The Great War Part 184, February 23rd 1918

Cb e Great War isms EDITORS H. W. WILSON J. A. HAMMERTON i K SSH R H E D ITO RIAL D Y a most regrettable oversight a portrait of the -Marchioness of Lansdowne was given on page 518 of Part 182 of The Great War instead of the portrait of the Marchioness of Londonderry which should have appeared there. The Marchioness of Lansdowne was one of the first seventeen persons appointed to the new Order of Companions of Honour the list being issued on August 24th 1917 the same day as the first list appeared of appointments to the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in which Lady Londonderry figured as Dame Commander. The Editors can only apologise for the mistake which was discovered too late to permit of rectification being made in the costly photo­ gravure supplement. The error will be notified in our list of errata at the end of the work. The East African Campaign A/fR .CHARLES LOW ES account of the Kaiser’s¦ L --military and other activities since August 1914, which is incomplete this Part of The Great War will be followed by Mr. Robert Machrays story of the final stages of the campaign in East Africa of which brief announcement was made last week. Subscribers to this History maybe glad to have their attention directed to the most interesting and important address on East Africa delivered by General Smuts to the Royal Geo­graphical Society at a meeting in the Caxton Hall, Westminster on January 28th very full reports of which appeared in the newspapers the following day. The distinguished general has a larger and more accurate knowledge of Africa than any other living man and his explanation of the geographical features of the east of the African Continent and their effcct in determining the strategy of a military commander operating in that vast area should be studied in conrtection with the accompanying story of the campaign successfully com­pleted by Sir Jacob Van Deventer. 'C'ASCINATING country as “German ”East Africa is, and to the traveller a paradise of plant and animal life General Smuts pronounced it to be avery purgatory to a military commander with his vast impedimenta. The travels of Livingstone and Selous were j.as joy-rides compared with what the British forces had to accomplish. In the story of human endurance this campaign deserved avery special place and the heroes who went through it uncomplainingly doggedly were entitled to all recognition and reverence. Colonisation: British and German PASSING from the geographical features to the economic value of the country and explaining how the Germans had decided to develop it as a tropical possession for the cultivation of tropical raw materials, and incidentally giving some most illuminating informa­tion about the corvee system under which capitalists, whether corporations aggregate or corporations sole were supplied with labour under the German rule General Smuts proceeded to present in sharp contrast the points of view on Colonial and world politics with which the Colonial Party and probably also the highest circles in Germany regarded Central Africa and that from which the British regarded this great matter especially in relation to the future of Eastern Africa.n p iIE distinguishing characteristic of the British Colonial system is the settlement in new countries of white Colonists on small farms gradually building up a European system on a small scale and providing homes oversea for future settlers from the Mother Country. Everywhere the British Colonist carries the Pax Britannica and his policy is inherently pacific and defensive with opportunities for the peaceful development of the territories and native populations that come under his care. The Germans systematically discourage white settlement and are not on the look-out for oversea homes for other settlers from Germany. German Colonial aims are entirely dominated by far-reaching conceptions of world politics. What is desired is military power and strategic positions for exercising world power in future. Her ultimate objective in Africa was and is the establishment of a great Central African Empire comprising not only her own Colonies as these existed before the war but also all the British, French Belgian and Portuguese possessions south of the Sahara and Lake Chad and north of the Zambesi River. The Central African block was intended to supply the economic requirements and raw materials of German industry in the first place but its second and much more important purpose was to become the recruiting ground for vast native armies while the natural harbours on the Atlantic and Indian Oceans would supply the naval and submarine bases from which both ocean routes would be dominated and British and American sea-power brought to nought. The Menace to the World 'T'HE danger to the world inherent in this grandiose scheme becomes more apparent from a recently published book written by General von Freytag entitled “Deductions from the ”World War along review of which appeared in “The War Illustrated” of February 16th, which makes it quite clear that already the German General Staff is devoting serious attention to “the next ”great world war. The idea is that the untrained levies of the Union of South Africa will go down before these German-trained hordes of Africans. They will also be able to deal with North Africa and Egypt without the deflection of any white troops from Germany and in addition they will represent a great army planted on the flank of Asia whose force could be felt throughout the Middle East as far as ”Persia. “This said General Smuts “is the grandiose scheme. It is no mere fanciful picture but based on the writings of great German publicists professors and high Colonial authorities and chapter and verse could be quoted in the fullest detail for every feature of the scheme. The civilisation of the African natives and the economic development of the Dark Continent must be subordinated to the most far- reaching schemes of German world power and world conquest the world must be brought into subjection to German militarism and as informer centuries so now again the African native must play his part in the new slavery.” To that proud “must” there can be but one reply from the civilised world :This thing shall not be.? h i 1 Pan! 'j i i i S B H The Great War—P a r t 184.
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