The Great War Part 195, May 11th 1918

A WEEKLY REVIEW SUPPLEMENT TO “THE "GREAT WAR PART 195. H ILE the chapter written for this Part of The Great War by M .Emile Cam m aerts was passing through the press the Belgian people., whose suffering under German tyranny h e d e s c r i bess o poignantly had the fresh sorrow of knowing that the small frag­ment of their country preserved from German occupation through three long years of warfare was being laid waste by German guns. When the armies settled down to trench warfare in 1915, the brave peasantry crept forward b y patient toil reclaimed farm after farm and began to rebuild their homes cherishing hope of security when the British captured Passchendaele Ridge. THAT hope was blighted when the Germans began their drive in March towards IieUiune and Bailleul with the rolling up of the British Arm yin the north as their strategic purpose and the Channel ports as their goal. Before that tremendous pressure the British line was withdrawn and as the British retired German batteries came forward and plastered with high explosive all the recovered land. Once more a tragic exodus began, reluctant refugees trailing along the road towards the red yellow and black posts that mark the end of Belgium. A correspondent in the “Morning Post ”records an incident that happened atone of the Customs agents sentry- boxes th a thad stood there through the years of war. An old gendarme understood the Belgian flag watching his countrymen as they drifted by between the tall poplars which line the road to France “Courage !”he called to a woman who was crying as she passed her baby in her arms a dog trottin gather feet. “Courage !You shall comeback again !”Heard at the From Romo comes a curious story of anew device on the part of the German propagandists. So-called “occultist circles ”have been formed by enemy agents in the largest Italian“ O c cultist" towns which influential people of the Pro pa- district are induced to join. Accord- g and a ing to Mr. G. Ward Price the agents receive secret information of forth­coming enemy moves and duly spell the news out by table-rapping. When events confirm the apparent prophecy confidence in the supposed occult agencies is naturally increased and the German instruments use .this to spread by the same means alarming reports about the weakness and defects of the Allies the alleged faithlessness of England and the inevitable triumph of Germany. *In 1810 when imports of raw material were, as now very short papermakers were compelled to seek other sources of supply. In that year, says the ”“Daily Chronicle a paper- Paper maker in Bermondsey succeeded in From making paper from sawdust and the Saw dust plan has been revived 118 years afterwards by Messrs. Becker &Co., Ltd. There are certain difficulties connected with the conversion of sawdust into wood-pulp which is now the main raw material for the manufacture CAM M A ERTS chapter is followed b y a Q short but vivid chapter dealing with the “Romance of the British Cable Service in ”the War which will be completed in Part 196. The story of the German submarine cable service in the war can be told in three words. There was none. The British Navy cu tall the German cables existing a t the breakout­ of war and permitted no fresh ones to be laid. All that the Germans could do was to attempt to destroy the vast British network of electric communications that linked together the British Empire and these efforts provide the .material for the exceedingly picturesque story which has been prepared for this History. PART 196 will also bring the opening of Mr. Edward Wrights careful record of the British inoffensive Prance in November, 1917 generally identified as the Battle of Cam brai. The story is necessarily a lengthy one and for the sake of convenience and clarity it has been divided into two chapters The first is concerned with the strategical situation, regarded as a whole a t the time when the offen­sive was planned and with the preparations for and nature of the surprise attack which pro­mised to eventuate in a victory of the first magnitude. I t carries the narrative up to the point when B ourlon Ridge was won. The second chapter will carry the narrative on from the capture of B ourlon Ridge to the retirement to Flesquiferes. THE earliest reports of this battle that came through raised popular enthusiasm higher perhaps than it had been raised by any previous battle. The undeniably brilliant British success was followed b y a German counter-attack which amounted to a reversal of fortune for British arm sand rum our was more than usually busy about the great struggle because the official communiques were more than usually laconic. Mr. Wright has devoted oven more than his habitual care to the preparation of his record of these much- discussed operations with the result th a the is able to throw much fresh light upon them and to