The Great War Part 253, June 21st 1919

(1 1 .) Registered. A WEEKLY REVIEW SUPPLEMENT TO “ THE GREAT W A R " PART 253. History in the Making M R, H AM ILTO N F Y F E ’S narrative of “ The Rum anian Blunder ” is con­ cluded in this pai't. In his story of this cam paign he shows how, after the disaster at Turtukai, considerable confusion appears to have reigned within the minds of R um ania’s rulers. As a m atter of plain fact, the R um anian General Staff, as soon as its original intention was abandoned, found itself w ithout any plan a t all, living from hand to m outh, from hour to hour. Nor did it receive a clear lead from any of its Allied commands. Sum m ing up his exceedingly lucid narrative of R um ania’s tragic story, Mr. H am ilton Fyfe comes to the conclusion th a t she fell, not by reas.on of R ussia’s negligence or unreadiness to help her, but because her rulers, civil and m ilitary, blundered in grievous fashion. I N this part Mr. Robert M achray’s vivid narrative of the £.plendid work of the R oyal Army M edical Corps and the marvels of preventive medicine commences. The subject is one of peculiar fascination, and, indeed, it is doubtful if in the whole story of the war there is any part of it more interest­ ing or am azing even than th a t concerned with the work and growth of the R .A .M .C .. Like other units, it expanded with the growth of the B ritish armies. Very significant in this connection are the follow ing figures: A t out­ break of war the tota l strength of the R .A .M .C ., including nurses, was not quite 20,000. A t the arm istice, Novem ber 11th, 1918, its total strength stood at 168,145—a number, bo it noted, greater than that of the original E xpeditionary Force. ^ 1 pM IK next issue of this H istory will con­ tain the opening instalm ent of three chapters on the record of the regim ents in the war, a subject which naturally adm its of picturesque and thrilling treatm ent. The story of four regim ents of F oot Guards will be given first, and the recent suggestion made by the “ Times ” th a t a new regim ent of Guards should be raised to commemorate the services of the Overseas Dom inions in the Great W ar, m akes these chapters of topical interest. The narrative will be divided into E nglish, Irish, and W elsh Guards, the part played by the Scots Guards having already been dealt w ith in the chapter on Scotland’s I I share in the war in Volum e X I. Subsequent chapters will describe the services of the various line regim ents in the war. It was a constant com plaint in the early days of the war th at the thrilling deeds of our regim ents were concealed from the public—th a t is, as regards individual units. Now th a t the war is over the whole story can be unfolded, and it forms an epic w ith which there is nothing to compare in our m ilitary annals. It is only fitting th a t the nam es of the dauntless regi­ m ents to whom the nation owes so much, w'ho stood between us and disaster on many a hard- fought field, should be known and eulogised. S is only natural, some regim ents stand out conspicuously, and while all bore an honoured part in the great struggle, some achieved more honour than others, due to the exigencies of the particular moment. A t a critical hour a particular un it found itself called upon to “ save the situation,” and right well did it respond to the call made upon it. These records supplem ent {uul com plete the narrative of B ritain’s m ilitary effort already given. The various cam paigns have already been dealt w ith in their chronological sequence, and the record of individual heroes who earned the Victoria Cross in four years of conflict has been fully given. It needed this narrative of collective heroism to com plete the record, and it will be found th a t the forth­ coming story of the great deeds of the regi­ m ents is one of the fullest and most thrilling of the many chapters of this history. • N P art 255 of this H istory will be presented a beautiful colour-plate map showing the territory lost by Germany as the result of the Treaty of Peace, which will form a perm anent and attractive addition to the many plates already given to subscribers. As previously announced, a feature of our history is the splendid colour-plate maps, which will be presented gratis. That showing the geo­ graphical distribution of the races of Central Europe and the B alkans is given w ith this issue, and there is in active preparation a useful and fine colour-plate in the form of a map of the world at war, fuller particulars of which will be duly announced. 