News Chronicle February 8th 1941

The Man General Sir Archibald Wavell, 57-year-old C.-in- C., Middle East, since 1939. Son of a major- general, he was pupil of Allenby, whose biography he wrote. In the extracts serialised in the News Chronicle recently, Cen. Wavell stated His Theory. ..To the uninitiated, pursuit seems the easiest possible form of war. ..Yet the successful or sustained pur­suits of history have been few, the escapes from a lost battle many. A force retreating falls back on its depots and reinforce­ments unless it is overrun it is growing stronger all the time. And there are many expedients besides fighting by which it can gain time :bridges or roads maybe blown up, defiles blocked, supplies destroyed. The pursuer soon outruns his normal resources.. .But the chief obstacle he has to overcome is psychological. The pursued has a greater incentive to haste than the pursuer and, unless he is demoralised, a stronger urge to fight. ..While coolness in disaster is the supreme proof of a commander’s courage, energy in pursuit is the surest oftest his strength of will. ImpPovisatioir And it is no secret that the original intention of the British leaders was limited to smashing Graziani’s preparations for an attack on Egypt and pushing the Italians back to the frontier. The rest of this amazing cam­paign has been one brilliant im­provisation after another, often by the men on the spot. The final assault on Benghazi was made in the face of a furious, blinding sandstorm In achieving this victory, which surely will go down in history as one of the most shattering and complete tif all time, our casual­ties, as far as can be told, are at present under 2,000. Once the advance started, the momentum gradually increased until the last lap—Derna-Cyrene- Benghazi—achieved in the extra­ordinary time of one week. Swept Round Mountain Plateau It may now be revealed that the fall .of Benghazi yesterday afternoon was mainly due to a masterly flanking movement by our armoured formations, which swept round the whole mountain plateau of Jebel Akhdar by the desert track, splitting off south­wards from Bomba. Beating down a slight attempt at resistance at Mechili, 50 miles south, they ploughed their way for five days across the waterless desert in blinding sandstorms, while the Australians were racing through the uplands to the north behind the fleeing Italians. By a •masterpiece of timing they came out on the coastal road leading to Tripoli, south of Benghazi, somewhere in the neighbourhood of Solluch, and cut the Italian retreat as the Australians came up from the north and hemmed in both sides. With the last lifeline to Tripoli straddled by the waiting tanks of the British the Italians in Ben­ghazi threw in their hands with Turn to Back Page, Col. Three o.n* jjub a»imp« «*norner oicr.ure on packJ Italians Are Dispirited And Resentful From Our Own Correspondent NEW YORK, Friday'. SIGNS that the Fascist regime in Italy is fighting desperately to maintain its hold on a dis­pirited and resentful people continue to appear between the lines of news messages cabled from Rome. Today and yesterday there have been more of the famous “student demonstrations,” which Mussolini has been wont to stage whenever it becomes necessary to whip up a semblance of enthusiasm for one of his projects. It is not long ago that “student demonstrators ”were parading through the streets of Rome howling “Tunisia, Jibuti, Corsica !”United Press reports that an extra guard of 500 fully armed troops was placed today around the United States Embassy in Rome. This might have indicated how roused and dangerous the demonstrators were, if one of the __________________________________correspondents had not previ- Vichy Report of Volpi Visit Count Volpi has visited Vichy to ask the Spanish Am­bassador to approach Sir Samuel Hoare, British Am*bassador in Madrid, about evacuating Italian civilians from Abyssinia, it is learned in Vichy, says B.U.P. Well-informed Ronw circles deny the Volpi 'mission Radio Vichy says Rome’s denial is that Count Grandi is negotiating. What the World Thinks “Our congratulations to our great Ally. Well done !”Radio Athens broadcast this message last night. Here are other comments on the British capture of Benghazi: BERLIN :“It’s for our Allies to react before us.” Nazi newspapers do not even mention the Benghazi area. SOVIET IMPRESSED MOSCOW Soviet radio de­voted considerable attention to the news, the announcer empha­ sising Benghazi’s strategic and naval importance. He spoke of the great distances across the desert that the British troops had to cover. The British communique was read, with London comments. NEW YORK :“The Sun” hails “the smashing victory of General Wavell,” and considers that the campaign is now at an end. A push towards Tripoli, adds “The Sun,” would entail anew campaign, with different strategy. AUSTRALIA:“ A magnificent effort: Our forces must have h£d a motor race :Extraordinary how the Italians cleared out! ”was the comment of Major-General V. A.H. Sturdee, Commander-in- Chief of the Australian Imperial Force, at Melbourne. CANADA :“History will put a low estimate on the Duce,” savs the “Toronto Star.” “Throughout Africa the initiative is now with the British and their native Allies. It was Mussolini’s greed that got them into this position.” Says the “Montreal Star ”:“The campaign stands as one of the most brilliant achievements of all in the long and glorious annals of British arms. It defi­nitely marks the decline, and in all probability the disappearance, of Italy’s African empire.”