The Great War Part 237, March 1st 1919

(ii.) RpmrJrrpd. A W EEKLY REVIEW SUPPLEMENT TO ‘‘ THE GREAT WAR,' PART 237. History in the M aking I N the orderly sequence of his narrative, Mr W right in this P a rt of our H istory reaches the com plete deliverance of W estern Flanders and of the larger portion of invaded France. Lille, R oubaix, Turcoing, and D ouai are the outstanding names in the present chapters, nam es associated with imperishable glory for their liberators, and with indelible shame for the Germans a t last ousted lrom their prolonged occupation. F or these were among the m any places system atically looted under orders from the German authorities, as Cambrai and S t Quentin had been. T hey furnish par­ ticular evidence of the cunning and m alevolent intention of the Huns to leave the districts from which th ey were driven so stripped of m achinery and m aterial th at tor years after the war they would not be in a position to enter into trade com petition with German manufacturers. T H R O U G H O U T the industrial region of the North ol F ian ce the Huns pursued this policy The actual W i'lls of work­ shops and factories m ight be left standing, but they contained either nothing a t all or else nothing not wrecked beyond repair Sometimes, with sardonic humour, the Germans “ bought ” the works from their owners— pnving lor them •a requisition certificates— and exported the entire plant to Germ any Sometim es they reduced plant and machinery co scrap-iron or rendered them useless by removing all the copper fittings, leather belts, and dynam os Many instances were known of German firms calm ly arriving to take aw ay m achinery which they had sold to the French m anufacturers before the war Instances of wanton destruction were too numerous to be kept account of. In Turcoing alone the Huns were seen to destroy no fewrfr than eighty large boilers with dynam ite, from m > re lust of destruction. M IE people of R oubaix and Turcoing testified of their own personal knowledge to the existence ol a German organisa­ tion called 1 the Commission tor the D estruction of Industrial Services,” the members of which supervised the work of destruction here referred to The iden tity of these ruffians was known, and it was declared th at they were specialists in their work selected for their expert knowledge how to p u t m a c h in e ry irre p a ra b ly o u t of a c tio n , a n d how to b re a k each a rtic le “ p ro p e rly .” T h e y w ere k now n a s “ p erceu rs de m u ra ille s,” o r “ h o u se b re a k e rs,” th is last te rm being used in its tech n ical sense of a u th o rise d d em olishers of co n d em n ed build in g s, a n d n o t in its eq u ally a p p ro p ria te sen se of b u rg la rs In re sp e c t of g en eral ty ra n n y th e H u n s m a in ta in e d th e ir g en eral re p u ta tio n b o th in T u rco in g a n d R o u b a ix . I T m u st n o t be su p p o sed t h a t th e tra g e d y of th e se long o ccupied to w n s has en d ed w ith th e ir lib eratio n . P ro fesso r A lb e rt Calm ett.e. D ire c to r of th e P a ste u r I n s titu te a t Lille, has recen tly m ad e a re p o rt to th e F re n c h A cadem y of M edicine a t P aris u p o n th e h e a lth co n d itio n to w hich th e G erm an o c c u p a tio n has reduced Lille T h e d e a th ra te of th a t c ity before th e w ar w as b etw een 19 a n d 21 p er th o u sa n d . In 1918 it w as 4 1 5 5 p e r th o u sa n d , th is eno rm o u s increase being ac c o u n te d lor chiefly b y tu b e r­ culosis, an d also by h e a rt affections, d y se n te ry , a n d sc u rv y , all th e se being co m p lain ts caused o r a g g ra v a te d by m a ln u tritio n . Lille is b u t one of m an y such tow ns. T h e p o p u la tio n of th e w hole of th is occupied te rrito ry , th o ro u g h ly c o n ta m in a te d b y tu b ercu lo sis, d u e d ire c tly to m a ln u tritio n an d to infection sp re a d b y o v e r­ crow