7 C . Heard at the Listening Post T h e re w as re c e n tly p u b lish e d in th e P a ris “ J o u r n a l des D e b a ts ” se v era l e x tra c ts from te le g ra m s e x c h a n g e d b etw een th e C e n tra l P o w ers j u s t b efo re A u s tr ia ’s de- Arranging c la ra tio n of w a r on S e rb ia , w hich the p ro v e co n clu siv ely t h a t th e p lo t War Plot w as a rra n g e d , n o t on ly on a g iv en d a y , b u t even a t a g iv en h o u r. On J u ly 23rd, a t 9.30 in th e m o rn in g , C o u n t B erch- to ld te le g ra p h e d to B a ro n G iesl, A u s tria n M in iste r a t B e lg ra d e : “ Do n o t in an y case ta k e th e ste p w hich w as a rra n g e d fo r th e a f te r ­ noon of to -d a y , a t fo u r o ’clock, b u t ta k e i t th e very so o n est a t a few m in u te s b efo re five. I f p o ssib le, be good en o u g h to d e fe r th e m ove u n til six o ’clock. . .. . W e w ish to p re v e n t th e new s of th e ste p re a c h in g S t. P e te rs b u rg th is ev en ­ in g .” * # * In a re c e n t d eb ate in th e B e lg ia n C h am b er, on th e F lem ish q u e stio n , th e P rim e M in iste r, M. D elacro ix , d enied t h a t F la n d e rs w as o ppressed, or t h a t an y h a tre d Flemings ex isted betw een F le m in g s an d W al- and loons. T h ere w as sim ply d isa g ree- Walloons m en t. “ W e a re a t o n e,” he con­ tin u e d , “ in w ish in g to p reserv e an d s tre n g th e n th e n a tio n a l u n ity . A F le m ish u n iv e rsity could q u ite easily e x ist alo n g sid e a u n iv e rs ity in w h ich F re n c h is th e official la n g u a g e . W e desire, e q u a lity b etw een F le m in g s an d W alloons, a n d a re tu rn to ju stic e in all re sp e c ts .” T he C h a m b e r, b y 71 votes, to 44, re ­ solved “ to d eal in due season, a n d in a s p irit of f r a te r n ity , concord, an d in d iv id u a l lib e rty , w ith th e g riev an ces of th e F lem in g s a n d W al­ loons co n cern in g th e use of th e la n g u a g e s in B e lg iu m .” * * * F o r m o n th s p a st it w as p re d ic te d th a t S m y rn a , as w ell as th e co n sid e ra b le a re a of w hich i t is th e ra ilw a y , sh ip p in g , an d com ­ m e rc ia l c e n tre w ould be h an d ed Greatest over to G reece, as it w as fa r m ore Greek of a G reek tow n th a n a n y th in g else. City S m y rn a itse lf is an a n c ie n t p lace, b u t its d ev elo p m en t in to a g re a t c ity is of c o m p a ra tiv e ly re c e n t d a te . A t th e b e g in n in g of th e e ig h te e n th c e n tu ry it w as a q u ie t, r a th e r sleepy to w n of ab o u t th i r t y th o u sa n d in h a b ita n ts , th e la rg e m a jo rity of w hom w ere T u rk s , w ith no ta le n t w h a te v e r fo r m a k in g a n y th in g of th e possi­ b ilitie s of its fine h a rb o u r. By 1912 it h ad becom e th e “ co m m ercial c a p ita l ” of th e T u rk is h E m p ire , w ith a p o p u la tio n of m ore th a n fo u r h u n d re d th o u sa n d , a q u a r te r of a. m illio n of w hom w ere G reek s, th e p u re T u rk ish e lem en t b e in g re la tiv e ly sm a ll. B ritis h an d F re n c h e n te rp ris e in b u ild in g ra ilw a y s from i t in to th e. in te r io r g re a tly h elp ed its g ro w th , b u t th e b u lk of its com m ence, a n d m o st of its w e a lth , w ere c o n c e n tra te d in th e h a n d s of th e G reek s. V enizelos, a t th e P e ace C onference, claim ed i t a n d its h in te rla n d as G re e k , a n d its o cc u p a tio n by m ix ed fo rce s of th e A llies, in ­ c lu d in g G reek tro o p s, sufficiently in d ic a te s its d e stin y . I t is even now by f a r th e g re a te s t G reek c ity in th e w o rld , its G reek p o p u la tio