The Great War Part 242, April 5th 1919

A WEEKLY REVIEW SUPPLEMENT TO “ THE GREAT WAR," PART 242. N aval L o sses in th e W ar Th e to tal w ar losses incurred by the N avies of the A llies and the Central Powers have not y e t been published officially. Th e following figures, how ­ ever, from an auth oritative source give some idea of the respective losses : G reat B ritain : B attleships, 13 ; battle-cruisers, 3 ; cruisers, 25 ; m onitors, 6 ; destroyers, 64 ; torpedo- boats, 10; subm arines, 5 0 ; sm all craft, 27. T otal, 550,000 tons. F ra n c e : B attleships, 4 ; cruisers, 5 ; destroyers 14 ; torpedo-boats, 8 ; subm arines, 14 ; sm all craft, 9. T otal, 110,000 tons. Ita ly : B attlesh ip s, 3 ; cruisers, 2 ; m onitors, 1 ; destro y ers, 1 0; torp ed o -b o ats, 5 ; subm arines, 8. T o tal, 76,000 tons. J a p a n : B attlesh ip , 1 ; cruisers, 4 ; destroyers, 3 ; to rp ed o -b o at, 1. T o tal, 50,000 tons. U nited S tates : C ruiser, 1 ; destroyers, 2 ; m arine, I. T o tal, 17,000 tons. T o tal for all th e Allies : 803,000 tons. E nem y losses are as follows : G erm any : B attlesh ip , I ; battle-cru iser, cruisers, 24 ; destroyers, 72 ; torpedo-boats, subm arines, 205. T o tal, 350,000 tons. sub- 1 : 51 : A u stria-H u n g ary : B attlesh ip s, 3 ; cruisers, 2 ; m onitors, 3 ; destro y ers, 5 ; to rp ed o -b o ats, 4 ; su b ­ m arines, 8. T o tal, 65,000 tons. T o ta l for th e C entral Pow ers : 415,000 tons. It is to be noted th at these figures include vessels lost through accident as well as those sunk through enem y action. Th is fact accounts for the large num ber of battleships figuring in G reat B ritain ’s losses. Th e to tal losses of G reat B ritain are m uch larger than the losses of G erm any, her principal adversary, and the to tal losses of Ita ly are larger than those of Austria. G erm any’s sm all losses in big battle craft and the to tal absence of losses in sm all craft are a rem inder th at the principal portion of her F leet rem ained bottled up through the war. On the other hand, her trem endous losses in subm arines te stify to the ceaseless w ar w aged, not against the Fleets of her opponents, but against m erchantm en and fishing vessels. G erm any has offered the G overnorship of Silesia to Prince F elix Lichnow sky, who has accepted. Historic Cartoons of the G reat W ar A G R E A T N A V A L T R IU M P H . German Subm arine O ffice r: “ T h is ought to make them jealous in the sister service. Belgium saw nothing better than t h is ." (R ep ro d u ced fr o m “ Punch,” A p r il 7, 1915, by p e r m is s io n o f the I ’ roprietorts.) S h rap n el H elm ets A ll the shrapnel helmets used b y the British troops during the w ar were finished in the centre of London. O ver seven and a quarter million helmets were turned out, chiefly b y three thousand girls w orking in factories in and around Tottenham Court R oad. W hen the dem and was a t its m axim um the average output was one hundred and fifty thousand helmets a week. This represented a trium ph for the British m anufacturer in an entirely new field, as it was acknow ledged before the end of the w ar th at the British helm et, as finally approved, was the best in the world. The British then produced a one-piec# helmet of m ild steel, which w ould resist a shrapnel bullet of four hundred feet velocity per second. The standard aim ed at, however, was seven hundred and fifty feet velocity per s e c o n d ; and the problem was to press hardened steel blanks into the now fam iliar shape w ithout cracking the metal. A t first, fo rty per cent, of the helmets had to be rejected after pressing owing to the presence of hair cracks ; and when the rem aining six ty per cent, were p u t to the actual firing test the m etal failed. Meanwhile, the public, not knowing the difficulties to be contended with, could not understand w hy the helmets were n ot being issued. B y October, 1915, the design w as finally approved, m anufacturing difficulties were overcome, and issues in quantities made. G erm any’s Arm y The decision taken by the Supremo W ar Council in Paris on March 10th, when the conclusions of the m ilitary experts fixing the future stren gth of the Germ an A rm y were adopted, is regarded as very im portant. G erm any is to be lim ited to an A rm y of one hundred thousand men with tw elve years’ service, and enlistm ent is to be voluntary. The decision, which gives effect to Mr. L lo yd George’s view , is regarded as the first step towards the dem ilitarisa­ tion of the world and the abolition of conscription. Other conditions are th at all Germ an war material is to be handed over or d estro y ed ; no Tanks to be built or any guns m anufactured over six inches ; no more poison gas is to be m ade ; sufficient w ar m aterial for one hundred thousand men only is to be perm itted ; war colleges are to be shut down ; and F leet personnel is to be restricted to fifteen thousand. Pillage in F ran ce Th e Germ an depredations in the N orthern D e­ partm ent of France from the beginning of the w ar until A p ril 30th, 1917 (says the “ D aily Telegraph ” ) show figures sufficiently eloquent to disquiet those pacifists who w ould treat the Germ an w ith leniency. T h e follow ing m erchandise w as stolen b y the Germ ans : W oollen goods . . . . . . . . 274,910,397f C otton wares . . . . . . . . 6,514,738f H em p, linen, cloth, th rea d , an d can v as 106,347,324f T extiles . . . . . . . . . . l,494,200f R u b b er . . . . . . . . . . 4,531,169f L eath er . . . . . . . . . . 4,426,612f W ood .......................................................... 3,190,262f B uilding m aterials . . . . . . 10,361,956f T o t a l ............................................ 41 l,776,658f (A bout £16,470,000). T o these robberies m ust be added from £100,000,000 to £150,000,000 dam ages and de­ terioration to m ills and workshops, h eavy w ar contributions, and fines imposed by the Germ ans during th eir occupation. Th e figures for 1918 are not known. ----- — G oth a S creen s It is officially announced th at the plan of suspending entanglem ents from balloons to check aeroplane attacks was patented as early as 1913. Several hundreds of proposals of this nature had been received b y the Inventions D epartm ent and considered b y the responsible authorities by October, 1917. The plans actu ally adopted in October, 1917, were from designs of screens used in the defence of Venice, and any credit for their initial adoption and operation is due to the Italian Governm ent. Printed and published every M o nday by the Proprietors, The A m algam ated Press, L t d ., The Fleetw ay H ouse, F a rn n g d o n S t., London, b .C . 4 A< vertisem ent Ottk.es The Fleetw ay H ouse, F arrin g do n S t., London, E .C . 4. Registered for transm ission by C an ad ian M agazine Post. Subscription rates: In la n d , lOd. per copy. A broad (except s ° u ^ A frica, .^ and C anada), 9»d. per copy. C anada only. 9d. per copy. Sole agents for S o uth A frica, The C entral News Agency, L td . Sole agents for A u stra lia and New Z ealand, Messrs. Gordon & G otch, L td .; and for C anad a, Tbe Im p e ria l News Co., L td . Sold in C a lc u tta by The S ta n dard L iteratu re Co., 13/ 1, O ld C ourt H ouse St. S at. A pril 5th, 1919 Y
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