The Great War Part 264, September 6th 1919

A WEEKLY REVIEW SUPPLEMENT TO “ THE GREAT WAR,” PART 264. From the W orld’s Platform s A n A r c h d u c a l P r o m ise As soon as th e N atio n a l A ssem bly m eets a fte r th e electio n s m y w ork au to m atic ally comes to an end. T he decisions of th e N atio n al Assem­ bly w ill be sacred for us all. T h e A rch d u k e Josep h in B u d ap est. C la s s C o m r a d esh ip o f th e E m p ire The w ar has w elded th e B ritish E m pire firmly and in sep arab ly to g e th e r, and all classes of men have been b ro u g h t to know each o th er as never before. T he g rim lessons of w ar have been b u rn t in to m en ’s h e a rts , and th ey can no t fo r­ g et them . S ir Jo h n M on ash, C om m an der-in -C hief, A .I .F . A L e a g u e o f E q u a l S ta te s The settlem e n t of S outh A frica a fte r th e Boer W ar, when G re a t B rita in gave freedom and self-governm ent, re su lted in a wave of optim ism . T he re su lt of G reat B rita in ’s act was one of th e m ost m arvellous crea tio n s of statesm an sh ip . T hey h ad reached a stag e w here th ey m u st look beyond th e ir bou nd aries. H e and G eneral B o th a had alw ays preached in E n g la n d th e idea of th e E m p ire as a league of equal and in d ep en d en t S tates. The L eague of N ations em bodied th e same idea. I f th ey w anted to do th e ir b est for South A frica th ey m u st look fa rth e r th a n South A frica. T hey were now p a rt of th e la rg e w orld, and no lo n ger an obscure B ritis h colony. G eneral S m u ts at Cape Tow n. T rib u te to L o r d N o r th c liffe I t can no t be doubted th a t L ord N orthcliffe very s u b sta n tia lly c o n trib u te d to E n g la n d ’s v ictory in th e w orld w ar. H is conduct of E n g lish p ro p ag an d a d u rin g th e w ar w ill some day find its place in h isto ry as a perform ance h ard ly to be surpassed. T he N orthcliffe p ro p ag an d a d u rin g th e w ar not only co rrectly e stim ate d th e m en ta lity of th e E n g lish people, b u t q u ite as co rrectly th e c h a ra c te r and in te lle c tu a l p ec u lia ritie s of th e G erm ans. F in a lly , it understood and exploited th e variou s ways of th o u g h t of th e n atio n s allied w ith E n g la n d and of th e n eu tra ls. H err A rn o ld R e ch b erg in B erlin . T h e W a y o f H e a lin g G ive freedom and self-g o v ern m en t; be g en ero u s; be m agnanim ous. O therw ise, it w ill be im possible to h eal th e w ounds of th e w orld. G eneral S m u ts at Cape Tow n. Personalia of the W ar C a p ta in P r in c e A lb e r t, R .A . F . T he ap p o in tm en t h as been announced as P e r­ sonal A.D .C . to th e K in g of P rin c e A lb ert, who is g ra n te d a p erm an en t com m ission as cap tain in th e E oy al A ir Force. H a ig ’s N ew T itle F ield -M arsh al S ir D ouglas H a ig has decided to ta k e th e title of E a rl H a ig of B eniersyde. B em ersyde, w ith an old stro n g h o ld b u ilt in 1535 to secure th e peace of th e B o rd er, is n ear th e Tweed and ea st of M elrose, and h as been held by th e H a ig s since th e tw e lfth cen tury. T hom as th e R hym er, whose nam e in th e fo lk ­ lore of Scotland is associated w ith num erous frag m en ts of verse of a p ro p h etic ch a rac te r w rote : “ Tyde what may betyde, H a ig shall be L a ird of B em ersyde.” And th e fam ily to o k as its m otto th e first th re e w ords of th e rhym e. G overn or o f th e G o ld C o a st Brigadier-General Frederick Gordon Guggis- berg, U.E., has been appointed Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Gold Coast in suc­ cession to Sir H ugh Charles Clifford, who