ding in d a m p cellars d u rin g long an d fre q u e n t b o m b a rd m e n t, will c o n s titu te fo r y e a rs to com e a colony of p h y sic al d eg en erates, p la n te d in th e m id st of th e n a tu ra lly h e a lth y an d vigorous p o p u la tio n of th e N o rth of F ran ce. M TH th is P a r t of T h e G r e a t W a r is p re se n te d th e a lre a d y a n n o u n ced colour p la te show ing th e rib b o n s of th e p rin cip al O rd ers a n d m ed als, B ritish a n d foreign, co n ferred u p o n th e heroes of o u r th re e Services d u rin g th e w ar. G re a t care h as been ex p en d ed u p o n th is co stly p la te , a n d th e E d ito rs are c o n fid en t t h a t it will be received w ith g en eral sa tisfactio n . T h e colour p la te selected for p re se n ta tio n w ith P a r t 239 is a fine an d c h a ra c te ristic p o r tra it of G eneral S ir H e rb e rt P lu m e r, th e co nspicuously b rillia n t co m m an d er of th e B ritish Second A rm y , t h a t p la y e d th e p rin cip al p a r t in th e re c o n q u e st of W e ste rn F la n d e rs a s here n a rra te d . X . Heard at the Listening Post G eneral Tow nshend in a recent speech stated th a t when he was a prisoner of war, having failed for th e th ird tim e to escape, he set to work to upset the T urkish G overnm ent. T he day after T o w n sh en d 's E nver P ash a’s G overnm ent was over- P e a :e throw n the new G overnm ent sent to S erv ices him and said, “ Will you help us f ” H e said he would on one c o n d itio n : he m u st he tree before he left th e Sublim e Purte, and one oth er thing, th a t if th e T urks w anted B ritain to m ake peace they m ust open th e D arda­ nelles. H e cam e aw ay with th e consent to open the D ardanelles in his pocket and the prom ise of the liberatio n , a t once, of prisoners of war, an d also the prom ise th a t the Black Sea F leet should n o t come th ro u g h th e Bosphorus. T he P rinces Islands, in th e Sea of Marmora> where representatives of th e Allies propose to confer w ith delegates from th e various T he R ussian G overnm ents, have associa- P rin ces tions w ith th is co u n try (says the Isla n d s “ M anchester G uardian ” ). On tho island of H alke our second am bassa­ d orial representative to T urkey, E dw ard B arton, lies buried near th e church attach ed to tho Convent of tho Virgin. H e h ad come to H alke from C onstan­ tinople to escape th e plague ; b u t he succum bcd, n o tw ith stan d in g th e beauty of th e clim ate, on D ecem ber 15th, 1597. D uring his ten u re of the B ritish Em bassy a t C onstantinople S ir H enry L y tto n Bulw er received anothor of th e islands, P lati, as a g ift from tho K hedive of E gypt, whose interests Sir H enry had advanced. H e spent £15,000 in im provem ents, building castles an d the like, and then, in an u n fo rtu n ate m om ent, resold it to th e K hedive. T he tran sactio n involved his recall, a n d when his successor w aited on Lord Palm erston, th a t statesm an term in a te d a few words of advice w ith the em phatic w arning, “ A nd, m ind, never sell an island ! T he recent release of photographs of th e w onder­ ful “ K ” class of British subm arines has let in a little light on the a c tiv ity an d ingenuity th a t were constan tly a t work in connection T h e A B C w ith “ our silent N avy ” during the o f course of the war. M any people S u b m a rin es have been puzzled by th e sudden ju m p from th e “ E ” boats, of the exploits of w hich we were allowed occasionally to hear, to the “ K ” boats, and have wondered as to any interm ediate ty p es represented by other letters. In the F ebruary num ber of “ Blackw ood’s Maga­ zine th a t adm irable sea w riter “ K laxon,” in “ T he S tory of our Subm arines ” throw s some light on the subject. H e tells ue ot ' V W ” and “ F ” boats added to th e subm arine flotillas in tho early p art of the war, and then of some successors. The " G ” and “ J ” class were patrol boats, the “ G ’s ” being of 975 tons subm erged displacem ent, and so larger and with more beam than the “ E ” b o a ts ; the “ J ’s ” were nineteen-knot boats of 1,820 tons subm erged, and m arked a great advance in th e big subm arine type. The year 1915 gave us th e addition of a num ber ot “ E class, while the “ G ’s ” began to join up with the flotillas in Novem ­ ber of th a t year. The first " J ” boat was com ­ missioned in th e spring of 1916. A nd th en A ugust 4th, 1916— th e second anniver­ sary of th e outbreak of the war saw th e com m ission­ ing of th e first of the great “ K ” boats, of 2,550 to n s subm erged displacem ent— boats th a t can act as destroyers by nig h t or as subm arines by day. A t th e d ate of th e signing of th e arm istice by G erm any there were 45 Am erican flying squadrons in operation in France—$ 0 pursuit, I night bombing, 6 day bombing, 5 observation for A m e ric a n arm y and 12 for corps, and I night A ir observation squadrons. American S erv ice flyers brought down 845 enem y ’planes, and destroyed 82 enem y balloons. N o t all of these enem y losses were “ confirm ed,” but m ost of them were. During the activities of th e Am erican Air Service the U nited S tates last 271 ’planes and 45 balloons. The casualties in personnel wore 109 killed, 103 w ounded, 200 missing, 27 prisoners, and 3 interned, m aking a to tal of 442. The U.S. Air Service included in th e zone of advance 2,16) officers and 22.351 men, and there were also 4,643 officers and 28,353 m en in the service of supply. W ith the French arm ies there were detailed 8 American flying officers, and w ith th e B ritish arm ies 49 officers and 525 men. The to tal air personnel in France consisted of 6,861 officers an d 51,229 me... W hile training, 159 m en were killed. The num ber of ’planes received from all sources by the A m erican E xpeditionary Force between Septem ber 12th, 1917, and N ovem ber 16th, 1918, was 6,472. Of these upw ards of S ch o o ls 3,400 were pursuit machines, 500 were fo r day bombing, and 39 were night P ilo ts reconnaissance ’p la n e s; over 2,300 were, training ’planes. The Americana h ad eight different air schools in France, designed for training 3,800 officers and 11.700 men. These ijchools were established a t Tours, Issondun, C lerm ont-Ferrand, St. Jean-de-M onte, Songc, C oetquidan, Meucon, and Ch&tillon-sur-Seine. The largest w as th a t a t Issondun, which was fitted up for general instruction in flying of 2,175 officers and 6,100 men, an d the n ex t th a t a t Tours, which had accom m odation for 916 officers an d 2,121 men as observers. * * * I t was officially announced th a t th e Powers assem bled in conference in P aris had reached satisfactory provisional arrangem ents for dealing with the G erm an colonies and other S a fe g u a rd in g occupied territories. From inform a- B a c k w a rd tion now available (says the “ Man- P e o p le s Chester G uardian ” ) the only feature in which the m andatory system for Colonial adm inistration agreed upon by th e Confer­ ence differs from the B ritish principle of Colonial adm inistration is th a t th e well-being of th e in­ h a b ita n ts of a m andatory territo ry is recognised to be a special concern of th e le a g u e of N ations, which will be responsible for seeing th a t the stan d ard s of Colonial adm inistration now prevalent am ong th e m ost advanced Powers are observed th ro u g h o u t all territo ry w ithin th e m andatory system . U nder th e conditions of the m andate the m andatory Pow er will exercise its own discretion as to th e m anagem ent and developm ent of the territo ry under its control. A ny n ation which has charge of a backw ard people would act as a trustee for th e in h ab itan ts an d safeguard th em from exploitation. The World To-day is continued on page iii.
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