War Machine, Volume 8

Chrysler Jupiter Throughout the 1960s the US Army Bal­listic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal was the world's most experi­enced source of large ballistic mis­siles. It was natural that in 1954 de­velopment should have started on anew missile of the much longer range which had become technically possi­ble. This was named Jupiter was the first IRBM (intermediate-range ballis­tic missile) and was a logical extension of A4/Redstone technology to a design range of 2776 km (1725 miles) In 1955 plans were studied for a US Navy ver­sion for tube launch from various ships, notably large submarines. The basic vehicle was actually shorter than the Redstone but of greater diameter and its enormous tankage section was made by welding extruded panels of aluminium alloy. From its flat base protruded the thrust' chamber of the engine which was much more power­ful and advanced in design than any predecessor. It pivoted on gimbal mounts to vector the thrust to steer the missile in any direction roll control being effected by vectoring the turbo­ pump exhaust pipe. For the first time the speed on re-entry to the atmos­phere was so high that a special nose-cone was needed to protect the war­head an ablative type was selected, much lighter than the heat-sink type chosen by the USAF. An excellent fea­ture was that it was a mobile system, towed to the launch site and there erected by a cable-hoist a much smal­ler and neater system than the Red­ stone method. A folding petal-type shelter covered the lower part of the missile during pre-launch preparation and fuelling The first definitive missile was launched on 1 March 1957 a full- range mission came in May and by January 1958 Jupiter was declared operational But in November 1957 the US government decreed that the US Army should not develop weapons of over 322-km (200-mile) range and Jupiter became SM-78 (later PGM- 19A) of the US Air Force. The 864th and 865th Strategic Missile Sqns took 30 missiles each to Italy and Turkey in 1960 and subsequently trained units of the host air forces until deactivation in 1965. Specification Jupiter Type: mobile IRBM Propulsion: one Rocketdyne S - 3 engine rated at 68040-kg (150,000-lb) thrust and burning liquid oxygen and RP-1 kerosene Performance: burn-out speed Mach 1 2 range3180 976miles) km(1 Weight: launch 49895 kg (110000 lb) Dimensions: length 18.31 m (60 ft 0.9 in) diameter 268 m (8 ft 5 9 in) Warhead: thermonuclear up to 1.5 megatons Guidance: inertial Control: thrust vectoring of main engine and turbopump exhaust with vernier velocity trimming by small motor on re-entry vehicle Right: Powered by a gim bal-m ounted motor more advanced than any previous system, the 3180-km (1,975- mile) ranged Jupiter was the world's first operational intermediate range ballistic missile (IRBM). Lin L \ USA Chrysler Redstone This enormous ballistic rocket was the most direct descendant of the pioneer wartime A4 (V-2). This was natural be­cause its design team at the newly formed US Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) at Huntsville Alaba­ma was composed of the same Ger­man engineers that developed the A4, working under von Braun. The name came from the original US Army orga­nization at Huntsville Redstone Arsen­al. Over 500 US civilians also partici­pated including most of the General Electric team from Project Hermes and a few Convair MX-774 engineers. Though based on the A4 the SSM-A-14 Redstone (US Army designation M5) had slightly greater diameter much greater length totally new guidance and a separable nosecone and fore­ body with small wedge-like control fins. It was a great technical achieve­ment though today it seems clumsy and inconvenient. At least the ancestry ensured that the Redstone was mobile and not installed in vast fortresses of concrete Weighing over 250 tons the system included a gigantic A-frame derrick and winch with which the mis­sile could be slowly pulled upright onto its rotating ring launcher. This then had to be turned to the exact azimuth setting for the selected target. Four enormous trailers contained a liquid- oxygen plant with an output of 20 tons per day while other huge Fruehauf transporters carried the warhead sec­tion tankage section and motor section which then had to be assembled at the launch site. No vernier motor was used for precision trimming of the final velocity so the cut-off timing of the main motor had to be extremely accu­rate if the impact was to be on target. The first test firing was on 20 August 1963 and the first US Army unit the 40th Field Artillery Missile Group (Heavy) was inactivated July 1957. Production of 1000 rounds was hand­led by Chryslers Defense Operations Division. In the 1962 designation sys­tem Redstone became PGM-11 A. Specification Redstone Type: heavy guided artillery missile Propulsion: one North American Below: The Redstone used German A4 (V-2) technology. Many of the design team had worked on the German program m e and under Wernher von Braun were to provide the backbone of American missile research in the 1950s and 1960s. Aviation (Rocketdyne) A-6 rocket engine with turbopump feed of liquid oxygen and alcohol for sea-level thrust of34019 kg (75000 lb) Performance: cut-off speed for maximum range typically 5472 km/h (3400 mph) maximum range variable with warhead to 401 km (249 miles), but US Army prohibited by Wilson Memorandum from deploying weapon with more than 322-km (200-mile) range see Jupiter entry Weights: empty 5080 kg (11200 lb) launch 27987 kg (61700 lb) Dimensions: length (late PGM-1 1 A) 2103 m(69 ftO in) body diameter 1.78 m(5 ft 10 in) fin span 3.66 m(12 ft 0 in) Warhead: up to 2994 kg (6600 lb) nuclear Guidance: Ford Instrument (Sperry Rand) inertial first use of air-bearing gyros Control: refractory jet deflector vanes, tail fins precision cut-off of propulsion, and control vanes on descending warhead section TP- The 27-ton Redstone had a maximum range of 400 km (250 miles), which was not much more than the original V-2. The major difference of course inlay the carriage o f anatomic warhead. 1682
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