n m u ch ex cee d in g t h a t of A th en s. * * * Since th e b e g in n in g of th e y e a r th e A il S ervice of th e A m erican A rm y h a s been com ­ p le te ly re o rg a n ise d , u n d e r M a jo r-G en eral C h a rles M en o h er, w ho w as com- New A ir m a n d e r of th e fam o u s R ainbow Organisa- D iv isio n a t th e fro n t. T h e A ir tion D e p a rtm e n t a t th e tim e of th e e n try in to th e w ar of th e U n ite d S ta te s , h a d co n sisted of a D iv isio n of M ilita r y A e ro n a u tic s, a n d a B u re a u of A ir­ c ra ft P ro d u c tio n . T h ese w ere “ sc ra p p e d ,” a n d hav e been re p la c e d b y fo u r o rg a n isa tio n s, th e m o st im p o rta n t of w hich d e a ls w ith t r a i n ­ in g a n d o p e ra tio n s, th e o th e rs b e in g concerned w ith th e p ro d u c tio n of m ach in es of a ll k in d s, th e d is trib u tio n of in fo rm a tio n , in c lu d in g in ­ te llig e n c e w o rk in tim e of w a r, an d th e a d ­ m in is tra tio n of th e w hole A ir S ervice. E ach of th e se new o rg a n isa tio n s is p re sid e d over by an officer w ho m ad e good in th e w a r, an d G en eral M enoher, as D ire c to r-G e n e ra l, is a s­ siste d by an A dv iso ry B o a rd of six m em b ers, a ll m en of e x p erien ce in a ir c ra ft. O f th ese d ev elo p m en ts, tile U .S . W a r D e p a rtm e n t says th e ir p rim a ry p u rp o se is to w o rk u p th e A ir S ervice, co-op erate in th e a d v a n c e m e n t of com ­ m ercial a e ro n a u tic s , a n d “ p ro m o te t h e . p rin c ip le t h a t th e U n ite d S ta te s deserv es a le a d in g place in th e a ir, p ro m ised by A m e ric a ’s a p p lic a tio n o rig in a lly of th e p r in ­ cip les of m e c h a n ic a l f lig h t.” * » * T h e refo rm of th e D ip lo m a tic a n d C o n su lar Services h a s lo n g been o v erd u e. O ne r e s u lt of th e sig n in g of peace w ill be th e in creased Simile- a tte n tio n p a id to tra d e o p en in g s r d d a b ro a d , an d i t is h ig h ly im p o rta n t rT° f t h a t B ritis h official re p re se n ta tiv e s oretgn ab ro a d sh o u ld be m en of th e ervice h ig h e s t q u a lific a tio n s. S ir A. S te e l-M a itla n d , U n d e r-S e c re ta ry of th e F o re ig n Office, re c e n tly s ta te d t h a t th e p ro ­ p e rty q u alific a tio n fo r th e D ip lo m a tic S ervice w as a b o lish e d , an d t h a t n e x t y e a r c a n d id a te s fo r t h a t service an d th e F o re ig n Office w ould s it fo r th e sam e C lass 1 e x a m in a tio n as w as h e ld fo r th e r e s t of th e C iv il S ervice, w ith a sp e cial q u alific a tio n in re g a rd to fo reig n la n g u a g e s . T h e p ay in b o th th e D ip lo m atic a n d C o n su lar S ervices w ould be on a scalc com ­ m e n s u ra te w ith th e s ta n d in g of th is c o u n try ab ro a d . C a n d id a te s fo r th e C o n su lar Service w ould also hav e to p ass th e C lass 1 e x a m in a ­ tio n , a n d a fte rw a rd s u n d e rg o a sp e cial tr a in in g fo r tw o y ears. * * * M r. C h a m b e rlain , C hancellor of th e E x ­ ch eq u er, sp e ak in g on th e cost of th e w a r, said th a t, a f te r m a k in g th e allow ance a n n u a lly ta k e n fo r n o rm al peace e x p e n d itu re Cost on th e one h a n d an d fo r d e b ts due o f the fro m th e D om inions an d A llies on War th e o th e r h a n d , a n d a fte r ta k in g acco u n t of o th e r V o te of C red it assets, th e n e t co st of th e w a r to tile E x ch eq u er of th e U n ite d K in g d o m u p to M a rch 31st la s t, on th e b asis of E x ch eq u er issues d u rin g th e five y e a rs en d in g M a rch 31st la s t, m ay be e stim a te d in ro u n d fig u res a t £6,700,000,000. T h ese fig u res a re , of course, exclusive of lia b ilitie s in resp ec t of th e w ar, a c c ru in g a f te r M a rch 31st la s t, an d of losses to p riv a te c itiz e n s, lo c a litie s, an d tra d e s in so fa r as th e s e losses h a v e n o t been m ade good o u t of th e E x c h e q u e r. The World To-day is continued on page iii.
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