History in the Making SIR ROBERT BADEN-POW ELLS chapter on the organisation of youth in the war eomcs to an end in this Part of our History and the Empire has reason to be proud of the record and very hopeful for the future. The Chief Scouts summary of the work of his young army is presented with characteristically soldierly brevity and lack of flourish but lie too has reason to be proud of the force he created and organised ten years ago. Even then not a few people were of opinion that a great moral force had been harnessed and brought to use for the good of civilisation and the subsequent diffusion over the whole world of the BoyScout movement has confirmed that opinion. CHAPTER of more than ordinary importance begins in this Part of The G beat War describing the process by which the British Navy adjusted itself to the submarine as a result of the adoption of new men and new methods. It is written by Mr. H. W. Wilson long -since a recognised authority on naval matters and will command universal attention as a contribution to the permanent history of the war Mr. Wilson declares -that the lines of destiny ”on which the safety of the Allies and the fate of Great Britain depend are those that show the amount of shipping sunk by the submarines and the amount of new shipping completed. Not until the latter remains continuously above the former will the German submarine have been defeated. FTER long agitation the British Government last March permitted the publication of the tonnage figures showing the losses inflicted by submarines their decision being arrived at in the hope of stimulating the shipbuilding yards to increase their output of new tonnage. The figures ^quoted by Mr. Wilson and his grave comments upon them, should betaken seriously to heart for although the losses showed a steady tendency to decline, I he output was still too far below the amount necessary to salvation. Since the chapter went to press later figures for the month of May have been published and it is good to know that the later return was distinctly encouraging. Work in the yards generally had been greatly speeded up and the gross tonnage completed reached 197274 tons the maximum yet attained in any single month bringing the total completed during the year ending May 31st to 1406838 tons. Good even very good so far as it goes this is still far short of the figure of the monthly average necessary to produce the amount declared in the White Paper issued in March as the standard which the yards must aim at reaching— viz. 3000000 tons. VHE means adopted for the scotching of the pirates provide matter for effective comment of which Mr. Wilson takes full advantage. This chapter ranks indeed, among the most stirring of the many stirring chapters that have appeared in our History. The writers connected narrative of the raid upon the German naval bases at Ostend and Zeebrugge is fine reading. He has a virile enjoyment of the glorious spirit of adventure that animates everyman and boy in the Navy and Mercantile Marine. Chiefly however he hails the sealing of the German naval outlets into the open sea as proof that the unquestioned courage and vision of the younger seamen are definitely to be given their opportunity by the reorganised and reconstituted Admiralty. 9 C.S ALL publishers are now by order of Government prohibited from( g >receiving back unsold copies of their #€periodical publications.^ k This is a measure of economy, jg designed chietly to save unnecessary\ U transport and it involves no incon- \ ^ venieuce to any regular reader, a From June 24th no periodical will i) be obtainable unless a definite ^if) order has been given in advance to the newsagent.( 5 s v The publishers of THE GREAT (P v WAR provided with Part 201 an 3 j ?'Oder Form which subscribers mays ?^use for this purpose. sf. aBut verbal order to your News-\agent TO-DAY will be sufficient. Heard at the Listening Post Sir Napier Shaws appointment as meteorological adviser to the Government marks it is hoped a closer realisation of the importance of weather lore in modem warfare. For some War and .time past the allied War Offices seem Weather to have had regard to the subject chiefly in connection with aviation. There is an obvious need of allied co-ordination of weather research for fighting needs. General remark has been made of the fino weather accompanying the German offensives. Quito early in the war the Germans established a meteorological research station on the Belgian coast while their submarines have been used for sending weather reports. Western Europes weather comes mainly from the west. *Still more revelations !In the memoirs of the war he is contributing to the “Worlds Work,” Mr. Henry Morgenthau formerly United States Ambassador at Constantinople de- The scribes some remarkable conversa- Potsdam tions with Baron Wangcnheim Ger- Plot /man Ambassador at Constantinople, after the lattors return to the Turkish capital from the