was nominated Governor-General of Nigeria on the retirem ent of Sir F. D. Lugard. B rig ad ier-G en eral G u g g isb erg , a C anadian by b irth , was a t one tim e In s tru c to r of F o rtifi­ catio n s a t W oolwich. In 1902 he w ent o u t to A sh an ti on survey d u ty and la te r he becam e Surveyor-G eneral of N ig eria. H e served in th e w ar, and la st y ear received th e D.S.O. H e m arried , in 1905, M iss D ecim a M oore, and w ith h er w rote an in te re stin g and e n te rta in in g volum e, “ W e Two in W est A fric a .” C o lo n els o f th e H o u s e h o ld C a v a lry The King has approved of the following appointments : F ield -M arsh al S ir D ouglas H a ig , K .T ., G .C .B ., O .M ., G .C .V .O ., K .C .I.E ., F ield- M arsh al C om m anding-in-C hief F orces in G reat B rita in , Colonel 17th (D uke of C am b rid g e’s Own) L an cers, H on o rary Colonel 14th (C ounty of London) B attalio n th e London K egim ent (L ondon S co ttish ), to be Colonel of th e lloy al H orse G uard s, in succession to F ield -M arsh al S ir H en ry E velyn W ood, V .C ., G .C .B ., G .C .M .G ., C onstable of th e Tow er of L ondon, H on o rary Colonel 5th B a tta lio n , E ssex R egi- NEW AIR FORCE TITLES The King as Chief— Four Ranks of Marshal The S ecretary of th e * A ir M in istry has announced th a t his M ajesty th e K in g has been pleased to assum e th e title of C hief of th e R oyal A ir Force. H is M ajesty , on th e advice of th e S ecretary of S ta te for W a r an d A ir, has approved of new title s for th e com m issioned ra n k s of th e R oyal A ir Force. These are set o u t below, w ith th e ir co rrespo n ding ra n k s in th e N avy an d th e A rm y : A ir F orce. M arshal of the A ir A ir Chief-M arshal Air M arshal Air Vice-M arshal A ir Commodore Group Captain W ing Com mander Squadron Leader F light L ieutenant Flying Officer (or Observer) P ilot Officer m en t, and In n s of C ourt Officers T ra in in g Corps, who has resign ed th e ap p ointm en t. M ajor-G eneral th e H on. S ir Cecil E dw ard B in gh am , K .C .M .G ., C .B ., C .V .O ., to be Colonel of th e 2nd L ife G uard s, in succession to L ieu ten an t-G en eral 1). M. B. H . E a rl of D undonald, K .C .B ., K .C .Y .O ., who has resigned th e ap p ointm en t. F ie ld -M a r s h a ls P tu m er a n d A lle n b y T he K in g has ap p ointed G en eral Sir H erb e rt C harles Onslow P Ulmer, G .C .B ., G .C .M .G ., G .C .V .O ., and G en eral S ir E dm u nd H enry H ynm an A llenby, G .C .M .G ., K .C .B ., to be F ield -M arsh als. These prom otions, to g e th e r w ith th a t of F ield -M arsh al S ir H en ry W ilson, K .C .B ., D .S.O ., are d ated J u ly 31st, 1919, and th e new F ield -M arsh als w ill th erefo re ta k e precedence in th e above o rder. G e n e r a l R a w lin so n fo r R u ssia G eneral S ir H . S. R aw linson, G .C .B ., G .C .Y .O ., K .C .M .G ., has proceeded to N orth R ussia to co-ordinate th e difficult m ilita ry o peratio n of th e w ith d raw al of th e A rchang el and M urm ansk forces. G eneral S ir H en ry Raw linson is fam ous as th e com m ander of th e F o u rth A rm y, w hich bore such a g re a t p a rt in th e offensive of last au tu m n . I t h ad a la rg e share in th e opening v ictory in fro n t of A m iens in A u g u st, thence p u sh in g forw ard over th e old Somme battlefield and across th e H in d e n b u rg line. K .C .B . fo r M a y n a r d a n d Iro n sid e As a reco gn itio n of th e ir v alu ab le services in com m and of th e ir respective forces in N orth R ussia his M ajesty has been pleased to confer upon G enerals C. C. M. M ayn ard and W . E. Iro n sid e th e d istin c tio n of K n ig