the tables began with Germany defeat’s in the Battle of Britain in 1940, and during the period covered by Cap­tain Norman Macmillan in Chapter 254—July to Dec ember ,1942— t heR.A .F. and the U.S A .F..A were begin­ning those attacks in great force on Germany and German -occupied Europe the intensity of which mounted steadily from that lime. The same period marked the change-over in the Pacific from defensive to offen­sive air war by the Allies. Air power, for instance, played a vital part in the American recapture of Guadalcanal. 'T’he Battle o f Egypt is the subject o f Chapter 255. After the depressing setbacks that had met armour sin previous Egyptian-Libyan campaigns, it came as a much-needed proof that British generals could out-general Germany best,’s that British troops adequately equipped were the equal even o f German veterans, and that British factories could produce armaments o f up-to-date and unique types. Equipment, particularly the 28-ton Sherman tanks, sent from A m erica, was o f the utmost value in this critical struggle but President Roosevelt himself, speaking on November 6,1942, to a press conference in Washington, emphasized that the overwhelming part o f the equipment used by the Eighth Arm yin the achievement o f this “victory o f major importance” was British, a great deal less than half being American. Not only did the Battle of Egypt justifiably raise the spirits and improve the morale o f the British and the Americans it also finally scotched Hitler's plans for forcing the backdoor into Russia through the Near East and joining forces with his Japanese ally .som ew herein southern Asia. An account o f General M ontgom ery’s unrelent­ing chase o f the Afrika K orps across Libya and Cyrenaica is given in Chapter 257, which begins in this part o f The Second G rl-a t W a rand will be concluded in Part 65. Y \/h il thee news o f M ontgom ery’s success in driving the Germans beyond the frontiers of Egypt was still hot came the even more astound­ing news o f the safe arrival off French North Africa of the largest armada ever set afloat in history. This great A nglo-A m erican expedition, sailing through the submarine- LITERARY CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER Chapter Page Historic Documents, Nos. 259-260 Extracts from Speeches by Mr. Churchill, February 15 and November 10,19422515254 Air War :Europe and the Far East, July- December, 19422517255 The Battle of E"vpt, October 23-Novem- ber 5,19422526256 The Race for Tunis, November 8 -Decem­ _ ber 9,10422539257 From El Alamcin to Tripoli, November 5, 1942-January 23,19432548 SAVE EVERY SCRAP O F PAPER The amount of paper released by the paper control for the production of books and periodi­cals is very small—and the continuation of even that small amount depends in large measure on the quantity of paper salvaged. Clean paper sent for salvage is repulped and made into fresh paper. Every bit of paper and cardboard that comes into your house shoulJ, therefore, be put on one side for the collector. None should ever be destroyed or used for such domestic purposes as lighting fires and wrapping refuse. Hand your w a step ape rand card board to the local c o lle c tor for re pulping .infested Atlantic in three separate forces, made its landfall without a single incident. It comprised more than 500 ships— British, American, Bel­gian, Danish, Dutch, Norw egian, and Polish merchantmen and they were escorted by more than 350 warships, be­longing to the Royal Navy, the United States Navy, and the Royal Canadian, Royal Nether­ lands, Royal Norwegian, and Polish navies. Landings were successfully effected at Casablanca, Algiers and Oran, and at points in the neighbour­ hood o f those towns— unfortunately not, as had been hoped, without opposition from the French but that opposition, though at places strenuous, was shortlived :the landings began on November 8 all opposition from the French ceased, on Admiral D arlan's orders, on November II. The subsequent gallant though unsuccessful effort o f the First Army under General Anderson (an “arm y”in name only— it was less than a division in strength) to reach Tunis before the Germans could secure control o f that city is vividly described in Chapter 256 by Mr. A.D. Divine, the only British correspondent attached to the American Combat Forces in this campaign. Mr. Divine, who is an experienced war correspondent both landon and at sea, won the D.S.C. at Dunkirk while lie was helping in the evacuation o f the B.E.F. in 1940. TIL is tor ic Documents CC LIX and CCLX comprise extracts from two speeches made by M r .Wins ton Churchill, during 1942. His change o f tone from sombre endurance in February to tem­pered rejoicing in November is characteristic of a change that then came to all Allied hearts. No. 65 of THE SECOND GREAT WAR, our next issue, will be ready on Thursday, June 15,1944
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