— B.UJP. and Reuter. ously said that the total number of students taking part in the demonstration was about 500. Significant also is the broadcast by Signor Ansaldo, in which he said that many Italians are now understanding “the terrible seriousness ”of war, but added :“We cannot state that all Italians are equal to the moment—no, not at all.” IN GERMANY From Berlin there continues to come news which shows how necessary the Nazis feel it is to soften the recent revelation that the United States is helping Britain. The Blackshirt paper“ Schwarze Korps ”denounces the school of thought that fears a repetition of the events of the last war and promises, even if America should intervene, it would make no difference io the outcome of the war. A cable from the German fron­tier comments on the “reserve ”with which the German Press.is now treating the war news, and boldly expresses the belief it is because of the growing desire for peace among the German people. 155 Held Under Defence Act Freed A report by the Home Secre­tary last night stated that 155 persons detained under the defence regulations were re­leased during December. In the same period 14 more persons were detained, making a total of 1.089. NEWS CHRONICLE PIC­TURES OF LIFE IN A CORVETTE, BRITAIN’S NEW WARSHIP, HAVE BEEN HELD OVER BE­CAUSE OF PRESSURE ON SPACE &H0T DOWN D0RNIER Attempting to attack a convoy, a Dornier twin- engined bomber was shot down by H.M.S. Vanity (Commander H. J. Buch­anan, D.S.O., R.A.N.). “A direct hit was made on the onerii.y aircrcft. which crashed into the sea," said an Admiralty communique issued last night. “There were no survivors “No damage or casualties were sustained by the convoy or H.M.S. Vanity." Vanity is a destroyer launched in 1918, carrying a crew of 134. Bombs Killed Eight After dropping bombs which killed eight people and injured others at. an East Anglian coast town yesterday afternoon, a raider is believed to have been brought down by ground defences As the plane was making off, two objects were seen to fall from it. Later, two bullet riddled pieces of aluminium were found. Onlookers saw smoke trailing from the tail, and one said that the plane was falling when lost to sight. Gunned Streets A plane which dropped several bombs on a North-East Scotland town also machine- gunned the streets. One woman was removed to hospital. Another person re­ceived minor injuries A single enemy raider ap­peared over an Eastern coastal district yesterday afternoon. Two bombs were dropped, but no damage is reported. Up to a late hour London was raid-free for the fifteenth night out of the last 19. No raids were reported from other parts of Britain. Lord Moyne May Succeed Lord Lloyd Lord Moyne, it is understood, has been chosen to succeed Lord Lloyd as Secretary for the Colonies. An official announce­ment of Lord Moyne’s appoint­ment will probably be made shortly As Mr. Walter Guinness, M.P. for Bury St. Edmunds, he was Minister for Agriculture, and is now Joint Parliamentary Secre­tary for Agriculture. He was in the Commons for 24 years before being created a baron in 1932. Bread Prices Fixed From Monday the prices of all types of bread must not be higher than on December 2. This Order is complementary to the Government’s offer of a subsidy of a halfpenny a quartern for bread sold at 8d. a quartern less.or distil?!****’1 -Ire fle.id, “you may rest assured that during the day preceding the alarm London has had six Alerts and then an un­interrupted night-raid from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m.” On the whole Germany had suffered merely pinpricks. He regretted however, that the German workers spent half of their nights in shelters and had to work the next day. SHELTER ACCIDENTS The damage in Berlin was mainly to roofs and bore no pro­portion to tliij damage caused in London. Eighty percent, of the German casualties caused through air­ raids were people who did not take cover in shelters or were killed by unfortunate accidents in shelters. The Marshal said Germans must take new measures to make shelters blast- and splinter-proof. He continued :HITLER EXPECTS ,.