SURRENDERED U BOATS' MOORED AT HARWICH. THE SURPASSING TRIUMPH OF THE BRITISH NAVY. Failure of Germanys Submarine War and Surrender of her High Sea Fleet. By H .W. Wilson. Difficulties Confronting the Admiralty at the Beginning of Germ anys Submarine Campaign— Development and Increased Provision of Depth Charges and Mines— Two Varieties of Mine-Fields— The Dover Barrage— Vigorous Offensive Against Germ anys Naval Bases on the Flanders Coast —Percentage of Shipping Losses Reduced b y Employment of Convoy —Aggressive Operations Against U Boats: Q Ships Aircraft Patrol Counter-Mand ining— T he Paravane— Barrage Across the Strait of Otranto— Austrian Naval Losses— Captain Luigi R izzos Daring Motor-Boat Attack on Austrian Battleships— Official Statement of Germ anys Submarine Losses— Moral Effect on the Central Powers of the Failure of the Submarine Campaign— Intensification of the Blockade— German Land-Pow er at Its Maximum —Allies' Position in the East Dependent on B ritains Sea-Powcr— Food Condition in Enemy and Neutral States— Lieutenant R affaele Paolucci's and Major R ossetti's Astounding Feat in Pola Harbour— Austria and Turkey Out of the War— Allied Fleet Passes up the Dardanelles— Mutiny in the German Navy —Surrender of the High Sea Fleet-— Disarmament of the German Ships Remaining in Germany— Vice-A dm iral Browning' Proceeds to the Kiel Canal in H .M.S. Hercules with the International Naval Commission to Inspect all Germ anys Naval Bases and Airship and Aeroplane Stations. Chapter C C X L IV .(Vol. np. 347) the history of the war at sea was brought down to the end of May 1918 when the creation of an efficient War Staff at the Admiralty was beginning to influence the conduct of operations and new methods of combating the submarines were being introduced with great success. The British Navy so far as the strain imposed on bit they provision of convoy for the American troopships permitted was everywhere taking the offensive against the U boats. In the remaining months of the war three features are of paramount interest —the conflict with the submarines the severance of German land communications with the Near East (restoring the pressure of sea-power upon the German nation) and the unceasing watch on the High Sea Fleet maintained b they Grand Fleet. Of all the dangers which the British Empire had to face in the war the submarine campaign was far the most formidable. The submarine attacked the unity the very existence of that Empire. Had it prevailed the people of Great Britain must have starved the allied armies have been deprived of supplies and munitions and the whole world have passed under German domination. The difficulty of defeating the submarine as it was bused they Germans was great. It was anew weapon and owing to the absence of an efficient Naval Staff in Great Britain before the war to study war problems the methods of fighting it had not been ascertained before the war began. They had to be outworked and tested during the actual conflict. In the earlier period of the war strange as it may sound the Navy on which so much depended was hampered b y want of funds. For example, the Admiralty could not obtain the money required for the provision of depth charges on a sufficient scale or for the improvement of the patterns supplied. It experienced similar difficulty in securing aircraft. The needs of the Army were so great the supply of explosives steel and other munitions was so limited that the British sea forces were imperfectly equipped for this new and extraordinary kind of war. Gradually this state of affairs passed. With the vast development rtf the munition industry in Great Britain, which accompanied and followed Mr. Lloyd Georges campaign in 19x5 the position improved though not until 1917— late in that year— were the most urgent needs of the Navy met. The new Admiralty recognised that mines and depth charges in large quantities were as vital for success at sea as abundanceS N N 561 ADMIRAL SIR REGINALD TYRW HITT K.C.B. D.S.O. Admiral Tyrwhitt on board his flagship H.M.S. Curasao at the time of the surrender of the first batch of German submarines off Harwich on November 20th 1918.
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