Designed to meet a 1964 West German naval air arm (Marineflieger) requirement the MBB Kormoran was originally based on a French Nord design the AS.34 using the inertial guidance system from the defunct AS.33 project. However following the creation of the German MBB aerospace consortium, the missile became a major project with help from the French concern Aerospatiale. The weapon was given anew and more sophisticated guidance package and the first flight trials were undertaken on 19 March 1970 the first production rounds being delivered in December 1977. By the middle of the following year MFG 2 equipped with Lockheed F- 104G Starfighters was fully operational with the missile at Eggbeck. Normally two missiles are carried under the wings of the F-104G, whilst the newly-introduced Panavia Tornados of the Marineflieger can carry four although a maximum of eight is possible. The Kormoran is also operated by the Italian air force. After release from the launch aircraft two double-propellant SNPE Prades boost motors bum for about one second then the main SNPE Eole IV sustainer motor cuts into provide thrust for a further 100 seconds of powered flight. For the initial cruise phase of the mission a Stena/Boden- seewerk inertial guidance platform coupled with a modified TRT radio ali- meter is used to hold the missile on course (using the cruciform rear fins) at a height of about 30 m (100 ft). Near the estimated target location the missile is commanded to descend to its wave-top attack altitude by the autopilot and the Thomson-CSF two-axis radar acting in either a pre-set active or passive mode searches for acquires and then locks onto the enemy vessel. The missile then strikes the target just above the waterline the warhead (with 56 kg/123.5 lb of explosive delay-action fuse and 16 radially- mounted charges) explodes deep within the hull to maximize the damage caused. The development of a Kormoran Mk 2 version for the Marineflieger has begun and this is expected to have an improved radar seeker with enhanced ECM resistance a longer range and a heavier and more destructive warhead. Specification Kormoran Dimensions: length 4.40 m (14 ft 5.25 in) diameter 34.4 cm (1 ft 1.5 in) span 1.00 m(3 ft 3.4 in) Weights: total round 600 kg (1323 lb) warhead 165 kg (364 lb) Performance: maximum speed Mach 0.95 range 37 km (23 miles) Designed in the late 1960s the first production rounds of the Kormoran were not delivered until 1977. A Mk2 version is already underdevelopment for the West German navy to arm its Tornado strike aircraft in the mid to late 1990s. The Kormoran M k 1 is used by the Marineflieger and by Italian anti shipping units. It is specifically designed to operate amongst the Baltic coastal islands which would normally provide any potential enemy vessels with adequate radar cover. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ — _ ITALY/FRANCE III I I OTO-Melara/MatraOtomat Developed as a joint venture by OTO- Melara of Italy and Matra of France, the Otomat missile is powered by a Turbom6ca turbojet and is carried in a self-contained container-launcher unit. Two lateral jettisonable solid- propellant boosters are attached for the launch phase boosting the missile to cruising speed. Initial target- location data is gained from either the launch platform's own sensors or external sources such as helicopters or other ships. The missile is then launched at an angle of up to 200° from the target's actual bearing corrects its heading (with an autopilot controlling the cruciform rear fins) and climbs to its cruising altitude of 250 m (820 ft). At a predetermined point the missile then descends to 20 m (66 ft) above sea level and when about 15 km (9.3 km) from the target's expected location, commences a search with its terminal active radar seeker. Once acquisition and lock-on are achieved the missile descends to the final altitude of 10 m (33 ft) for the run into the target. If the Italian SMA homing head is fitted then the missile stays as a sea skimmer until impact if however the French Thom- son-CSF 'col-vert' head is fitted the missile undertakes a rapid climb to 175 m (574 ft) and then dives onto the target. In the Italian navy's Otomat Mk II Teseo aversion Marconi Italiano TG-2 command guidance system is fitted for mid-course guidance correction by airborne platforms. This allows targets to be engaged at ranges in excess of 180 km (112 miles). Otomat operators are Algeria Egypt Italy, Libya Nigeria Kuwait Peru Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. A coastal-defence variant of the Oto mat has also been developed and this version has been acquired by Egypt in addition to the ship-launched system. Italy is also developing a supersonic successor to the Otomat known as the Otomat 2. This will probably incorporate new seeker technology and enter service in the late 1980s. Designed to be used with an external target-designating source to get the maximum benefit from its range capabilities the Otomat has yet to see combat service although its presence in the inventories of several Middle Eastern countries may change this. 482
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