“When an alarm is sounded, the Fuehrer expects you togo down to your shelter without penalties for failing to do so. Enemy planes may drop H.E. and firebombs without being heard. “Unconditional confidence in our leaders and complete faith in the efficiency of our Luftwaffe will guarantee that the enemy will never succeed by air raids in shaking our people’s conviction that victory is assured.” Field-Marshal Milch urged the organisation of more fire-fighters, men and women, but added :“It maybe dangerous, as British planes often swoop low on our towns and machine-gun fire must be expected ”Goering Sent RAF. a Radio Message —Berlin Report Goering sent a wireless mes­sage to the R.A.F. after the death inaction of Captain Wieck, Nazi air ace, last November. Berlin radio announced yesterday Two days later came a reply that Wieck was neither in a British Icon camp nor could his name be found in the list of identified German casualties the announcer said. Wieck’s machine, the radio added, was seen to crash into the Channel after a fight with a Spitfire. Another pilot reported that Wieck baled out, but German rescue launches found no trace of him or his plane. —Reuter. Creek Bayonets Pursue Italians Large forces of Italian infantry­men were mown down by devas­tating Greek fire on the Albanian battlefront. Athens radio said last night. A bayonet charge drove the Italians back beyond their lines, many being captured. New Italian Attack Smashed :Page Three in bringing pressure on Petain.'’ It is also suggested that Musso­lini may join the conference There ‘is no other indication from any source that Hitler is in Vichy or is going there LONDON BLACK-OUT Tonight 6.31 p.m.-7.56 a.m. Tomorrow 6.33 p.m.-7.55 a.m. Advertisers’ Announcement Can one kgep ongoing natched A PROBLEM OF TO-DAY ANSWERED I N normal times, most of us take our sleep in one stretch of six to nine hours. To-day, tremendous numbers of people are taking their sleep in snatches. Our soldiers and our air-raid wardens, our fire­men and our“ front-line” civilians—all are liable to find at times that a couple of hours’ sleep Is the most they can manage In one stretch. How will this affect people ?To answer this question we might ask another :“What makes man think he needs a n unbroken stretch of several hours’ sleep ?”Few animals are mono phasic in their sleep-habits. Most are poly- phasic that is, they take their sleep in several 'doses,” alternate­ly sleeping and throughc tours. So do waking i 24h hout the we ourselves as babies. No sleeping a solid eight hours or so, and staying awake for the other sixteen, is simply asocial habit. It is a convenient and sensible habit because it saves artificial light and enables us a .11 to synchronize our activities. But it is not a physiological need. THAT- brings up the question of whether, if one takes sleep in snatches, one should try to makeup a total of about 8 hours in 24. The Quaker Leslie said a hun­dred years ago: “Nature requires 5 hours’ sleep, custom takes 8, laziness 9, wickedness 11.” And as recently as 1929, a reputable American scientist, Professor H. L. Hollingworth of Columbia Uni­versity, was advancing a theory that sleep is simply a silly form of stupor which is taken for granted only because everyone indulges in It a vicious habit, worse than opium addiction or alcoholism a scourge surpassing yellow fever or smallpox !How superior a race would be that would dispense with sleep, he said !It was not anew idea. St. Francis of Assisi and many other religious mystics made innumerable at­tempts to dispense with sleep altogether. It Is likely that some of their “visions ”are attribu­table to this self-denial modern experiments show that prolonged insomnia brings hallucination. St. Francis himself was wise enough to suspect something of the sort. After" his own experi­ments in doing without sleep he instructed the friars that each should learn how much food and how much sleep he needed to main­tain himself in physical fitness, so that he might properly carryout his practical tasks. MODERN discoyeries confirm the wisdom of this judgment. People’s need of sleep varies. Each one of us must discover how much sleep is necessary to maintain alertness of mind and well-being of body. It is probably a great deal less than we think. It is cer­tainly true that if we get the deep sleep that has been called 1st Group Sleep, we can do with far less than if we get the shal­low, unsatisfying 2nd Group Sleep, or lie awake worry­ing as the people in the 3rd Sleep Group do. In practice, this question of “level” is the most impor­tant aspect of sleep, and variations in the sleep “level ”or depth are the whole explanation of the familiar fact that one can sometimes wake tired, unrested, even after along night’s sleep. This occurs when the quality of the sleep is wr°”f. Jt is most important to get 1st Sleep —deep, restoring sleep. THIS is especially true nowadays and true, above all, for those who must do on short rations of sleep. The great value of Horlicks is that it helps you to get 1st Group Sleep. Hundreds of thousands of people have found that when they have Horlicks last thing they togo sleep quickly and sleep profoundly, restfully, all night. If you are in the 2nd or 3rd Sleep Group, you would be well advised to start taking Horlicks immedi­ately. It is obtainable from two shillings a bottle and it can be made with water. After Horlicks you will not only wake refreshed: your whole nervous system :vili improve. It is impossible to have steady nerves unless one gets 1st Group Sleep. With it, one is alert,¦'confident, energetic and far more able to resist illness. That is because it is the true “healing” sleep.
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