The Great War Part 200, June 15th 1918

History in the M aking H IS P a r t of T iib G r e a t W a r b rin g s th e co m p letio n of M r. M a c h ra y ’s a c c o u n t of G erm an y ’s ill-tre a tm e n t of B ritish p riso n ers of w ar. T h e n a rra tiv e w ill aro u se a sto rm of re s e n tm e n t in th e h e a rt of ev ery o n e w ho re a d s it, a n d sh o u ld c re a te a n u n sh a k a b le d e te rm in a tio n t h a t th o se e n o rm itie s sh a ll be pu n ish e d . T h e y c a n n o t be u n d o n e , a n d , m e a n ­ tim e, th e h ideous c a ta lo g u e is being ca rrie d on. T h e “ T im e s ” h a s p u b lish e d d e ta ils of th e d e lib e ra te m u rd e r of a B ritish so ld ier a t Scnne- la g e r ; th e d e a th th ro u g h b ru ta l tr e a tm e n t of a C o ld strea m G u a rd sm a n p u t to w o rk in a zine- sm e ltin g fa c to ry ; in h u m a n ity to w a rd s p riso n ers se n t to R u ssia of such a g g ra v a te d c h a ra c te r t h a t o u t of 500 h a le m en o n ly e ig h t w ere a b le to w o rk a fte r a sh o rt t i m e ; a n d fresh a tro c itie s in flicted b y L ie u te n a n t v o n M uller a t B o h m te , n e a r O sn ab ru ck , u n d e r th e a u th o rity of th e in fam o u s G eneral v o n H a n isc h , of th e T e n th A rm y Corps. I T is w ith relief t h a t re ad ers of th is H isto ry w ill tu rn to th e sh in in g record of th e w o rk of th e A u stra lia n a n d N ew Z ealan d forces o n th e w estern fro n t, w hich follow s Mr. M ach­ ra y ’s c h a p te r. T h is all to o brief reco rd has been w ritte n b y Mr. K e ith A. M urdoch, th e special c o rre sp o n d e n t of th e “ S y d n ey S u n ” a n d th e “ M elbourne H e ra ld ,” a n d it falls d u e fo r p u b lic a tio n m o st o p p o rtu n e ly a t a m o m en t w hen once m o re A u stra lia n s a re m ak in g th e m ­ selves co n spicuous b y t/heir v a lo u r a n d th e m ili­ ta r y im p o rta n c e of th e ir w ork. T e stim o n y to th e ir prow ess a n d in v a lu a b le serv ice sinoe th e G erm an offensive b egan o n M arch 2 1 st h as been g iv en a lm o st d a ily b y S ir D o u g las H a ig in special m en tio n s, b y c o rre sp o n d e n ts a t th e fro n t, a n d in th e com m u n iq u es. F re n c h a u th o ritie s , too, a re fra n k ly e n th u sia stic on th e su b ject. M O R L A N C O U R T , V illers-B reto n n eu x , a n d V ille-sur-A ncre a re th re e m o re n am es th a tro u g h t to be w oven in le tte rs of gold up o n A u stra lia n colours. M orlanoourt R idge, n o rth of th e Som m e, a n d V illers-B reto n n eu x , so u th of t h a t riv er, a re tw o p o in ts co m m an d in g th e e n e m y ’s m o st d ire c t line of a d v a n c e to w a rd s A m iens, a n d b o th h av e been w on b ack from him a n d held b y th e A u stra lia n s— E n g lish C o u n ty reg im en ts sh a rin g th e c re d it of th o v ic to ry Heard at the T he first regular aeroplane m ail service was sta rte d on M ay 15th betw een W ashington an d New Y ork, w ith a stop a t Philadelphia, th e to tal distance being ab o u t 220 miles. On Septem ber A n 11th, 1911, G ustav H am el carried the A e r o p la n e first bag of Post Ollice letters from M a il H endon to W indsor— nineteen miles in th irtee n m inutes. A thirty-m ile w ind delayed tho sta rt. T o-day m achines fly in a gale. N um erous air-m ail services are being con­ sidered for inauguration after th e w ar, notably London Paris, Paris-R om e, Berlin-C onstantinople, and A berdeen-Stavanger (Norway). * * * A propos of th e foregoing, Mr. G. H o lt Thom as m ade some n otable rem arks in discussing th e possibilities of flying in th e winning of th e w ar, and th e fu tu re of aeronautics in A i r T r a v e l commerce. If, he said, th e business in th e m en of all countries had grasped F u tu r e w h at aviation m en had grasped since th e F rench manoeuvres of 1910, we should have won this w ar by aeroplanes some tim e ago. T he Allies should now, he argued, be m eeting and claiming th e air above th e territories belonging to them . If we could settle w