h t Coinm ander- ships of th e B ath. A ir M in istry S ec r e ta r ies The A ir M in istry announces th a t the S ecretary of S ta te has approved a re o rg a n isa ­ tion of th e D ep artm en t of th e S ecretary to th e M in istry , one of th e p rin cip a l objects of w hich is to provide m ore fu lly for th e co-ordination of th e w ork of th e D ep artm en t. U nd er th is re o rg a n isa tio n M r. C. R. B rig- stock and M r. J . A. W eb ster, who had been tra n sfe rre d from th e B oard of T rad e, have been ap p ointed A ssistan t S ecretaries. N a v y . A dm iral of the Fleet Adm iral Vice-Admiral R ear-A dm iral Commodore Captain Commander L i e u t .- C o m - m ander L ieutenant Sub-Lieutenant A r m y . Field-M arshal General Lieut.-General M ajor-G eneral BrigHGeneral Colonel Lieut.-Colonel M ajor C aptain Lieutenant Sec. Lieutenant The o b ject is to preserve and to em phasise th e p rin ciple of th e independence and in te g rity of th e R oyal A ir F orce as a sep ara te service am ong th e fig h tin g services of th e Crown. H ith e rto th e title s borne by officers of th e R oyal A ir F orce have been exclusively m ilita ry in c h a ra c te r,.a n d as such th ey are not suited to a service w hich has n o t only to serve the special services of th e A rm y, b u t also those of th e N avy, and in ad d itio n has a s tra te g ic and ta c tic a l sphere of action in d ep en d en t of th e o th er tw o fig h tin g services. I t is, of course, n o t easy to com m and u n a n i­ m ous ag reem ent on m a tte rs of n om enclature, b u t very long and carefu l co n sideratio n has been given to th e choice of th e title s now approved, and m any in te re stin g a lte rn a tiv e sug gestio ns have been rejected. T he scheme is fram ed on th e p rin ciple (a) th a t th e ra n k s should as fa r as possible correspond to ac tu al fu n ctio n s; (b) th a t th e ra n k s should as fa r as possible correspond to e q u iv ale n t s ta tu s in th e th re e services; and (c) th a t th ere should be no re p e titio n s in title s u a p a rt from th e prefixes in th e h ig h e r ran k s. A d istin ctio n is preserved , betw een th e re g i­ m en tal officers and officers of G eneral ran k . Officers of G en eral ra n k in th e R oyal A ir F orce are “ A ir O fficers,” and th e expression “ A ir Officer ” corresponds to th e expression “ G eneral Officer ” in th e A rm y or “ F la g Officer ” in th e N avy. The new title s cam e in to force a t th e b eg in ­ n in g of A ug u st. German War Prisoners T he W ar Office recen tly announced th a t th e num b er of G erm an p rison ers of w ar located in v arious p a rts of th e U n ite d K ingdom in in te rn ­ m en t cam ps was 91,818; th is num b er in ­ clu d in g 2,908 sailors and 4,306 civilian aliens. T he airm en prison ers com prise 170 prison ers ca p tu red in land o peratio ns, and 14 n aval airm en. The re p a tria tio n of these prison ers is neces­ sarily dep en dent upon th e ra tific atio n of th e T re a ty of Peace, and also upon th e a rra n g e ­ m ents to be m ade by th e Com m ission w hich is sh o rtly to m eet in P aris. The m ajority of the invalids, the insane and the badly wounded, have already left for Germany. The g re a t m ajo rity of those s till em ployed in th is co u n try are engaged in a g ric u ltu ra l w ork, b u t n early 7,000 are em ployed by th e m ilita ry a u th o ritie s on th e E a st C oast and elsew here in filling in tren ch es and clea rin g up cam ps. P riso n ers of w ar when em ployed receive th e sam e w orking pay as B ritis h soldiers. The World To-day is continued on page iv.
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