set all the salient facts incorrect perspective. f t .Listening Post of paper but these have been overcome A mill has been started in Scotland which is capable of turning out 200 tons of paper a week from sawdust. The Ppper Controller will have the sole control of the distribution. *-So the German Government elated by the reports from the western front have annulled the “no annexations or indemnities” peace resolution, voted by a majority of the Reichstag The in July last. One hopes that the German only effect of this will bo to add to Leech the liabilities of the Fatherland. Here arc some examples of what tho Hun is capable of in the way of extortion when he has the power: Levies on Lille: 1120000 in 1915£1,200,000 in 19162400000 in July 1917 with a £40,000 fine for every days delay. In loot alone from Lille Roubaix and Tourcoing 40000000 in goods was taken. Levies on Antwerp in November 1914£2,000,000 on all Belgium 1000000 monthly until Juno, 1917 when tho levy was raised to £2,400,000 monthly. In addition one firm had to give up £52,000 worth of cotton and the total amount of these requisitions in Belgium has been from £12,000,000 to 16000000. Private houses are frequently plundered for furniture stores wines and the like. As to Rumania Germany having annexed the Rumanian oil industry and agriculture is reported to have levied on that distressful little country a “tax ”of £400,000,000. *Were it not for the gigantio efforts of the Food Control of tho United States the situation to-day in the United Kingdom France and Italy would bo much more serious. From July Our Debt 1st 1914 to January 1st 1918, to the America exported to the European U.S .A .Allies sufficient food to furnish com­plete yearly rations for upwards of 57.000.000 people. Of this amount one percent, went to Russia and of nearly all commodities by far the largest quantities wero received by Great Britain though Franco got more oats margarine, and corn (maize) meal and Italy more com oil, and syrup. The gross export of wheat and wheat flour to the three principal Allies was equivalent to nearly 385000000 bushels. During the three and a half years the United Kingdom obtained from America enough food to furnish complete rations for 27334441 people for a year while the French had rather more than half and the Italians about a quarter of an equal quantity. For the same period the Allies imported from tho United States 2000000000 lb. of pork products and 443.000.000 lb. of fresh beef besides feeding stuffs totalling over 611000000 lb. and about 260,000,000 lb. of buttermilk and cheese. For the supplies that have reached the Allies notably Great Britain, since tho beginning of 1918 they are vastly indebted to the self-denial of the American people. *When America declared war on Germany she had practically no aeroplane engineering staff and no modern fighting machines. The metalwork was done by hand and each aeroplane A m eric a's was built as a separate unit. The Aircraft delicacy of tho manufacture of the Production machines with 23000 screws in a single fighter and 700 pieces of wood in a single wing seemed to militate against quantity production but that notion has been proved incor­rect. Though they wero not duo to bo delivered till July the first large battleplanes inbuilt America under the great aviation programme of the United States were despatched to General Pershing in the middle of February and many others arc now on their way to France. Theso machines are equipped with 12-cylinder Liberty motor-engines, and exceptionally powerful. The great problem now remaining to bo solved by America is to secure tho thousands of skilled mechanics and other workmen needed to keep the aeroplanes in condition. For every machine in the air forty-six men are required on tho ground.* I With eonsci iption and Homo Rule coming almost together Ireland is very much in the public eye just now. The country has been recently, there is no doubt whatever rernark- War ably prosperous and the people there Saving shave been saving a good deal of in Ireland money. It is probably only a coin­cidence but it is certainly an inter­esting one that just as these two important changes were announced the War Savings movement should have been extended to Ireland. For some timo there have been a few associations in existence in the Emerald Isle but just recently it was decided to undertako a much moro extensive campaign. Tho honour of being tho first frish town to form a War Savings Committeo fell to Cork Dublin followed only one day later after an enthusiastic meeting at tho Mansion House and Londonderry came third. Belfast was not far behind and by tho time these words are in print these cities and also several others will have their committees hard at work. The World To-day is continued on pageiii. History in the Making J V l. KMJh E CAMMAERTS"
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