hat our aerial routes a t th e la tte r place. “ T h u s,” said th e “ T im e s " in a lead in g article, “ th ese g a lla n t tro o p s form th e core of th e b a rrie r t h a t th e A llies h a v e d raw n acro ss th e s h o rte s t ro u te t h a t te m p ts th e en em y to w a rd s A m iens. I t is n o t a n e a sy ro a d fo r him a t th e b est— low -lying a n d m a rsh y , a n d hedged w ith flan k in g hills— b u t it w o u ld b e m u ch m o re p ra c tic a b le fo r h im if th e A u stra lia n s h a d n o t d riv e n him from th e R id g e of M o rlan co u rt ab o v e a n d fro m V illers-B reto n n eu x below th e S om m e.” IL L E -S U R -A N C R E , n o rth -w e s t of M or­ la n c o u rt, w as th e scene of a co m p letely successful local o p e ra tio n u n d e rta k e n d u rin g th o n ig h t of M ay 18th , w h en A u stra lia n tro o p s c a rrie d a n d se cu re d th e G erm an p o sitio n s in a n d a ro u n d th e village a n d c a p tu re d 360 p riso n e rs a n d tw e n ty m ach in e-g u n s. T h e o p e ra ­ tio n w as a n e x tre m e ly difficult one, th e p lace bein g p ro te c te d b y m a rsh y g ro u n d im possible to tra v e rse . T h o a rtille ry in ten sified its a ctio n a b o u t m id n ig h t, a n d th e n w as silen t. A fter h alf a n h o u r’s b o m b a rd m e n t th e re w as a co m ­ p le te p a u se of a n h o u r before th e A u stra lia n s, in tw o colu m n s, sile n tly tu rn e d th e village, an d , a tta c k in g in fro n t, c a u g h t th e G erm an s co m ­ p le te ly b y surprise. M R . K E IT H M U R D O C H v e ry p ro p e rly d e v o te s co n sid erab le a tte n tio n to th e psy ch o lo g y of th e m en fro m th e A n tip o d es w ho h a v e p ro v e d so v a lu a b le a n e le m e n t of th e co m p o site fig h tin g force of th e B ritish E m p ire. T h e a c c u ra c y of his c h a ra c te r s tu d y is illu stra te d an ew b y th e se re c e n t g re a t a c h ie v e m e n ts of th e A u stra lia n s on th e w estern fro n t. T h e y h a v e m a in ta in e d th e ir em in en ce in th e w o rk — w hich th e y seem to find so con g en ial— of h arassin g th e G erm an s b y c o n ­ tin u a l m in o r en terp rises. “ A n y th in g like p a s ­ siv e w a itin g fo r a n a tta c k t h a t m a y d ev elo p a t a n y m o m e n t th e y dislike, w ith a fig h tin g in s tin c t fo r aggression ev en in d efen ce,” sa y s th e “.T im e s ” in th e lead in g a rtic le fro m w h ich w e h a v e a lre a d y q u o ted . “ T h ro u g h all th e arm ies of th e A llies th is in s tin c t is stro n g , b u t w ith th e A u stra lia n s it is a restless a n d consu m in g p assio n .” W ell m a y th e G erm an s h a v e a h e a lth y fear of t h e m ; w ell m a y th e B ritish E m p ire be p ro u d a n d th a n k fu l to in clu d e su ch m en am o n g its sons ! 7 C . Listening Post would be, it would m ean th a t th e G erm ans would never be able to develop routes except by our perm ission. * * * F rom London to Berlin th e fastest land ro u te was 2 0 J h o u rs; by aeroplane it was 7J hours. To C onstantinople th e fastest rou te w as 72 houra, b u t w ith an aeroplane travelling only A 80 miles an hour it can be reached F iv e D a y s ’ in 20 hours. P etrograd was 50 hours L im it aw ay by th e fastest route, an d an aero­ plane would tak e only 18 hours. There is no place on e a rth farth er th a n five days from London a t 80 miles an hour. Mr. H o lt T hom as did n o t suggest th a t one m achine would fly from London to M elbourne. W e had to look upon a com m ercial system of aeroplanes as a series of stages, w ith changing m achines and pilots. M elbourne is five days from London a t 80 miles an hour ; Tokyo, four and a half days ; New Y ork, tw o days via the A zo res; Buenos Ayres, tw o an d a half d a y s ; Ceylon, tw o and th ree-q u arter d a y s ; and Cape Town, th ree days. Taking th e cost of running an aeroplane w ith tw o engines and carrying a good load a t 5s. per mile betw een London and Paris, th e cost of th e carrying of m ails would w ork o u t a t one-third of