Austria and Serbia 225 CHAPTER XIII THE WAR IN EASTERN EUROPE (August-Septem ber 1914.) Austria and Serbia—The Serbian Victory of Shabatz— Mobilization of the Russian Army— Some Russian Generals— Invasion of East Prussia— The Grand Duke Nicholass Proclamation to the Poles— First Engagements in East Prussia— Repeated German Defeats— Austrias Advance into Russian Poland —The Conqueror of Galicia— Some Austrian Commanders—The Great Battle for Lem berg— Sam sonoff’s Defeat at Osterode— Exaltation of General von Hindenburg— Further Austrian Defeats in Galicia— The Russians withdraw from East Prussia—Their Renewed Successes in Galicia— The Plight of Austria— Serbian Successes in September—The Germans advance into Russian Poland but are driven out. THERE were various fluctuations in the first hostilities which followed the outbreak of war in Eastern Europe. It was not unnaturally anticipated that if Austria and Serbia were left to outfight their quarrel the former would end by prevailing by sheer force of numbers. But apart from the consequences accruing from the intervention of Russia, the Serbians put up an amazingly good fight against their formidable o 0 0 antagonists. They had been recently inured to warfare by their campaigns against the Turks and the Bulgarians, and not only did they offer a vigorous resistance to the forces of the Emperor Franz Josef but they were soon able to take the offensive. As was instated a former chapter, Austria after declaring war on July 2819.14 proceeded two days later to bombard Belgrade whereupon the Serbian Government removed to Nish, the ancient Serbian capital. The Serbian forces were rapidly mobilized and every preparation was made to prevent both the passage of the Danube and any irruption from the Austrian province of Bosnia. In attempting to cross the Danube Austria encountered repeated failures and amid the confusion which momentarily arose in her councils on the intervention of Russia, she made no effort to cross from Bosnia into Serbia by the River Drina. Her troops even withdrew from Vise- grad on the frontier of the Sanjak of Novi Bazar whereupon the Serbians assumed the offensive and captured the town of Foca or Fotcha commanding the communications between Montenegro and Sarajevo the Bosnian capital. Montenegro it should be mentioned had mobilized her little army and declared for Serbia already on August 2. Penetrating beyond Foca the Serbians seemed to be on the point of possessing themselves of Herzegovina but the Austrian forces recovered from their first stupor and succeeded by weight of numbers in forcing the passage of the Drina near Lodznitza somewhere severe fighting o o ensued to Serbian advantage. An-other Austrian army which crossed the Save near Shabatz encountered an even more spirited resistance and on August 18 after a four days contest the invaders were driven in confusion across the Drina three of their regiments being cutup and many of
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