conference held at Potsdam on July 5th 1914. It appears that the Kaiser presided while nearly all tho German Ambassadors, as well as General Moltke then Chief of Staff, Admiral von Tirpitz great bankers railway directors and captains of industry were present. Baron Wangenheim told Mr. Morgenthau that the Kaiser solemnly asked each man in turn was he ready for war. “All replied ‘Yes except the financiers. They said that they must have two weeks to sell their foreign securities and to make loans. “The conference decided to give the bankers time to readjust their finances for the coming war and then the members went quietly back to their work or started on their vacations.” Wan- The genheim admitted that Germany Kaiser and had precipitated the war but in Prisoners Morgenthaus view the barons indiscretions are to be explained by the fact that he was convinced Germany would have a complete military victory after a few months. In this connection it maybe noted that “The Devastation ”of Europe by Herr Victor Miihlon, the ex-director of Krupps has been published by Messrs. Orellc & Fuessli of Zurich. In hia diary on November 10th 1914 Miihlon wroto that he had received authentic information that the Kaiser had declared before an assembly of officers that Germany had enough prisoners and that henoeforth moreno prisoners must betaken alive. *Statistics of Shakespearean productions in Germany and Austria in 1917-18 show that 123 different theatres or stock-companies produced 25 different Shakespearean plays in 99 i) Shake- performances. “As You Like It” speare in headed tho list with 122 productions, Germany followed by ”“Twelfth Night with 114. “Hamlet ”and “Othello ”were performed the formor 111 times the latter 9S. Munich played Shakespeare oftenest (121 performances) followed by Berlin with 117 and Vienna with 87. Cologne Frankfort Breslau Dusseldorf, and even Hildesheim (a town about as large as Worcostor) enjoyed Shakespearo regularly. What about Great Britain in the same period ?*Unique in war equipment is a national squadron of training ships formed by the U.S. Shipping Board for teaching young Americans between seventeen and twenty-seven the trade The U.S. of seagoing preparatory to serving in Training the new merchant marine of the Squadron United States. At the head of this squadron is the fine vessol once well known as the Atlantic liner City of Berlin and some thirty years ago the fastest ocean greyhound of her day. overTaken by the U.S. Government, in 1898 she was renamed the Meade and used as a naval transport in the Spanish War. She is still a sound ship but had been laid up. She is now stationed at Boston and has been fitted up to accommodate a thousand apprentices who aro drilled as seamen firemen oilers wator-tenders, coal-passers cooks and stewards. The squadron consists of four vessels two others of which are also at Boston each with a full complement of apprentices. When the four ships are completely working they will train about 3000 men who, after a three months course will togo sea in the new cargo boats now being built by the Shipping Board. *President Wilson has his own distinctive way of doing things. He struck an original noto when ho first entered on the Chief Magistracy of the United States by endorsing all official" Okzh documents and memoranda sub- W. W.” mittcd to him in draft form and of which he approved with tho “curious expression Okeh W. W.”in pencil. The two initials as short for Woodrow Wilson needed of course no explanation but what was“ Okeii ”?Tho Secretaries of Departments of State and others who received the papers thus endorsed had little trouble in guessing that the mysterious word stood ”for“ O.K. ”or“ OK. a sign throughout the country that the matter to which it is affixed is certified as correct. Some American dictionaries attribute the employment of these capitals to Andrew Jackson for“ Orl Korreet.” Now Mr. Wilson was known to abe precisian in his use of words and everybody wondered where ho got“ Okeh” from. Vastly intrigued one of his secretaries at last inquired why ho wrote that word instead of“ O.K.” The President replied that it wa8 because“ O.K.” was wrong and“ Okeh ”right. He suggested that tho most recent lexicon should be consulted and on this being done the following was found:“ O.K.—- A humorous or ignorant spelling of what should be‘ okeh from tho Choctaw language meaning 1 It is so all right correct used as an endorsement of a bill.” ________________ So long as Lloyd George and Clemenceau have the majority of the nations representatives behind them they can venture on dictatorial war measures that would plunge a minority Government into the abyss. The Dictator Wilson who owes his office to the direct vote of the people has an incomparably stronger position than any absolute Tsar by tho grace of God. Herr David in the“ Vorwarts." The World To-day is continued on page iii.
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