a penny per ounce, an d if a halfpenny an ounce were charged a good profit could be m ade. P as­ sengers could be carried to Paris a t £5 a head, to Marseilles a t £10 per head, an d to C onstantinople a t £25. * * * W h at T h e G r e a t W ar is doing for th e B ritish public th e G eneral Staff of th e G orm an F ield A rm y is nom inally attem p tin g to do for th e G erm an people by producing “ T he G reat A G erm an W ar in S eparate N arratives.” These H isto ry o f n arrativ es, it appears, will deal w ith th e W a r th e m ost im p o rta n t o p erations and be w ritten bv officers who to o k p a rt in th e b attles described. O ne would have th o u g h t th e officers in question were too fully occupied in oth er th an literary directions. So far th ree o u t of th irty -th re e projected p a rts have been issued, dealing w ith (1) Lifege and N a m u r; (2) th e b attle near Lodz ; and (3) th e w inter b attle in M asuria. T he series is “ n o t intended for m ilitary ex p erts.” * * * F o r fighting th e U boats Mr. F o rd is building a t D etroit one hundred destroyers of a new typo. A t the samo tim o th e U nited S tates is building over 2 0 0 destroyers of th e largest size for N ew the sam e purpose. Thoso constructed A m e r ic a n in th e F o rd W orks are ab o u t half the D estro y ers size of these vessels, an d aro known as th e “ Eagle Class ” of subm arine- chasers. T he title “ E agle ” has been selected in p erpetuation of a nam e th a t is historic in th e U.S. N avy. “ Eagles ” figured g allantly in th e W ar of Independence, in th a t of 1812, in tho Civil W ar, and in tho w ar w ith Spain. Ono of tho m ost fam ous w as tho sloop Eagle, which was captured by tho B ritish in 1813, b u t recaptured by tho A m ericans in th e following year. * * * A m ong those w ho helped to m ake th e Third L iberty L oan of A m erica th e enorm ous success it tu rn ed o u t were th e four “ m otion-picturo sta rs,” Charlie Chaplin, M ary Pickford, C in e m a D ouglas F airbanks, an d M arguerite S ta r s a n d Clark. Charlie C haplin’s w hirlw ind th e W a r speechm aking to u r stretched over th e m onth of A pril, and included the S tates of Virginia, N orth Carolina, S outh Carolina, G eoigia, Tennessee, K entucky, Mississippi, Louis­ iana, and Texas. On some day s ho delivered tw o or th ree speeches. M ary Pickford spoke on behalf of th e L oan in W ashington, New Y ork, Boston, P hiladelphia, P ittsb u rg , Chicago, St. Louis, and K ansas City. All four “ sta rs ” m ade good, and m aterially assisted in raising th e money required. * * * Dr. O tto H am m ann, th e form er D irector of th e Press B ureau of th e Germ an Foreign Office, has found tim e to w rite his reminiscences. In these he gives an account of the L ig h t on fam ous K ruger telegram in 1896. As a F a m o u s quoted in th e “ Tim es ” of M ay 9th, In c id e n t th is account, w rites Sir V alentine Chirol, is entirely inconsistent w ith facts. According to Sir V alentine, who w as a t th e tim e Berlin correspondent of th e “ Tim es,” th e ¦ situ atio n in S outh Africa had been fully discussed a t a special Council of M inisters, presided over by th e K aiser, who had himself prepared th e d ra ft of th e telegram to President K ruger. I t was, th e re ­ fore, an action of S tate, G erm any regarding it as high tim e to give us “ a lesson.” B u t th e E m peror m iscalculated th e psychological m om ent. W e speedily composed our differences w ith th e U nited S tates over Venezuela ; th e im m ediate m obilisation of our flying squadron showed th e tem per of the B ritish n a tio n ; P ortu g al refused a rig h t of w ay through Lorenzo M arques to th e G erm an naval detachm ent which was und er orders to proceed to P re to ria ; and G erm any’s atte m p ts to secure the diplom atic co-operation of F rance and Russia elicited no response. So it w as th a t th e “ lesson,” in th e sense contem plated by W illiam II., tu rn ed o u t a com plete failure. The World To-day is continued on page iii.
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